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148 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Pleurotoma formicaria, Sow 189 

granulosa, Sow 139 

hexagona, Sow 139 

incrassata, Sow 138 

interrupta, Sow 138 

maculosa, Sow 135 

Maura, Sow 134 

modesta., Sow 136 

nigerrima, Sow 137 

nitida, Sow 139 

olivacea, lyow 136 

Oxytropis, Sow 135 

pallida, Sow 137 

rosea. Sow 134 

rudis, Sotv 134 

rugifera. Sow 136 

rustica, Sow 138 

splendidula. Sow. ... 135 

Turricula, Sow 137 

iinicolor, .Sow 138 

unimaculata. Sow. ... 134 

variciilosa, Sow 139 

PoUieipes polymerus, Sotv 74 

ruber, Soio 74 

Polyhoroides, Smith 45 

Prionus Cumingii, Hope 64 

Ha3'esii, Hope 64 

Pertii, Hope 64 

Pteroglossus castanotis, Gould'... 119 

hypoglauciis, Gould 70 

ulocomus, Gould ... 38 

Purpm-a xanthostoma, Brod 8 

Pyrosoma sp 79 

Rana esculenta, Linn 88 

Ranina cristata, Desj 118 

Rhamphastos culminatus, Gould 70 

Swainsonii, Gould 69 

Rhombus Maderensis, Lowe 143 

Rissoa parva 116 

Sarcorhamphus Gryphus, Dum. 78 

Sciurus nigrescens, Benn 41 

Scolecobrotus, n. g. Hope 64 

Westwoodii, Hope 64 
Semnopitkecus cucullatus, Isid. 

Geoffi- 68 

Entellus 74 

fascicularis ... 74 

Nestor, Benn 67 

Sepia officinalis, Linn 86 

Sepiola stenodactyla. Grant 42 

Serranus marginatus, Lowe 142 

Simla Faunus, Linn 109 



Page. 

Spennophilus macrourus, Ben7i — 41 

spilosoma, Benn. ... 40 

Spondylus aculeatus, Brod 5 

dubius, Brod 4 

leucacantha, Brod. ... 5 

Princeps, Brod 4 

Sterna arctica,Texsxm 33 

Sula Candida, Briss 32 

Sus Serofa monstr 16 

Teratophius, Less 45 

Terebratula Chilensis, Brud 124 

Chilensis, Brod. ... 126 

psiTTACEA, Brug 126 

Uva, Brod. 124 

Testudo Indica, Linn 43 

Testudo Jndica, hinn 81 

Tetragonurus ? simplex, Lowe ... 143 
Tetrodon stellatus, Donov. nee La- 

cep 115 

Tringa pugnax, Linn 10 

Triton Ceylonensis, Sow 71 

clathratus, Sow 71 

constrictus, Bi-od 5 

convolutus, Brod 7 

decollatus. Sow 72 

distortus, Soiu 71 

gibbosus, Brod 7 

lignarius, Brod. 5 

lineatus, Brod. 6 

lineatus, Sow 72 

Mediterraneus, Sow 71 

nitidulus, Sow 71 

reticulatus. Sow 71 

rudis, Brod 6 

scalariformis, Brod 7 

tigrinus, Brod 5 

Trogon pavoninus, Spix 107 

Turbinella armata, JSrorf 7 

Csestus, Brod. 8 

tuberculata, Brod. ... 7 

Turdus polyglottus, Linn 114 

Uracantha, n. g. Hcpe 64 

triangularis, Hope ... 64 
Uromastix acanthinurus, Bell ... 16 

Ursus ornatus, F. Cuv. 114 

Felella limhosa, Lam 14 

Vultur auricularis, Daud 45 

fulvus, Linn 45 

Kolbii, Daud 81 

Zanclus cornutus, Cuv 117 

Zeus Aper, hmn 114 



Printed by Richard Tavlor, 
Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. 



1 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 



PART II. 
1834. 




PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
BY RICHARD TAYLOR, 

RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



/7^ 



LIST 

OP 

CONTRIBUTORS. 

With References to the several Articles contributed hy each. 



Abbott, K. E., Esq. page 

Letter on various Zoological Subjects, accompanying a Col- 
lection of Birds, formed by him in the neighbourhood of Tre- 

bizond 50 

Letter accompanying a Collection of additional Species of 
Birds from the same locality 1 33 

Agassiz, M. L. 

On the Anatomy of the Genus Lepisosteus, with Descriptions 
of two New Species 119 

Allen, Lieut., R.N. 

On a Collection of Objects of Zoology, made in the Inte- 
rior of Africa, and presented by 45 

On some Drawings of Fishes of the river Quorra, made by 147 

Barnes, Mrs. 

Note on the Rearing of a Species of Humming-hird .... 33 

Bell, T., Esq. 

Characters of a New Genus of freshwater Tortoise (Cy- 
clemys) 17 

Bennett, E. T., Esq. 

Observations on the Genus Cryptoprocta 13 

Observations on a Species of Paradoxurus, probably Par. 
prehensilis. Gray, presented by Lord Fitzroy Somerset .... 33 

On several Animals recently added to the Society's Mena- 
gerie 41, 110 

Characters of New Species of Fishes, collected by Lieute- 
nant Allen, in Western Africa 45 

On a Specimen of the Manis TcmmincMi, Smuts, from 
South Africa, forming part of the collection of Mr. Steedman 81 

On a New Species of Kangaroo 151 



IV 

Bennett, G., Esq. page 

On the Habits of a Species of horned Pheasant {Tragopan 

Temminckii, Gray) 33 

On the Habits of the King Penguin (^Aptenodytes Patacho- 

nica, Gmel.) 34 

On a Wound inflicted by a Pelican on its own breast .... 49 
Characters of a New Species of Bat from New Holland, 

collected by 52 

On the Natural History and Habits of the Ornithorhynchus 

paradoxus, Blum 141 

On the Nasal Gland of the wandering Albatross {Diomedea 

exulans, Linn.) 151 

Benson, W. H., Esq. 

Observations on a Collection of land and freshwater Shells 

formed in the Gangetic Provinces of India * 89 

Note on the Importation of a Living Cerithium Telescopium, 
Brug 91 

Bigg, H., Esq. 

On a Species of Bee from the Brazils, found living on split- 
ting a log of peach- wood containing its Comb 118 

Bojer, M. W. 

Letter on the Habits, &c. of Cryptoprocta ferox, Benn. . . 13 

Breton, Lieut., R.N. 

On the Habits of the Musk Duck of New Holland (Hydro- 
bates lobatus, Temm.) 19 

On a Mode of Preserving Bird-skins in the absence of the 
ordinary means 21 

Account of the Habits of a Specimen of Echidna, which 
survived during a considerable part of his voyage to Europe . 23 

Broderip, W. J., Esq. 

Characters of New Genera and Species of Molluscu and 
Conchifera, collected by Mr. Cuming .... 2, 13, 35, 47, 114, 148 

Descriptions of New Species of Calyptraida 13, 35 

Descriptions of a New Genus of Gasteropoda (Scutella) . . 47 

On Clavagella, with Characters of New Species 115 

Description of some Species of Chama 148 

Burton, H., Esq. 

Characters of a New Species of the Genus Monacanthus, 
Cuv 121 

Gary, Hon. Byron. 

Note on a large Specimen of the Gallapagos Island Tor- 
toise 113 

Cuming, H., Esq. 

Characters of New Genera and Species of Mollusca and 
CowcA2/era,collectedby,2,6,13,17, 21, 35, 46, 48, 68, 87, 123, 148 



Curtis, J., Esq. page 

On a Species of Bee {Tricjona, Jur.) from South America . 118 

Daniell, G., Esq. 

On the Habits and Economy of two British Species of Bats 129 

Derby, The Right Hon. the Earl of 

Letter on the Breeding of the Sandwich Island Goose (Ber- 
nicJa Sandvicensis, Vig.) 41 

Letter on the Breeding of several Birds in His Lordship's 
Menagerie at Knowsley 81 

Desjardins, M. J. 

Letter accompanying a Collection of Objects of Zoology, 
chiefly Mammalia and Birds, from the Mauritius 57 

FoLnoTT, G., Esq. 

On a Collection of Birds from North America, presented by 14 

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, M. 

On the Structure and Use of the Monotrematic Glands, 
and particularly on those Glands in the Cetacea 26 

Gould, Mr. J. 

On a Collection of Birds from North America, presented by 
Mr. FoUiott 14 

Characters of three New Species of Trogon in the Collec- 
tion of the Society 25 

Character of a New Species of Plover (Vanellus, Linn.) 
collected by Lieut. Allen in Western Africa 45 

On a Collection of Birds formed by Mr. Abbott in the 
neighbourhood of Trebizond 50 

Characters of the Genera and Species of the Family 
Ramphastida, Vig 72 

On a Collection of Birds from Nepaul, presented by B. H. 
Hodgson, Esq 115 

On a second Collection of Birds from the neighbourhood of 
Trebizond 133 

Characters of a New Species of Toucan . , 147 

Gray, J. E. Esq. 

Characters of a New Genus of Radiata (Ganymeda) .... 15 

Note on the Conveyance from the Mauritius to England of 
two living Specimens of the Cerithium armatum, Brug 22 

Characters of a New Species of J5a^ {Rhinolophus , Geoff'r.) 
from New Holland 53 

Characters of several New Species oi freshwater Tortoises 
(Emys) from India and China 53 

Note on the Cistuda Bealii, Gray, referred to the Genus 
Emys 54 

Notice of Two Varieties of the Cistuda Amhoinensis, Gray 54 

Characters of New Species of Shells 57, 63 



VI 

Gjiay, J. E., Esq. (continued.) page 

I'haracters of a New Genus of MolhiFca (Nanina) 58 

Enumeration of the Species of the Genus Terebra, with 

Characters of many hitherto undescribed 59 

Characters of Two New Genera oi Reptiles {Geoemyda and 

Gehyra) 7 99 

Obsen'ations on the Red Viper, regarded as a Variety of 

the Common Species {Vipera Berus, Daud.) 101 

Arguments in favour of the parasitic Nature of the Ani- 
mals found in the Shells of the Genus Argonauta, Linn 120 

Characters of two New Species of Sturgeon (Acipenser, 

Linn.) 1 22 

Characters of a New Genus of Reptiles (Lialis) from New 

South Wales 134 

Note on the New Holland Ibis of Dr. Latham 135 

Observations on two Species of freshwater Tortoises .... 135 

Hall, Marshall, M.D. 

Notes of Experiments on the Nerves in a Decapitated 
Turtle 92 

Hancock, J., M.D. 

On the Lantern-fly, and some other Insects of Guiana. ... 19 

Habdwicke, Major-Gen. T. 

Description of a New Species of the genus Numida, Linn., 
from Western Africa 52 

Hahvey, J. B., Esq. 

Notes on a Collection of Shells and Crustacea, formed on 
the South Coast of Devonshire 28 

Hearne, J., Esq. 

Letter on various Zoological Subjects relating to the Island 

of Hayti 25 

Letter accompanying a Present of several Living Animals 
from the Island of Hayti 110 

Heming, — Esq. 

Note on a Remai'kable Dilatation at the Base of the Lower 
Jaw and Upper Part of the Throat in the Swift (Cypselus 
Apus, 111.) 92 

Hodgson, B. H., Esq. 

Letter in relation to a Collection of Living Birds forwarded 
by him from Nepaul for the Society's Menagerie 9 

Letter on various Zoological Subjects, with Additional Ob- 
servations on the Chiru Antelope (Antilope Hodgsonii, Abel). . 80 

Letter on the Distinction between the Ghorcil {Antilope 
Goral, Hardw.) and Thdr (Antilope Thar, Hodgs.) 85 

On the Mammalia of Nejiaul 95 



Vll 

Hodgson, B. H., Esq. (continued). page 

On the Characters of the Jhdral {Capra Jhdral, Hodgs.), 
and of the Ndhoor {Ovis Ndfioor, Hodgs.), with Observa- 
tions on the Distinction between the Genera Capra and Ovis 107 
Notice of a Collection of Birds fromNepaul, presented by 115 

Jones, R., Esq. 

Notes on the Dissection of a Tiger {Felis Tigris, Linn.) . . 54 
Notes on the Dissection of an Agouti {Dasyprocta Aguti, 

■ 111.) 82 

Notes on the Dissection of Azara's Opossum {Didelphis 
Azarte, Temm.) 101 

King, Capt. P. P., R.N. 

Obsen^ations on Oceanic Birds, particularly those of the 
Genus Diomedea, Linn. 128 

MacLeay, W. S., Esq. 

Remarks tending to illustrate the Natural History of Two 
Annulose Genera, namely, Urania of Fabricius, and Mygale 
of Walckenaer 10 

Martin, Mr. W. 

Notes on the Anatomy of the Rhea {Rhea Americana,YiQi\\.) 
and Cassowary {Casuarius Emeu, Lath.) 9 

On the Occurrence of Aneurism of the Aorta in the brown 
Coati {Nasua fusca, F. Cuv.) 9 

Notes on the Dissection of Azara's Opossum (Didelphis 
Azaree, Temm.) , 101 

Notes on the Dissection of a Mangue {Crossarchus obscurus, 
F. Cuv.) 113 

Ogilby, W., Esq. 

Notice of a New Species of Otter from the North of Ire- 
• land Ill 

Owen, R., Esq. 

On the Distinguishing Peculiarities of the Crania of the 

Lion and Tiger 1 

On the Anatomy of the Purple-crested Touraco (Corythaix 

porphyreolopha, Vig.) , 3 

On the Stomach of Semnopithecus Maurus, F. Cuv 6 

On the Anatomy of the Capybara (Hydroch<erus Cap^ybara, 

Erxl.) 9 

On the Anatomy of the Calyptrceidce 14 

On the Structure of the Heart in the Perennibranchiate 

Amphibia 31 

On the Young of the Ornithorhynchus j)aradoxt(s, Blum. . . 43 
Description of a Recent Clavagella {Clavagella lata, Brod.) Ill 
Notes on the Anatomy of a New Species of Kangaroo 

(Macropus Parryi, Benn.) 152 



Till 

Parry, Capt. Sir E. W., R.N. page 

On a New Species of Ka7igaroo {Macropus Parryi, Benn.), 
presented by 151 

Porter, Sir R. K. 

Letter on the Characters and Habits of a Specimen of the 

Pithecia sagulata, presented by him to the Society 41 

Letter on various Zoological Subjects 113 

RuppELL, Dr. E. 

Description of a New Genns oi Pectinibranchiated Gastero- 
podous Mollusca (Leptoconckus) 105 

Sabine, J., Esq. 

Notice of a Hybrid between the common Pheasant (Pha- 
sianusColchicus, Linn.) and the grey Hen {TetraoTetrix, Linn.) " 52 

Smith, A., M.D. 

Letter on the Zoology of South Africa 25 

SowERBY, G. B., Esq. 

Characters of New Genera and Species of Mollusca and 
Conchifera, collected by Mr. Cuming . . 6, 17, 21, 46, 68, 87, 123 

Characters of Three Species of the Genus Bulinus, Lam., 
brought to England by Mr. Miller 141 

Steedman, a., Esq. 

On a Specimen of the Manis Temminckii, Smuts, forming 
part of the Collection of 81 

Stoddart, Capt. 

Obser\'ations on Several Birds, forming part of the Col- 
lection of the Naval and Military Museum 52 

Sykes, Lieut.-Col. W. H. 

Notice of the Perforation of Leaden Pipes by the Teeth of 
Rats 54 

On the Nest and Eggs of the Lonchura Cheet, Sykes, and 
of the Orthotomus Bennettii, Sykes 140 

Thompson, W., Esq. 

On an Immature Specimen of the long-tailed Manis (Manis 

tetradactyla , Linn.), from Sierra Leone 28 

Notice of the CucJcoo (Cuculus canorus, Linn.) 29 

Catalogue of Birds new to the Irish Fauna 29 

Weatherhead, J. H., M.D, 

On two young Specimens of Ornithorhynchus 22 

"Westwood, J. O., Esq. 

On Nycteribia, a Genus of Wingless Insects 135 

Yarrell, W., Esq. 

On the Anal Pouch of the Male Fishes in Certain Species 
of the Genus Syngnathus, Linn 118 



"^ 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 



January U, IBS*. 
Joseph Sabine, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Several crania were exhibited of the Lion and of the Tiger, form- 
ing part of the Society's Museum, on which Mr. Owen explained 
the distinguishing characteristics of that part of the osseous system 
of these two large species of Fdis. He adverted in the first instance 
to those pointed out by Cuvier in the 'Ossemens Fossiles', and re- 
marked on the first of them, — the straightness of the outline in 
the Lion from the mid-space of the postorbital processes to the 
end of the nasal bones, in one direction, and to the occiput in the 
other, — as not being in all cases available : the second distinction, — 
the flattening of the interorbital space in the Lion and its convexity 
in the Tiger, — he regarded as being more constant and appreciable 
tlian the one just mentioned. There is, however, a distinction 
which he believes has never been published, which is well marked, 
and which appears to be constant; for it is found to prevail through- 
out the whole of the skulls of these animals which he has had -op- 
portunities of examining, including ten of the Lion, and upwards of 
tw^enty of the Tiger. It consists in the prolongation backwards, in 
the cranium of the Lioti, of the nasal processes of the maxillary 
bones to the same transverse line which is attained by the coronal 
or superior ends of the nasal bones : in the Tiger the nasal pro- 
cesses of the maxillary bones never extend nearer to the transverse 
plane attained by the nasal bones than ird of an inch, and some- 
times fall short of it by frds, terminating also broadly in a straight 
or angular outline, just as though the rounded and somewhat pointed 
ends which these processes have in the Lion had been cut off. 

Minor differences, Mr. Owen remarked, exist in the form of the 
nasal aperture, which in the Tiger is disposed to narrow down- 
wards, and become somewhat triangular, while in the Lion its 

No. XIII. rROCEEDINGS OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SoCIETY. 

/r 



tendency is towards a square shape ; in the deeper sinking, in a 
longitudinal depression, of the coronal extremities of the nasal 
bones in the Tiger than in the Lion; in the bounding of this de- 
pression above in most oi \.he. Tigers crania by a small but distinct 
semilunar ridge, which is not found in those of the Lion; and in the 
larger comparative size, chiefly in their transverse diameter, of the 
infraorbitalyoram/Ha in the Lion. Thesejbramina, it is curious to 
observe, are double either on one or both sides in the only four 
crania examined of Lions which were known to be Asiatic, while in 
all the others thejbramen was single on each side. 

Specimens were exhibited of Placunanomice from the collection 
of Mr. Cuming, and the following Notes by Mr. Broderip respecting 
them were read. 

Genus Placunanomia. 

Since my publication of this genus in the ' Proceedings of the 
Committee of Science and Correspondence,' (Part II. p. 28.) Mr. 
Cuming has found among his stores the following three species in 
addition to Plac. Cumiugii, which I have already recorded, 

Placunanomia rudis. Plac. testa sordide alba, crassd, concen- 
trice irregularitcr corrugatd, intiis nitide politd : alt. I|, long. If, 
lat. I poll. 
Hab. in India Occidentali. 
Obs. OstrecB edulis speciem referens. 

Mr. Cuming detected this Placunanomia attached to a Spondylus 
croceus, — W. J, B. 
/3 A? Placunanomia foliata. Plac. testd snbdiaphand, subcirculari, 
rtidi, subfoliatd, sordide alba, intus splendente ; valvce superioris 
medio purpureo-fusco : alt. H, long. H, lat. -f\ poll. 
Hab. in sinu Guayaquil Columbiae Occidentalis. (Isle of Mu- 
erte.) 

Dredged up attached to a dead Pinna from a bottom of sandy 
mud, at the depth of eleven fathoms. 

The surface of the inside of the lower valve is uneven but lustrous, 
and of a hue somewhat approaching to golden. The inside centre 
of the upper valve is of a rich purple brown. The outer surface of 
the lower valve, which has been attached throughout its whole ex- 
tent, bears a somewhat crystalline appearance ; and this observa- 
tion may be applied to the adhering surface of Plac. rudis. In the 
last-mentioned species this portion is comparatively small, and the 
eye will immediately detect it from the contrast which it affords 
with the dull exterior of the part which was free. — W. J. B. 
Placunanomia echinata. Plac. testd subtumidd, valvd supe- 
riore seriatim echinatd, limbo purpurascente: alt. li, long. If, 
lat. 3 poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Nevis. 

Dredged up attached to shells, by Mr. Powers, from sandy mud 
at a depth of six fathoms. 



The inside of the upper valve is of a shining colour, approacliing 
to golden, and that of the lower is sometimes silvery and sometimes 
of a lighter shade of the colour of the inside of the upper valve. 

This species varies much in shape, according to circumstances. 
Mr. G. B. Sowerby possesses one of an irregular ovate form. In- 
deed Placunanomia, in common with other adherent genera, varies 
much in shape, accommodating its external form to the surface to 
which its lower valve is attached. It is remarkable also for putting 
on the appearance of other genera or species; and this, with the ex- 
treme closeness of the adhesion of the lower valve, has been per- 
haps one of the causes why it has escaped the notice of zoologists. 
Thus, Plac. Cumingii, to a casual observer, looks like one of the 
plicated Ousters j Plac. riidis greatly resembles tlie common Oyster, 
Ostrea edulis ; and Plac. echinata wears something of the appear- 
ance of some of the short-spined Spondyli. — W, J. B. 

Besides the species above recorded Mr. G. B. Sowerby has kindly 
furnished me with an odd valve of a large species from Lu^onia, 
beautifully iridescent internally : but as it is believed that this is 
identical with the fine shell sold by him to the British Museum, I 
leave the description of it to the officers of that institution, in whose 
province it is, and who are so fully capable of doing it justice. 

This genus, then, appears to be widely diffused. Mr.G. B. Sow- 
erby has some other odd valves which may prove new. 1 possess 
two or three specimens adhering to Spondyli from an unknown lo- 
cality ; but they appear to be young, and, though T am inclined to 
think that there is among them a new species, I wait for further 
information before I venture to characterize it. — W. J, B. 

Mr. Owen read the following Notes on the Anatomy oHhe pur- 
ple-crested Touraco, Corythaix porphyreolopha, Vig. 

"In commencing the anatomical examination of this Bird, my at- 
tention was first directed to the form of the tongue. This was large, 
and not confined to the posterior region of the mouth, but ex- 
tended to the end of the lower mandible : its apex was beset with 
a few small horny bristles directed forwards, as in the Toucans, 
Rhamphastos, Linn., but much less produced than in those birds. 
It is probable that the ripeness of fruit on which these birds feed is 
tested by these yielding processes. The base of the tongue was, as 
usual, beset with retroverted /ja;9///<^, and elevated into a distinct 
ridge, serving, as in many of the cold-blooded ovipara, as an epi- 
glottis. The interspace between this ridge and the laryngeal aper- 
ture was very glandular. That aperture was simple and terminated 
posteriorly by two retroverted spines; so that it is defended in some 
degree against regurgitated food as well as from that which is swal- 
lowed. 

" The oesophagus is continued down to the stomach of uniform 
ample width (its diameter being i rds of an inch) without any dilatation 
or ingluvies, as in the true Rasorial birds. Its termination for about 
4ths of an inch is occupied by the zone of gastric glands, forming 
the proventriculus, which does not deviate in capacity or course from 



4 

the rest of the gullet. The gastric folHcles are simple, elongated 
and rather flattened. The gizzard is small and weak in its parietes, 
resembling that of the Toucan. Its length is 1 inch 4 lines; its 
greatest diameter 10 lines. The lateral tendons are distinct, and 
the narrower portion beyond xhe pylorus has the strongest muscu- 
lar coat, which, however, does not exceed at this part ;rd of a line 
in thickness. 

" The capacity of a gizzard of this structure is obviously one 
reason why a crop or reservoir is not required : where the muscu- 
lar parietes encroach upon the digestive cavity, so as only to allow 
small portions of food to enter at a time for the purpose of under- 
going trituration, then a crop is as necessary to the gizzard as the 
hopper to a mill. It is also required in some of the most carni- 
vorous birds to enable them to glut themselves with portions of 
their prey when too bulky to be borne away entire, and thus to 
carry off more than the true digestive cavity can contain. But in 
birds which, like the Toucans, the HornbiUs, the Parrots, and the 
Touracos, live amidst abundance of nutriment, and that of easy 
digestion, a superadded cavity to act as a reservoir, or to submit the 
food to maceration previous to its entering upon the digestive pro- 
cess, appears unnecessary. 

" The intestinal canal in the Touraco has a similar affinity to that 
of the tribes of Birds above mentioned, being short, ample and 
without co'ca. It measured twice the length of the bird from the 
end of the bill to the vent. A small pyloric canal intervenes between 
the gizzard and duodenum, and opens into the latter upon a valvular 
prominence. The duodenum suddenly dilates, and has a diameter 
of half an inch; but I am doubtful whether this is natural, as it 
was, in the present instance, distended with Tcenice, which had per- 
forated it in some places, and probably caused the death of the bird. 
The fold of the duodenum is 3 inches long, including a narrow bi- 
\ohedi jMncreas. The intestine gradually diminishes in diameter to 
within 5 inches of the cloaca, when it suddenly dilates, and this 
portion has the usual disposition and course of the rectum in birds. 

" The liver was composed, as usual, of two lobes. There was a 
gall-bladder, of an elongated form, with the cystic duct continued 
from the end furthest from tlie intestine. The mode of termination 
of the biliary and pancreatic ducts I was unable to determine, owing 
to the morbid adhesions caused by the irritation of the Tcenice. 

" The testes were small. The kidneys and supra-renal glands 
were of the usual structure. 

'< From the affinity pointed out by Cuvier between the Touraco 
and the Curnssoivs, I examined carefully the structure of the trachea, 
so remarkable for its convolutions in the latter family of birds. It 
was, however, continued straight to the inferior larynx, and was 
connected to the yurculmn only by a slight aponeurosis: the 
sterno-tracheal muscles, a single pair, were strong in proportion to 
the size of the bird. The rings of the irochea were of a flattened 
form, gradually diminishing in size towards the lower extremity of 
the tube. The lungs were of the usual form and structure, and the 



1 



air-cells apparently not extending along the neck, or beyond the 
abdominal cavity, except to penetrate the osseous system; but of 
this I cannot speak with safety, as the bird was skinned before I dis- 
sected it. 

" The eye of the Touraco is large, measuring 7 lines in lateral 
diameter. The lens is very convex posteriorly, and its capsule is 
attached to a narrow maraupium. 

" The clavicles were united, forming an os Jurcatorium ; but they 
were extremely weak, and yielded with facility at the point of union. 
The keel of the sternum was of moderate size, its greatest depth 
being to the length of the sternum as 1 to 4. The posterior mar- 
gin of the sternum has two notches on either side of the keel, as in 
the Toucan; the lateral ones extending along two thirds the length 
of the sternum, the mesial ones about one third. 

" After this detail it is scarcely necessary to observe that in all 
the important points of the internal structure the Tourcco manifests 
close relationship to the Scansorial order, and a marked deviation 
from the typical structure of the Rasores, in which the superadded 
lateral dilatations of the alimentary tube, the crop and cceca, are so 
largely developed. 

" The same affinity is also shown in the nature of its parasitic 
worms, — the Teenies belonging to the species Jiliformis of Ru- 
dolphi, so remarkable for the length and tenuitj' of the body, and 
which has hitherto been met with only in the Psittacidce . 

" 1 had an opportunit)' in this instance of witnessing very satis- 
factorily the mode of generation of the Tesnia. Many separate 
joints were found in the track of the intestines, which, when viewed 
under the lens, were seen full of ova. Each of these joints contained 
from thirty to thirty-three ova, of a subglobular form, and a sur- 
face rendered irregular by minute asperities. The posterior joints 
of the unbroken worms were similarly distended, and readily sepa- 
rated. 

" This division of the body approximates to the fissiparous mode 
of generation; but as the joints are merely the capsules of the ova, 
it is more strictly analogous to the mode of generation in the 
LerncecB and Entomostraca." 



6 



January 28, 1834-. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A preparation was exhibited of the stomach of Semnopithecus 
Maurus, F. Cuv., presented to the Society by G. H. Garnett, Esq. 
It was brought under the notice of the Meeting for the purpose of 
showing that there exists in that Monkey the extremely elongated 
and sacculated form of the viscus, which was first described by 
M. Otto, as occurring in Senin. leucoprymnns, and which was subse- 
quently exhibited by Mr. Owen, at the Meeting of June II, 1833, 
(Proceedings, Part. I. p. 74'.) as obtaining also in the only two spe- 
cies of the genus which he had then examined, the Semn. Entel- 
lus, F. Cuv,, and the Semn.foscicularis, llaffl., — a structure which 
he afterwards described and figured in the 'Transactions' (vol. i. 
p. 65, pll. 9 and 10). Mr. Owen's impression that this remark- 
able modification of the stomach is a generic peculiarity, receives 
confirmation from its occurrence in the first previously unexamined 
species which has been dissected within the Society's reach since 
the publication of his remarks. 

An extensive series of Eulimce, chiefly from the collection of 
Mr. Cuming, was exhibited, and the following account by Mr. 
G. B. Sowerby of the genus and of the characters of the several 
species was read. 

Genus Eulima, Risso. 

Testa turrita, acuminata, polita, anfractibus plurimis; apertura 
ovat^, postice acuminata ; labio externo subincrassuto, varices ob- 
soletos frequentes, subsecundos, plerumque eftbrmante : operculo 
corneo, tenui, nucleo antico. 

This genus of marine Shells appears to be most nearly related to 
Pyram'ulella and Rissoa. A species which has been long known 
has had the appellation of Turbo politus among British Linnean 
writers; and a fossil species has been placed by Lamarck among 
the Bulini, under the specific name of Bui. terebellatus. There 
are two distinctly marked divisions of the genus, which are cha- 
racterized by the two species above mentioned ; one has a solid 
columella, and the other is deeply umbilicated. All the species are 
remarkable for a brilliant polish externally, and the shells are fre- 
quently slightly and somewhat irregularly twisted, apparently in 
consequence of the very obsolete varices following each other in an 
irregular line, principally on one side, from the aj^ex toward the 
aperture. Several recent species are British, and the fossil species 
are found in the calcaire grassier near Paris. 

* Perforatae. 

Eulima splendidula. Eul. testd acuminato-pyramidali, brun- 
nescente, prope suturas albo casta?ieoqjie articulatd ; umbilico mag- 
no ; apertura antice angulatd : long. l'4-5, lat. 0-6 poll. 

Conch, lllustr., f. 7. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam Americae Meridionalis. 



A single specimen of this brilliant shell was dreJged in sandy 
mud at from six to eight fathoms' depth. — G. B. S. 

EuLiMA MARMORATA. Eul. testd acuminato -pyramidali , albido 
brunneoque marmoratd ; anfractibus paululum rotundatis ; um- 
bilico magno, patulo ; aperturd antice angulatd: long. 0*85, 
lat. 0-4 poll. ^ 
Conch. Illustr., f, 8. 
Hab. 

A single specimen was in the collection of the late G.Humphrey. 
— G. B. S. 

EuiiMA iNTERRUPTA. Eul. testd acuminato-'pyramidali, albi- 
cante, ad varices brunneo maculatn ; umbilico mediocri ; aperturd 
antice angulatd : long. 0*7, lat. 0'25 poll. 
Conch. Illustr., f. 11. 
Hab. in America Centrali. 

Dredged in coarse sand, at from eleven to thirteen fathoms, in the 
Gulf of Nocoiyo.— G. B. S. 

EuLiMA IMBRICATA. Eul. tcstd acuminato-pyramidali, albidd, 
longitudinaliter spadiceo lineatd ; anfractibus infra angulatis, 
prominentibus ; umbilico parvo ; aperturd antice angulatd : long. 
0-8, lat. 25 poll. 
Conch. Illustr., f. 4. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenara Americas Meridionalis. 
Dredged in sandy mud in from six to eight fathoms.— G. B. S. 
EuLiMA BRUNNEA. Eul. tcstd acuminato-pyramidali , brunned; 
aiifractibus rotundatis ; umbilico parvo ; aperturd antice rotundatd : 
long. 0"6, lat. 0*2 poll. 
Conch. Illustr., f. 9. 

Hab. ad Insulam Haynan dictam, in mare Sinensi. 
Several specimens were in the late G. Humphrey's collection. — 
G.B. S. 

** ImperforatJE. 
EuLiMA BREVls. Eul. tcstd brcvi, acuminata, hyalind ; varicibus 
subsecundis ; aperturd antice rotundatd: long. 0*4, lat. 0- 15 poll. 
Conch. Illustr., f. 15. 
Hab. ad Insulas Oceani Pacific!. 

Found on the Mother-of-pearl Shells at Lord Hood's Island. — 
G. B. S. 

EuLiMA HASTATA. Eul. tcstd breviusculd, albd, prope apicem 
testaced ; aperturd ovatd, margine laterali anticdque subangulatis : 
long. O-i, lat. 02, poll. 
Conch. Illustr., f. 10. 
Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. — G. B. S. 
EuLiMA MAJOR. Eul. tcstd acuminata -pyramidali, opacd, lacted ; 

labio externa subarcuato : long. 1'6, lat. 0^ poll. 
Conch. Illustr., ff. 1. 1*. I**. 
Hab. ad Insulam Tahiti. 

The largest specimen was found in coral sand on the reefs. — 
G. B. S. 

EuLiMA LABiosA. Eul. tcstd acuminato-pyramidoli, latiusculd . 



8 

anfractibiis suhrotundatis ; aperturd brevi, lahio externa poslici 

dilatato : long. 7, lat. 0*3 poll. 
Conch. Illustr., f. 2. 

Hab. ad Insulam Annaa Oceani Pacifici. 
Found in fine Coral sand. — G. B. S. 

EuLiMA Anolica. 

Turbo politus, Mont., Test. Brit. Conch. Illustr., f. 6. 

EuLiMA SUBANGULATA. Eul. testil acuminata -pijramidali, tenui, 

opacd, albd ; anfractu ultimo antice subansulato : loiipr. 0'7, lat. 

0-2 poll. 
Conch. Ulu&tr., f. 3. 
Hab. ad littora maris Indici. 

A few specimens wel-e among the late G. Humphrey's stores, la- 
belled E. I.— G. B. S. 

EuLiMA FUSiLLA. Eul. tcstd acuminato-pyramidali, tenui, hya- 

lind, albd ; arifractibus longiusculis : long. 0-3, lat. 005, poll. 
Conch. Illustr., f. 6- 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam Americae Meridionalis. 
Variat omnino fusca. — G. B. S. 

EuLiMA ARTicuLATA. Eul. testd acuminato-pyramidali, albd> 
fusco articulatd et marmoratd ; anfractibus suhrotundatis; varici- 
bus subpromitiulis ; labia externa crassiusculo : long. 03, lat. 25 
poll. 
Conch. Illustr., f. 12. 
Hab. ad littora Australiae. 

This species is remarkable for the dark coloration immediately 
anterior to each varix. — G. B. S. 

EuLiMA VARiANS. Eld. testd subfusijhrmi, acuminatd, tenui, 
coloribus varid ; aperturd oblongd: long. 0-5, lat. 0- 15 poll. 

Conch. Illustr., f. 14. 

Hab. ad Xipixapi Americae Meridionalis. 

Two specimens were collected in sandy mud by Mr. Cuming, one 
of which is white, the other dark brown : several others were among 
G. Humphrey's stores, some of which are white, others are marked 
with brown lines and mottled.— G. B. S. 

EuLiMA LiNEATA. Eul. tcstdjusijormi, tenui, albd, lineisjuscis 
duabus spiralibus ; aperturd oblongd: long. 7, lat. O'l poll. 

Conch. Illustr , f. 13. 

Hab. 

Several specimens of this were in G. Humphrey's collection, 
marked " Spira lineata, Weymouth, M.P.": these two last letters 
stand for Muscei Portlandici. I make no further remark, save that 
it appears to have been published by Da Costa under the name of 
Turbo glaber. — G. B. S. 

EuLiMA ACUTA. Eul. testd turrtto-acutd, albd ; anjradihus duo- 
decim Icevibns, suturis absaletis ; varicibus sparsis : long, O^, 
lat. 0-05 poll. 

Hab. in America Centrali. (Bay of Montiji.) 

Found in coarse sand at a depth of thirteen fathoms. — G. B. S, 



9 



February 11,1834.. 

Joseph Sabine, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Extracts were read from a letter addressed to the Secretary by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., and dated Nepal, July 13, 
1833. It conveyed the thanks of the writer for the present to him 
on the part of the Society of an illustrative series of skins oi^ Birds; 
and, referring to the mortality among the living Birds and Qua- 
drupeds forwarded by him for the Society's Menagerie, it expressed 
a hope that a subsequent attempt would be more successful. 

Portions were exhibited of the viscera of a Capybara, Hydrocha- 
rus Capybara, Erxl., taken from an individual which recently died 
in the Society's Menagerie, They consisted of the stomach, the 
enormous cacum, and ihejauces. In calling the attention of the 
Meeting to the latter parts, Mr. Owen availed himself of the oppor- 
tunity to demonstrate the structure first observed in them by Mr. 
Morgan, by whom it has been described and figured in the lately 
published Part of the 'Linnean Transactions'. The constriction of 
the hinder part of the soft palate, which prevents any but minutely 
divided substances from passing into the pharynx, and which was 
first observed in the Capybara, is found in many other Rodents, but 
does not obtain in the whole of the animals of that order. 

Various preparations were exhibited of the Rhea, Rhea Ameri- 
cana, Vieill., and of the Cassowary, Casuarius Emeu, Lath. They 
were brought under the notice of the Society by Mr. Martin, who, 
at the request of the Chairman, read his notes of the dissections of 
these birds. They agreed generally with the descriptions published 
by Sir Everard Home in the ' Philosophical Transactions.' 

Mr. Martin also exhibited a preparation of aneurism of the aorta, 
obtained from a brovin Coati, Nasuafusca, F. Cuv., sent to the So- 
ciety for post mortem examination by J. H. Lance, Esq. He stated 
that this disease appeared to be rare among Quadrupeds, no previ- 
ous instance of it having occurred to him among more than a hun- 
dred individuals of various orders which he had dissected within 
the last few years. 

A preparation was exhibited of a young cojMWon Macaque Monkey, 
Macacus cynomolgus, LaCep., which was born at the Gardens on 
the morning of the 25th January, but was dead when first noticed by 
the keeper. It is the first instance that has occurred in the Society's 
Menagerie of the birth of any Monkey of the Old Continent. 

The reading was concluded of a Paper entitled "A few Remarks 
No. XIV. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



10 

tenJing to illustrate the Natural History of two Annulose Genera, 
namely Urania of Fabricius and Mygale of VValckeniier : by VV. S. 
MacLeay, Esq." 

Adverting in the first place to the doubts which prevail among 
entomologists as to the true situation in nature of the genus Urania, 
Mr. MacLeay proceeds to contribute towards the elucidation of the 
problem, the history of one species which appears to hira to be 
possibly new. He characterizes it as 

Urania FERiVANDiN/"E. Ur. alis nigris, anticis utrinque lineis 
transversis auro-viridibus supra undecim, septimd bifida, subtHs 
sex humeralibus latis, septim'i bifidd, ocfavd longissimd trifidd, 
reliquis apicalibus ftliformibiis ; posticis snpril fascid hand ser- 
ratd et lineis octo brevibus lateralibus transversis auro-viridibus, 

Exp. alarum 4 — 4l unc. 

Hab. in Cuba. 

Mr. MacLeay describes in great detail the perfect insect, and 
points out, as far as printed descriptions and figures exhibit them, 
(he having at present no access to cabinets,) the marks which di- 
stinguish Ur. Sloanus, Godart, and Ur. Boisduvalii, Guer.> from the 
Cuban species. He conceives, however, from the many variations 
that he discovers in it, that this insect may be merely a variety of 
Ur. Sloanus, to which species Ur. Boisduvalii may also possibly 
be referred as a small variety. 

The coast of Cuba, in every open sandy part of it, is girt imme- 
diately above the coral reefs by a copse belt, close and nearly im- 
penetrable, composed of almost one species of tree, the sea-side 
Grape, Coccoloba uvijera, Linn. At the base of this belt grow vari- 
ous Eiiphorbiacea: and Convolvuli ; and behind it the parched sand 
supports many sea-side shrubs, including Palms, Ccesalpinice, Cacti, 
&c., festooned with tiie flowers of Convolvuli, Echites, and other 
climbing plants : the leaves are studded with small terrestrial shells, 
and large sea-shells, brought from their original element by the 
singular Paguri which have usurped them, cluster round the short 
stunted trunks. 

Among the shrubs of these sands the most interesting is Ompha- 
lea triandra, the cob or hog-nut of Jamaica, a Euphorbiaceous 
plant, but affording a most delicious and wholesome kernel: its 
upper leaves ai-e large, heart-shaped, and thick, having a leathery 
texture and scabrous pale green .surface ; the young leaves and 
those of young plants have the same texture and colour, but differ 
remarkably in form, being deeply incised, with their divisions long 
and narrow, particularly the middle one, and all more or less den- 
tated on the sides On the upper side of the entire leaves of this 
shrub torpidly reposes during the day, under a transparent web 
which protects it from the powerful rays of the sun, a caterpillar, 
which at night becomes active and greedily strips the Omphalea of 
its foliage : this is the larva of Ur. Fernandince. 

The egg of this insect may be found, throughout the whole of the 
spring, glued to the tender incised leaves of the Omphalea, scarcely 
ever more than two being attached to a single leaf: it has a pearly 



1 



11 

lustre and a pale green colour, sometimes turning to yellow ; and 
varies in shape from an ovate to an oblate spliaeroid. A circular 
space on its summit is smooth, and from hence proceed about 
twenty-four longitudinal ribs, the intervals between whicli are 
crossed by obsolete stricB. 

The young larva is of the same colour with the egg, is marked by 
seven longitudinal black lines of hairs, and has a dirty yellowish 
head. When fully grown it is cylindrical, is without hinder pro- 
tuberance on the penultimate segment, and has the more usual six- 
teen feet: it rarely rolls itself into a ring. Its head is sessile and 
red, with usually nearly twenty black spots, several of which seem 
to be tolerably constant; the mandibles are black. The protkorax 
is velvety black, with a white dorsal line and two or three white 
irregular spots at the sides ; but the proportion of white varies, and 
there is sometimes a slight red spot on the back of the segment. 
The body varies from pale yellowish green to a flesh colour, with 
five paler longitudinal lines, of which the middle one is dorsal : the 
false feet are somewhat paler than the body ; the true feet are red. 
The mesothoracic segment is rarely spotted, but all the others are 
often marked more or less with black spots. The spiracles are 
usually black. Each segment is furnished with about six hairs, 
which are white, and nearly one fifth as long as the whole body. 

The pupa is not at all angular, but is rather gaily coloured; it is 
of a yellowish brown, with the thorax paler and the wings darker. 
The head is rounded and is marked, as well as the mesothorax, with 
several black spots; on the latter these are interspersed with points: 
the abdominal segments are each marked transversely with numer- 
ous black linear dots. The position of the pupa is horizontal, in 
an oval cocoon composed of a loose dirty-yellow silk, (with meshes 
so few and so lax as to allow the inmate to be readily seen,) and 
spun about withered or dead leaves. 

The perfect insect is truly diurnal, swift in its flight, mounting 
high in the air, and travelling inland for two or three leagues, where 
it haunts gardens in great numbers. By far the greater number, 
however, remain on the sea-shore, sporting about the leaves of the 
Coccoloba uvifera, unless when depositing their eggs on the Omjjha. 
lea. Its habit of frequenting the Coccoloba induced Mr. MacLeay 
to search long in vain for its larva on that tree. When it alights, 
all the four wings are expanded horizontally, and rarely, if ever, 
take a vertical position. 

Mr. MacLeay concludes this portion of his paper by referring to 
Madame Merian's description of the metamorphosis of Ur. Leilus, 
and to her figure of its larva; both of which he regards as unworthy 
of credit. He then passes to her account of a bird-catching Spider. 

The story of a Spider which catches and devours birds had, Mr. 
MacLeay believes, its origin with Madame Merian. Oviedo, Labat, 
and Rochefort make no mention of any Spider as possessing such 
habits, the two latter writers going no further than the statement 
that in the Bermudas there exists one which makes nets of so strong 
a construction as to entangle small birds. Madame Merian, however, 



12 

went ti)e length of asserting that one Spider not only caught, but 
devoured small birds ; and figured the Mi/gale avicularia, Walcken., 
in the act of preying on a Humming-bird. Now the Mygale does 
not spin a net, but resides in tubes under ground, and in all its 
movements kee|)s close to the earth; while Humming-birds never 
perch except on branches. The food of Mygale consists oi Juli, 
Porcelliones, subterranean AchetcE, and Blattce : a living Humming- 
bird and a small Anolis, placed in one of its tubes, were not only 
not eaten by the Spider, but the latter actually quitted its hole, which 
it left in possession of the intruders. The largest Spider of the West 
Indies that spins a geometrical web is the Nephila clavipes, Leach; 
and its net may perhaps, occasionally, be strong enough to arrest 
the smaller among the Humming-birds : but it is not likely that the 
Spider would eat the birds. A small species of Sphariodactylus, Cuv., 
introduced into one of these nets, was enveloped in the usual man- 
ner by the Spider; but as soon as the operation was completed, the 
Spider lost no time in cutting the line and allowing her prisoner to 
fall to the ground. Mr. MacLeay consequently disbelieves the 
existence of any bird-catching Spider. 

The Paper was accompanied throughout by numerous notes, in- 
cluding observations on many subjects adverted to by the author; 
such as the habits of the land-Crabs of Cuba; a description of the 
grey Lizard oi the coast, apparently a species oi Jgama; &c. They 
also included an account of two species of Sphceriodactylus, Cur., 
which are characterized as follows: 

Sph^riodactvlus cinereus. Splicer, caudd corporis longitudine ; 

totus cinereus, translncidus, capitejlaviori, apice rosea ; squamis 

dorsalibus jmnctis minutissimis nigris aspersis. 
Long. tot. 24 unc. 
This may possibly be the small house Lizard of Browne's Jamaica. 

SPHiERiODACTYLUs ELEGANS. SphcEr.JascHs dorsoUbus transversis 
nigris 14; capite cceruleo-cinereo, subtus iiigro-fosciato ; dorso 
subviridi; caudd rubrd, corpore breviore ; ventre cinereo. 

Long. tot. 1^ unc. 

Both these Lizards are very common in houses in Cuba, occur- 
ring among books or wherever they can find shelter. They have 
bright eyes, are pretty and very harmless, and come out of their 
corners in rainy weather, declaring war against everything in the 
shape of a fly or musquitoe, 

'J'he Paper was also accompanied by drawings of the egg, larva, 
and pupa of Urania Fernandince, which were exhibited. 



IS 



February 25, 1834. 
Lieut,-Col. Sykes in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by M. W. Bojer, 
Corr. Memb. Z.S., and dated Mauritius, Nov. 15, 1833. It referred 
principally to the animal from Madagascar, which was transmitted 
in the spring of last year to the Society by the late Mr. Telfair, 
and which was brought by Mr. Bennett on April 9, 1833, (Pro- 
ceedings, Part 1. p. 4-6,) under the notice of the Society as the 
type of a new genus, for which he proposed the name of Cri/pto- 
procta, on account of its possessingan anal pouch, and being thereby 
distinguishable from Paradoxurus, F. Cuv. One of the habits of 
the Cryptoproctaferox indicated, during the life of the animal, the 
existence of this pouch : when violently enraged, and it was apt to 
become exceedingly ferocious on the sight of a morsel of flesh, "it 
frequently gratified the persons present with, not an odoriferous, 
but a most disagreeable smell, very like that oi Mephitis." When 
its voracity was not thus excited, it was " quite domesticated and 
extremely fond of playing with children," and ran "about the house 
and yard free and sprightly, eating everything." When at liberty 
«' it lay constantly in a rolling posture;" in confinement its sleep- 
ing position was not that of the riverrce, "but always on its side, 
or even on its back, holding with its fore-feet the small wires of its 
cage." " It died of epileptic fits, which tormented it for nearly 
three months, and during the last few days of its existence the at- 
tacks were very strong and frequent." It had lived in the Mauri- 
tius, M. Bojer states, about twenty-five months; and he feels on 
this account some hesitation as to the immature condition of its 
dentary system, inquiring whether " this period was not sufficient 
for its developement, or were the detention and domestication tiie 
cause of the imperfection?" 

With reference to this inquiry, Mr. Bennett remarked that in 
the ViverridcE generally the replacement of the milk teeth takes 
place at a comparatively late period of (.xistence, a fact recorded 
by Mr. Gray in the 'Proceedings of the Committee of Science and 
Correspondence ' of this Society (Part II., p. 65), and principally in- 
sisted on as regards Paradoxurus, a genus most intimately allied to 
Cryptoprocta. He added, that the fits of which the animal died 
were not improbatbly occasioned by the irritation of dentition. 

Mr. Bennett's account of Cryptoproctaferox, with a figure of the 
animal, will be published in the Second Part of the Society's 'Trans- 
actions.' 

The reading was commenced of a Paper, entitled "Descriptions 
of New Species q^ Calyplrceidce : by W. J. Broderip, Esq."; and 
the Shells described in it, chiefly obtained from the collection of 



u 

-Mr. Cuming, were exhibited. Tiie abstract of this Paper, in- 
cluding the characters of the new species, will be given on the 
completion of the reading of it. 

Mr. Owen read a Paper "On the Anatomy of the Calj/pfrmdce." 
After referring to the account given by Cuvier of the anatomy of 
Crepidida, to that by M. Deshayes o^ Calijptrcea, and to M. Lesson's 
of Crepipatella, as elucidating the general plan of organization in 
this family, he proceeds to describe the structure of Cal^peop^is. 

The anatomy of this genus agrees very nearly with that of the 
before-known genera of the family, scarcely differing, except in the 
comparative extent of the locomotive and respiratory systems ; but 
Mr. Owen has been enabled to add to the labours of his predeces- 
sors an account of the testis, and a description of the salivary glands. 
The testis is lodged in a membranous chamber, and consists of a 
glandular part of a light brown colour, and of a fibrous texture when 
seen under the lens; though, from analogy, the apparent fibres are 
no doubt seminal tubes. By the side of the testis there is a bag, or 
vesicula seminalis, appropriated to receive the secretion, which 
communicates with the termination of the oviduct posterior to the 
anjis ; the anus being situated on the right side of the branchial 
orifice, anterior to the testis, which here separates it from the ovi- 
duct. Between the testis and the process on the right side of the 
neck (regarded by Cuvier as the penis,) Mr. Owen has been unable 
to trace any communication: he feels, consequently, convinced 
that if this process forms part of the male generative system, it is to 
be regarded rather as an exciting than an inlromittent organ. 
The salivary apparatus consists of two elongated follicles with 
g\anA\\\&r parietes, occupying the neck on either side of the ceso- 
phagus, anterior to the nervous collar, and opening into the oesopha- 
gus on each side of the base of the lingual plate. 

After passing in review the several systems, Mr. Owen concludes 
by remarking on the internal ciiamber or cup which exists in the 
shells of this family. He regards it as being necessitated by the 
greater extent of the locomotive powers in Calyptrcea than in Pa- 
tella; a calcareous plate being interposed between the viscera and 
the foot to protect them from the pressure to which they would 
otherwise be exposed during the comparatively extensive and fre- 
quent contractions of the latter organ. As respiration has a direct 
relation to locomotion, the CalyptnBidcs approach towards the 
higher marine univalves in the organs dedicated to that function. 
Throughout the family the extent of the respiratory lamina is found 
to correspond with the extent of the internal shell, and with the 
extent and organization of the foot. 

Numerous specimens were exhibited of Birds collected in North 
America, principally in the United States, by George Follioft, Esq., 
and presented by him to the Society. At the request of the Chair- 
man, Mr. Gould brought them severally under the notice of the 
Meeting. His principal object being to illustrate, so far us these 



15 

birds were concerned, the geographical distribution of allied or 
identical species, he directed his observations chiefly to the deter- 
mination of those North American Birds which seemed to him to be 
referribie to European species, and of those which, having been 
generally considered as identical with European, appeared, on di- 
rect comparison, to present differences in form and colouring. 

The common Turnstone of Europe, Strepsilas collaris, Temm., 
appears to be not only identical with the Turnstone of North Ame- 
rica, but to be spread, without any tangible variation, over almost 
every portion of theglobe. The Sanderlhig, Calidris arenaria,Hemm., 
and the Knot, Tringa Canutus, Linn., are also identical in both 
continents ; as is the great white Heron or Egret, Ardea Egrelia, 
Temm. The common Tern or Sea-Swallow of England, Sterna 
Hit-undo, Linn., occurs equally in North America. The common 
Crow, Corviis Corone, Linn., is also identical in both continents. 

With respect to the JVhimbrel, Nume?iius phceopics, Temm., and 
the little Sandpiper, Tringa TemmincMi, Mr. Gould stated himself 
to be unable to determine as to their identity without the compari- 
son of more specimens from America than he had yet been able to 
obtain for the purpose of examination. 

The Cross-bill of North America Mr. Gould showed to be very 
distinct from that of Europe, the Loxia curvirostra, Linn. ; it is 
one third less in all its proportions, and is somewhat less brilliant in 
colouring. The Ring Dottrel of North America is also specifically 
distinct from that of Europe, the Charadrius Hiaticula, Linn. ; in- 
dependently of differences in admeasurement, its semipalmated foot 
will always serve to distinguish it. 

In addition to the Birds that have been already mentioned, Mr. 
Folliott's collection contained a series of the Sylviadce of the United 
States, several Fly-catchers, the Orphea riifa, &c., &c. 

Mr. Gray exhibited specimens of the shelly covering oC a Radiated 
animal, allied to the Echinida and the Asteriida, which he regarded 
as the type of a new genus, and for which he proposed the name 
of 

Ganymeda. 

Corpus hemisphflericum, depressum ; depressione dorsi centrali 
quadrangulari. 

Os inferum, centrale. 

Anus nullus. 

Ambulacra nulla. 

•' The body is hemispherical, depressed, thin, chalky and hollow. 

" The back is rounded, rather depressed, flattened behind, with a 
rather sunk quadrangular central space. 

" The sides are covered with sunken angular cavities with a small 
round ring, having an oblong transverse subcentral hole in their 
base. 

" The under side is small, rather concave, with five slight sloping 
elevations from the angles of the mouth to the angles of the rather 
pentagonal margin. The edge is simple. 



16 

" The mouth is central. The vent none. 

" The cavity is simple. 

" The parietes are thin and minutely dotted, and the centre of 
the dorsal disc is pellucid. 

" This genus is very nearly allied to the fossil described by Dr. 
Goldfuss in his beautiful work on Petrifactions, under the name ot 
Glenotremites paradoxus (tab. iQ. f. 9. and t. 51. f. 1.), with which it 
agrees in external appearance and form, in the possession of 
a sunken space on its upper surface, and in having only a single in- 
ferior pentagonal mouth. It differs from Glenotremites by being un- 
furnished with ambulacra running from the angle of the mouth to 
the margin, by being unprovided with conical cavities between those 
near the mouth, and by having in the flattened disc on the back a 
central quadrangular impression instead of the pentagonal star of 
that genus. 

*' Dr. Goldfuss describes the glenoid cavities on the surface as 
giving attachment to spines similar to those of the Turban Echini, 
(CzWffm, Lam.), and states that the under surface is covered with very 
small tubercles to which he believes spines were attached. The 
cavities on the surface of Ganymeda and the pits in them have very 
much the form of those figured by Dr. Goldfuss in his fossil, but I 
cannot regard them as being fitted for the attachment of spines: 
they have much more resemblance to the mouths of cells. So great, 
indeed, is this resemblance, that I entertained doubts whether the 
whole mass might not be a congeries of cells like the Lumilites, 
rather than the case of a single body, until I considered that it was 
impossible, from its form, that it could increase in size with the 
growth of the animal, and that its exceeding regularity proved that 
it must be the formation of a single creature. 

" I am induced to consider these two genera, though differing in 
the above-stated particulars, as forming a family or order between 
the Echinida and the Asteriida; allied to the latter in having only 
a single opening to the digestive canal, and agreeing with the former 
in form and consistence, but differing from it in not being composed 
of many plates. 

" I only know two specimens of this genus, which I believe were 
found on the coast of Kent, as I discovered them mixed with a quan- 
tity of Discopora Patina which I collected several years ago from 
Jiici and shells on that coast. The specimens are ^ of an inch in 
diameter. 

"I propose to call the species Gatii/meda pulchella," 



17 

March 11, 1834. 

William Spence, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens and drawings were exhibited of a freshwater Tortoise, 
forming part of the collection of Mr. Bell, by whom it was described 
as the type of a new genus, for which he proposed the name of 

Cyclemys. 
Sternum latum, testani dorsalem longitudine fere sequans, inte- 
grum, solidum ; testae dorsali ligamento squamato connexum. 

Cyclemys orbiculata. Cycl. iestd suborbiculari, carinatd, postici 
dentatu, fused ; scuds sternijiuvescentibus, fusco radicUim lineatis. 

Long, dorsi, 8 unc. ; lat. 7 ; alt. 3. 

Emys orbiculata. Bell. 

Pullus. Emys Dhor, Gray, Syn. Kept., p. 20.? 

Hab. in India. 

Mr. Bell regards the Tortoise which he has thus characterized as 
supplying a link in the connecting series of the laud with the fresh- 
water families which has hitherto been wanting ; and as especially 
valuable in the natural arrangement, by the clue which it furnishes 
to the correct location of the Indian forms of the genus Emys. It is, 
indeed, most nearly related to Emys spinosa, and on a superficial ob- 
servation might almost be referred to that species ; but on closer 
examination it is found to differ from that Tortoise, not only specifi- 
cally, but generically also : its sternal bones are permanently sepa- 
rated from the dorsal ones, with which they are connected by means 
of a ligament alone, similar to that which performs the same office in 
Terrapene. From the Box- Tortoises, however, co which, in this point 
of its structure, it is so closely related, Cyclemys is altogether distinct, 
the whole of its sternum being entire, instead of having, as is invari- 
ably the case in Terrapene, one or more transverse divisions of the 
sternum itself, the lobes of which move as on a hinge. In Terr. 
Europcea this mobility of the sternum exists in each lobe in a small 
degree, combined with the ligamentous connexion of the sternal to 
the dorsal bones. In Cyclemys the whole sternum moves together, 
though very slightly. 

The transition from the land to the Jreshwater Tortoises may con- 
sequently be regarded as commencing in Terrapene ; passing through 
Terr. Europcea to Cyclemys orbiculata ; and thence through the In- 
dian forms of Emys, which so closely resemble the latter species, to 
the other forms of Emys : the natural series of conne.xion between the 
TestudinidoE and the Emydidce being thus completed. 

The exhibition was resumed of the new species of Shells contained 
in the collection of Mr. Cuming. Those now exhibited were accom- 

No. XV. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



18 

panied by characters by Mr. G. B. Sowerby, and consisted of species 
and varieties additional to those previously characterized by Mr. Bro- 
derip, (Proceedings, Part I. p. 52.) of the 

Genus Conus. 

CoNus Algoknsis. Con. testa tenuiusculd, subcylindraced, Itievi, 
fused, J'ascid itriicd seit fasciis duabus interruplis albis ; spird 
brevi, subrotundald, albofuscoque arliculatd : long. I' 15, fa^ 055 
poll. 

Hub. ad littora Africse Meridionalis. 

Found on the sands at Algoa Bay, — G. B. S. 

CoNUS AUMCUS. 

Var. roseus. Testa formdet slaturd Con. Aulico omninh simillmd, 

7naculi.s irregulariler subtrigonis, roseis. 
Hab. ad Insuiam Annaa. 

This, the most beautiful variety of Con. Aulicus, is found on the 
coral reefs around the Island of Annaa or Chain Island. — G. B. S. 

CoNUS NUSSATELLA. 

Var. tenuis. Tesid tenui, ulbd, Jlavicante nebulatd, punctulis fuscis 
transverse seriatim dispositis ; striis transversis tenuissimis. 

Hab. ad Insuiam Annaa, 

Found on the coral reefs. 

This variety differs in being more slender, much thinner, more pro- 
duced at the spiral end, and wider anteriorly, from the ordinary va- 
riety. Its transverse stria are, moreover, very fine, and its brown 
specks much more distant and regular. — G. B. S. 

CoNUS TKXDlNELrS. 

Far. granulosus. Testdformd et staturd omninh Con. tendinei, striis 

transversis confertis granulosis, 
Hab. ad Insuiam Annaa. 
Found on the coral reefs, — G. B. S. 

CoNUS LuzoNicus. 

Var. Testdformd et staturd omnino Con. huzon'ici, fusco-nigricante, 
fascid interruptd niediand carutescente-albidd , antice albido va- 
rid. 
Hab. ad Insulas Galiapagos. 
Found in the clefts of rocks at low water. 

A specimen of the more usual variety, wliich accompanies these, 
shows the epidermis. — G. B. S. 

Conus brunneus. Wood. Con. testd turbinatd, crassd, coronatd, 
fused, maculis albis transverse fa sciatim dispositis ; spird siibpromi- 
nuld, albofusco(juemacululd,spiraliter sulcutd, tubercuUs magnis ; 
basi lineis elevatis, subgranosis: long. \'8, lat. \' poll. 

Wood, Suppl. pi. 3. f. 1. 

Variat testa crassiore, tota fusca, immaculata. 

Hab. ad Insula^ Galiapagos, ad Puertam Portreram et ad Pana- 
mam. 

Found in the clefts of rocks. — G. B. S. 



19 

CoNUS PULCHELL.US. CoYi. lestd ohlongo-tuibiiiald, coronald, albi- 
cante rosea tinctd ; superne turgiduld, infrd. granoso-lbteatd ; 
punctulis nonnuUis fusco-nigTicantibus sparsis ; aperlurd inliis ear- 
ned: long. \'5, lat. 0'8 poll. 

Hab. ad littora occidenlalia Australiee. 

From Freemantle. — G, B. S. 

CoNUS DiADEMA. Cou. tcstd tuvbinatd, tcevi, crassd, coronald, /used, 
fascid angustd niediand. paUid'wre ; spird subdepressd, tuberculis 
magnis, a Ibis ; apice mucronato ; basi lineis elevatiuscitlis nonnul- 
lis i aperlurd inlits purpureo-albicante : long, 1'7, lat. I' poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

Found in the clefts of the rocks at low water. — G. B. S. 

CoNus FERRUGATus. Con.tesldacuminato-conicd, lcevi,nlbd,maculis 
longitudinalibus punctisque seriatim dispositis ferrugineis ; spird 
subacuminatd, albd, ferrugineo maculatd ; basisulcatd: long. 1"7, 
lat. 0-8 poll. 

Hab. ad Sinum Californise et apud Insnlam Guaymas. 

This differs much from Con. monilifer in its proportions. — G. B. S. 

CoNUS Regalitatis. Con. testdturbinatd, Icevi, crassiusculd, superne 
ventricosd, spadiced, maculis punctulisque nlbo-ccerulescentibus va- 
rid ; spird depressiusculd, spiraliter sulcatd ; basi lineis elevatius- 
culis paucis, subrugosis : long, 2-, lat. l"i poll. 

Hab. ad littora Americse Centralis. (Real Llejos.) 

Found in the clefts of rocks on sandy mud. 

It may be designated Real Llejos or Royalty Cone. — G. B. S. 

A specimen was exhibited of the Musk Duck of New Holland, 
Hydrobates lobatus, Temm. It had recently been presented to the 
Society by Lieut. Breton, R.N., Corr. Memb. Z. S., who entered into 
some particulars respecting its habits. He stated that these birds are 
so extremely rare, that he saw only three of them during his various 
excursions, which extended over twelve hundred miles of country. 
He has never heard of any instance in which more than two were 
seen together. They are met with only on the rivers, and in pools 
left in the otherwise dry beds of streams. It is extremely difficult to 
shoot them, on account of the readiness with which they dive ; the 
instant the trigger is drawn, the bird is under water. 

Some observations by Dr. Hancock on the Lantern-Jly and other 
Insects of Guiana were read. 

The writer concurs with M. Richard and M. Sieber in regarding 
as erroneous the statement of Madame Merian, that the Lantern-Jly, 
Fulgora lanlernaria, Linn., exhibits at night a brilliant light, and 
remarks that the whole of the native tribes of Guiana agree in treating 
this story as fabulous : it seems to be an invention of Europeans de- 
sirous of assigning a use to the singular dia|)hanous projection, re- 
sembling a horn lantern, in front of the head of the insect. He also 
states that the Fulgone rarely sing. 



20 

The insect whose song is most frequently heard in Guiana is the C't- 
caJa clarisona, the Aria-aria of the Indians, and Razor-grinder of the 
Colonists : in the cool shade of the forests it may be heard at almost 
every hour of the day } but in Georgetown its song commences as 
the sun disappears below the horizon. At Georgetown this Cicada 
was never heard in 1804, when Dr. Hancock first visited the place j 
but it is now very common, probably in consequence of the shelter 
afforded by the growth of many trees and slirubs in the gardens which 
have since been formed there. The sound emitted by it is " along, 
continuous, shrill tone, which might be compared almost to that of a 
clarionet, and is little interrupted, e.\cept occasionally by some vibrat- 
ing undulations." 



21 



March 25, 1834, 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A specimen was exhibited of an Albatross presented to the So- 
ciety by Lieut. Breton, Corr. Memb. Z. S., whose principal object in 
calling the attention of the Society to it was to mention that, being 
unprovided at the time at which the bird was killed with any of the 
ordinary preserving powder or soap, he had used for its preservation 
a mixture of Cayenne and black peppers with snuff and salt. The 
skin, well rubbed with this mixture, was brought through the inter- 
tropical regions in an ordinary trunk, affording free access to insects, 
and arrived in England uninjured. Lieut. Breton conceives that it 
may be advantageous to collectors to be made aware that the pre- 
servation of skins can be secured by articles so constantly at hand as 
those which he employed in this instance. 

The exhibition was resumed of the new species of Shells forming 
part of the collection made by Mr. Cuming on the western coast of 
South America, and among the islands of the South Pacific Ocean. 
Those brought on the present evening under the notice of the So- 
ciety were accompanied by characters by Mr. G. B. Sowerby, and 
consisted of five species of the 

Genus Gastroch^na. 

Gastkoch^na ovata. Gast. testd ovafd, albicanle, longitud'ma- 
liter striata, striis e.dlibus, lamellosis, formam marginis semper 
sequentibus ; longitudine lateris antici qidntam partem testa; 
cequante : long. \2, tat. 0'7, alt. 07 poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Panamensi (Isle of Perico,) et ad Insulam Platse. 

Found in Spondyli at the Isle of Perico, and in coral rocks, at a 
depth of seventeen fathoms, at the Island of Plata. — G. B. S. 

GASTUOCH.ENA TRUNCATA. Gust. tcstd oblougd, post'wi rotuttdato- 
truncatd, striata, sordide albicante ; epidermide tenui lamellosd 
poslice tectd ; latere antico brevissimo, subacuminato : long, i'A, 
lat. 07, alt. 07 poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Panamensi. (Isle of Perico.) 

Found in Spondijli. — G. B..S. 

Gastrocii^na brevis. Gast. testd breviter ovatd, tenui, pellucidd, 
striatd, striis exilissimis ; longitudine lateris antici octavam par- 
tem testa; ceqnante : long. 08, lat. 0'5, alt. 5 poll. 

Hub. ad Insulas Gallapagos et apud Insulam Lord Hood's dictam. 

Found in Pearl oysters in from three to seven fathoms. — G. B. S. 



22 

Gastuochana rugulosa. Gast. teald oblongd, albklil, slriatd, ru- 
gulosd, striis anticis prope marginem hiantem confertis, acutis ; 
hiatu longissimo : long. 8, lat. 0*3, all. ()"4 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos et apuci Insulam Lord Hood's dictani. 

Found with the last.— G. B. S. 

Gastroch^na UYALiNA. Gdst. tcstd oviiU, ulb'idd , hijulind, Itevi, 
dorso longitudinaliter striato ; latere anlko brevi ; hiatu duos 
trienles testa aquante : long. 0'55, lat. 0"25, alt. 0"3 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Lord Hood's dictam. 

Found with the two last. — G. B. S. 

A Note was read from Mr. Gray, giving an account of the arrival 
in England of two living specimens of Cerithium urmalum, vvhich had 
been obtained at the Mauritius, and liad been brought from thence in 
a dry state. That the inhabitants of land Shells will remain alive 
without moisture for many months is well known : he had had occa- 
sion to observe that various marine Mullusca will also retain life in a 
state of torpidity for a considerable time, some facts in illustration of 
which he had communicated at a recent Meeting of the Society (Pro-- 
ceedings, Fart I., p. 116.): the present instance included, however, 
a torpidity of so long a continuance as to induce him to mention it 
particularly. The animal, though deeply contracted within the shell, 
was apparently healthy, and beautifully coloured. It emitted a con- 
siderable quantity of bright green fluid, which stained paper of a grass 
green colour : it also coloured two or three ounces of pure water. 
This green solution, after standing for twelve hours in a stoppered 
bottle, became purplish at the upper part ; but the paper retained its 
green colour though exposed to the atmosphere. 

The Secretary mentioned an instance of the arrival in this country 
of a living Cerithium Telescopium, Brug., brought from Calcutta, in 
company with some small Paludina:, which also reached England 
alive : these MoUusca were, however, kept in sea water frequently 
changed. The Cerithium was placed by Mr. G. B. Sowerby, for dissec- 
tion, in the hands of the Rev. M. J. Berkeley and G. H. Hoffman, 
Esq., who have prepared a paper on its anatomy for the forthcoming 
No. of the ' Zoological Journal' : it will be illustrated by a series of 
figures, which were exhibited to the Meeting. It is worthy of re- 
mark, that the spirit in which this animal was immersed for the pur- 
pose of killing it, and in which it was kept for some weeks, became of 
a dark verdigris colour. 

Dr. Weatherhead exhibited two young OrriMorhynchi preserved 
in spirit, which he had recently received from New Holland, and 
stated his intention of presenting one of them to the Society's Mu- 
seum. The smallest of them is about two inches in length ; the 
largest about four. Both are destitute of hairj and in both the 
eye-lids are closed. In the smaller one there is a vestige of an 
umbilical slit. 



2S 

The larger of the two is one of those which were kept in captivity, 
with their dam, by Lieut, the Hon. Lauderdale Maule, as noticed 
in a communication read at the Meeting of the Committee of Sci- 
ence and Correspondence of this Society on September 11, 1832, 
(Proceedings, Part XL p. 145). With it was exhibited the dried 
skin of the dam, to which the mammary glands, largely developed, 
had been left adhering. 

A Note from Lieut. Breton, Corr. Memb. Z. S., was read, giving 
an account of an Echidna, which lived with him for some time in New 
Holland, and survived a part of the voyage to England. The animal 
was captured by him on the Blue Mountains : it is now very uncom- 
mon in the colony of New South Wales. He regards it as being of 
its size the strongest quadruped in existence. It burrows readily, 
but he knows not to what depth. 

Previously to embarkation this individual was fed on ant-eggs and 
milk, and when on board its diet was egg chopped small with liver 
and meat. It drank much water. Its mode of eating was very curi- 
•ous, the tongue being used at some times in the manner of that of 
the ChamcEleon, and at others in that in which a mower uses his 
scythe, the tongue being curved laterally, and the food, as it were, 
swept into the mouth : there seemed to be an adhesive substance on 
the tongue, by which the food was drawn in. The animal died sudden- 
ly off Cape Horn, while the vessel was amidst the ice ; perhaps in con- 
sequence of the cold, but not improbably on account of the eggs with 
which it was fed being extremely bad. 

Lieut. Breton agrees with MM. Quoy and Gaimard in believing 
that little difficulty would be experienced in bringing alive to Europe 
the Echidna or Porcupine Ant-eater of Mew Holland. He suggests 
the following plan. 

Previously to embarkation the animal should gradually be weaned 
from its natural food of ants, which may be done with great facility 
by giving it occasionally ants and ant-eggs, (the last is, in fact, more 
properly speaking, its common food,) but more generally milk, with 
eggs chopped very small, or egg alone. When on board ship it should 
be kept in a deep box, with strong bars over the top, and a door. It 
is requisite that the box or cage be deep, because the animal con- 
stantly tries its utmost to escape ; and possessing very great strength, 
is liable to injure itself in its exertions to force its way through the 
bars. The effluvia arising from its excrement are so extremely fetid, 
that it cannot be kept altogether in a cabin, unless the cage be fre- 
quently cleaned. While this is being done, the Echidna may be al- 
lowed its liberty, but must be narrowly watched, or it will certainly 
go overboard. It is absolutely necessary tiiat the eggs which are to 
constitute its food during the voyage be as fresh as possible: they can 
be preserved in lime water. If milk is not to be procured, water must 
be supplied daily ; and egg and liver (or fresh meat) cut small, should 
be given at least every alternate day ; but, when the weather will per- 
mit, it should be fed once a day. Half an egg (boiled hard) and the 






2i> 

liver of a fowl or other bird will suffice for a meal. Finally, the ani- 
mal should be kept warm, and well supplied with clean straw. It will 
be as well to nail two or three pieces of wood (battens) across the 
floor of the cage, to prevent the animal from slipping about when the 
ship is unsteady. 



25 

April 8, 1834. 

Dr. Marshall Hall in the Chair. 

A Letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by John Hearne, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. S., dated Port au Prince, Feb. 1.5, 1834. It 
accompanied a present to the Society of a pair of the common Goats 
of Hayti ; referred to various Birds which it is the intention of the 
writer to forward when the season is more advanced ; and gave some 
particulars of a bird known in the island by the name of the Musicien, 
respecting which Mr. Hearne hopes to obtain, in the course of a jour- 
ney which he projects into the higher lands of the interior, more full 
information than he at present possesses. 

Some extracts were read from a Letter, addressed to Mr. Yarrell 
by Dr. A. Smith, Corr. Memb. Z. S., dated Cape Town, Jan. 12, 
1834. It refers to the projected expedition from the Cape of Good 
Hope into the interior of Africa, which it is the intention of the writer 
to accompany. It is designed to proceed directly nortliward from 
Latakoo ; and Dr. Smith anticipates in this new field numerous ad- 
ditions to his Zoological stores : along the eastern and western coasts 
lie has already penetrated to a considerable distance. Speaking of 
the Rodentia, so numerous in Southern Africa, he mentions as col- 
lected by him, in his late visit to Port Natal and the Zoola country, 
a second species of his genus Dendromijs. He also notices a new 
species of Chrysochloris obtained by him in the same country. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Gould exhibited an exten- 
sive series of Birds of the genus Trogon, Linn., comprising twenty- 
five species. The greater number of them form part of the Society's 
Museum, and the others were derived from his own collection. 

He pointed out the distinguishing marks of the two sections of 
the genus, one of which is confined to America, while the other 
inhabits the Old Continent. He also pointed out among the species 
exhibited there which he regarded as hitherto undescribed ; these he 
named and characterized as follows : 

Trogon erythrocephalus. Trog. capite guttureque sordid^ 
sanguineis, hoc postice striga alba obsoletd cincto ; pectore ven- 
treque coccineis ; dorso tectricibusque caudce superioribus arenaceo- 
castaneis ; scapularibiis alceque tectricibus major ibus nigro alboque 
Jlexuosim strigatis. 

Foem. Capite guttureque arenaceo-brunneis ; torque alba magis qur.m 
in mare conspicuo ; scapularibiis nigro brunneoque strigatis. 

Rostrum brunneum ; maudibularum basis regioque ophihalmica 
nuda coccineae. 

Long. tot. 12 vel 13 unc; alee, 5. 

Hab. apud Rangoon. 
No. XVI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



26 

Trogon MAr.ABAnicus. Trog. capite, gulture, pectorequcfuH- 
ginoso-nigris, hoc torque lato alho ; ventre coccineo ; dorso tectri- 
cibusque caudce superioribus sordidh arenaceo-brunneis ; scapulari- 
bus tectricibukque alee majoribus nigra alboque flexuosim strigatis. 
FcEm. Capite, dorso, gntture, pectoreque sordide bnmneis ; ventre 
luteo ; pectore hand torqxiato; scnpularibus nigra brunneaque 
xtrigntis. 
Rostrum nigrum ; mandibidarum basis regioque ophthalmica nuda 
cceruleae. 
Long. tot. 11 vel 11^ unc; alee. 5. 
Hab. ad littus Malabar dictum. 

In both these birds the quill-feathcrs are black, edged with white j 
the three outer tail-feathers on each side black at their base and 
broadly white at their tips; and the two middle tail-feathers tipped 
with black, their remaining portion being of a chestnut brown, which 
in Trog. erythrocephalus is deep, and in Trog. Malabaricus light. 

Trogon klegans. Trog. vertice, genis, gullureque nigris ; cervice, 
dorso, pectoreque metallice aureo-viridibus, hoc postici torque alho 
cincto ; ventre saturate coccineo ; scapularibus alceque tectricibus 
albo nigrescenti-brunncoque minutissimijlexuosim strigatis, pogo- 
niis externis lined albd longitudinali notatis. 
Foem. Capite, pectore, dorsoque saturate brunnescenti-griseis ; tor- 
que albo obsoleto ; ventre quam in mari pallidiore. 
Rostrum saturate aurantio-luteum. 
Long. tot. 12 unc. ; ala, 5 ; caudce, 7. 
Hab. apud Guatimala, in Mexico. 

The tail is considerably lengthened in the male, and its four middle 
feathers are bronzed green on the upper surface, and deeply marked 
with black at the tip ; the three outer feathers are white at the tip, 
and barred to a great extent on their outer edges with alternate lines 
of black and white, a marking which appears also, though less exten- 
sively, on their inner edges, the remainder being black : in some spe- 
cimens this marking of the tail is reduced to an irregular and minute 
sort of dotting, in place of the bars. In the female the middle tail- 
feathers are of a dull chestnut, tipped with black, and the three outer 
feathers much resemble those of the male, but are less decidedly dot- 
ted, assuming rather a freckled appearance. 

Mr. Bennett briefly recapitulated the facts and reason ing.s which 
have from time to time been brought before the Society on the sub- 
ject of the abdominal glands of the Monotremata, regarded by Meckel 
and by Mr. Owen as mammary, and by M. GeoflVoy- Saint Hilaire 
as connected with a peculiar function, to which, however, differ- 
ent results have been attributed by that learned zoologist at various 
times. The object of the recapitulation was to introduce an abstract 
of a recent Memoir by M. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaive, " On the structure 
and use of the Monotrematic glands, and particularly on those glands 
in the Cetacea." In this Memoir the author regards the mammary 
glands of the Cetacea, so analogous in structure to those of Ornithu- 



27 

rhynchus and Echidna, as having a function similar to that which he has 
attributed to these latter : he assumes that the fluid secreted by them 
is not milk but mucus, and that this mucus is not sucked by the 
young, (whose organs of deglutition he describes as being unfitted 
for sucking,) but is ejected by the mother into the water, the element 
in which they dwell, where, by imbibition of a portion of the water, 
it becomes thickened, and, floating by the mother's side, is devoured 
by the progeny. 

M. Geoffroy has subsequently changed his opinion as to the na- 
ture of the fluid secreted by the nutrient glands of the Cetacea. He 
had had an opportunity of examining these glands in some Porpoises, 
and had found the secretion to be actually milk. He still, however, 
maintains that the young of the Cetacea do not suck, but that the 
mother ejects the nutritious fluid from the milk receptacle into the 
mouth of her young. 



I 



28 



April 22, 1834. 
Joseph Sabine, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Some Notes by J. B. Harvey, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. S., were 
read : they accompanied a collection of Shells and Crustacea made 
by the writer on the coast of Devonshire, near Teignmouth. The se- 
veral specimens were exhibited. 

Among them were numerous individuals of Cyprcea Pediculus, Ci/p. 
hullata, and Cyp. Arctica. Of the former there are two varieties, 
one spotted and the other without spots. The spotted variety, Mr. 
Harvey states, is generally smaller than the plain one, and is less pro- 
duced on one side near the apex. 

Cyp. bidlala is found in the same localities as Cyp. Pediculus, but 
it may be doubted whether it is the young of that species : it is so 
comparatively rare, that Mr. Harvey has dredged up only six speci- 
mens of it, while he has collected more than a hundred of Cyp. Pedi- 
culus : he possesses, moreover, young individuals of Cyp. Pediculus 
of smaller size than specimens of Cyp. bullata. In the latter the 
whorls are more produced at tiie apex, and the shell is so delicate as 
to be broken by even a slight fall. 

On Cyp. Arctica Mr. Harvey remarks, that although its size and 
appearance are in favour of its being a young shell, he hesitates iu 
referring it to the immature condition of the unspotted Cyp. Pedicu- 
lus : his principal ground for doubt is the extreme rarity of Cyp. 
Arctica. He inquires, however, whether the young animal may not, 
perhaps, live deeply imbedded in the sand for a certain period before 
it comes to the surface, and thus generally elude the search of the 
conchologist until its shell becomes matured ? 

With the Shells Mr. Harvey had transmitted to the Society living 
specimens of Caryophyllia Sinithii, Brod., the Torbay Madrepore, 
whose habits were described by Mr. De la Beche in the ' Zoological 
Journal' a few years since : these individuals died on the journey. 
They are attainable only at the lowest spring tides. They may be 
kept alive in sea water, clianged every second or third day, by feed- 
ing them with a very small piece of fresh fish scraped, and deposited 
with a quill upon the animal, by which it is sucked in in a manner 
exactly similar to that of Polypi. The colours of some individuals 
are very vivid ; and among these green, blue, and blueish grey are 
the most predominant. Adhering to the Caryophyllia is occasionally 
found the Pyrgoma Anglicum, Leach, which appears to occur in no 
other situation. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Thompson of Belfast exhi- 
bited an immature specimen of the long-tailed Manis, Manis tetra- 
dactyla, Linn., for the purpose of showing that when very young, 



29 

(the present specimen being but ten inches in length,) the animal is 
as thoroughly armed, both with respect to scales and spines, as the full- 
grown one. The specimen was also considered by Mr. Thompson as 
interesting on account of its locality, it having been obtained in 
Sierra Leone. 

Mr. Thompson also read the following notice of the Cuckoo, Cucu- 
liis canorus, Linn., copied from his Journal, under the date of 28th 
May, 1833. 

" On examination of three cuckoos to-day, which were killed in 
the counties of Tyrone and Antrim within the last week, I found 
them all to be in different stages of plumage : one was mature ; ano- 
ther (a female) exhibited on the sides of the neck and breast the red- 
dish-coloured markings of the young bird, the remainder of the plu- 
mage being that of maturity ; the third specimen had reddish mark- 
ings disposed entirely over it, much resembling the plumage described 
by M. Temrainck as assumed by 'les jeuncs tels qu'ils emigrent en 
automne', (Man. d'Orn, torn. l.'p. 383), but having a greater pro- 
portion of red, especially on the tail covert.s, than is specified in his 
description of the bird at that age. This individual proved, on dissec- 
tion, to be a female, and did not contain any eggs so large as ordi- 
nary sized peas. The stomach, with the exception of the presence of 
some small sharp gravel, was entirely empty, and was closely coated 
over with hair." 

Attention was called to the stomach of one of these birds, that the 
hair with which it is lined might be observed. From its close adhesion 
to the inner surface of the stomach, and from the regularity vyith 
which it is arranged, Mr. Thompson was at first disposed to consider 
this hair as being of spontaneous growth ; but part of the stomach 
having been subjected to maceration in water, and afterwards viewed 
thro\i;^h a microscope of high power, the hairs proved, to the entire 
satisfaction of Mr. Owen and himself, to be altogether borrowed from 
the larvce of the Tiger-moth, Arctia Caja, Schrank, the only species 
found in the stomach of the bird in various specimens from different 
parts of the country which were examined by Mr. Thompson in the 
months of May and June, 1833. 

Mr. Thompson also read a Catalogue, with incidental notices, of 
Birds new to the Irish Fauna. He prefaced his list lay remarking 
that he did not bring them forward as unrecorded, without having 
previously consulted every work in which he was aware that the birds 
of Ireland are either particularly described or incidentally noticed ; 
including the Statistical Surveys'of the Lish counties, which contain, 
in several instances, Catalogues of the Birds that have been observed 
in them. 

The Catalogue is as follows : 

L Jlpine Swift, Cijpselus alpinus, Temm. By the ' Dublin Penny 
Journal' of March 30, 1833, my attention was directed to a rara avis, 
said to have been killed at Iluthfarnham, and preserved in the fine col- 
lection of birds belonging to Thomas W. Warren, Esq. On calling to 



s 



30 

see this bird (its species not having been ascertained,) I found it to be 
the Alpine Swift, which has not before been recorded as obtained in any 
part of Ireland ; the specimen recognised as the Cypselus alpinus by 
my friend, William Sinclair, Esq., and communicated by him to Mr. 
Selby for insertion in the British Fauna, having been met with off 
Cape Clear, at the distance of some miles from land. 

Mr. Warren's specimen was received by him on the 14th of March, 
and was then in a perfectly fresh state. 

2. Redstart, Phccnicura Kuticilla, Swains. This species is recorded 
on the excellent authority of Robert Ball, Esq., of Dublin, who has, 
in the autumnal months, shot several of them in the vicinity of 
Youghal, CO. Cork. 

3. Bearded Titmouse, Parus biarmicus, Linn. Mr. William S. 
Wall, Bird Preserver, Dublin, who is very conversant with British 
Birds, assures me that he received a specimen of this species from the 
neighbourhood of the river Shannon a few years since. 

4. Rock Pipit, Anthus uqtiaticus, Bechst. Common about the 
rocks, &c., on the seashore, in the North of Ireland. 

5. Crested Purple Hero7i, Ardea purpurea, Linn. Of this bird 
there is a fine specimen in mature plumage in the collection of Mr. 
Warren, which I am assured was shot at Carrickmacross. 

6. Little Bittern, Botnurus minutus. A specimen of this bird, 
shot in the county of Armagh, is preserved in the cabinet of William 
Sinclair, Esq., Belfast. Specimens have also been obtained in the 
east and south of Ireland. 

7. Night Heron, Nycticoiax Europceus, Steph. Of this bird 1 
saw a sj)ecimen a few weeks since in the shop of Mr. Glennen, Bird 
Preserver, Dublin, which he informed me was sent him in a fresh state 
from Letterkenny, early in the present year. 

8. * Spoonbill, PUdalea leucorodia, Linn. Mr. Ball informs me, 
that in the autumn of 1829, three of these birds were seen in company 
near Youghal, and that one of them was shot. It was preserved by 
Dr. Green of that town, and is at present in his possession. 

9. * Green Sandpiper, Totanus ochropus, Temm. Of this bird I 
have seen Irish specimens in several collections. 

10. Dottrel, Charadrius tnorinellus, Linn. A specimen of this bird^ 
which was shot near Downpatrick a few years ago, is preserved in the 
house of Mr. Reid, at Ballygowan Bridge (Down). 

11. Black-winged Stilt, Himantopus melanopterus, Meyer. In the 
winter of 1823, a bird of this species was seen by Mr. Ball in the 
neighbourhood of Youghal. 

12. Gadwall, Chauliodus strepera, Swains. Dr. Robert Graves of 
Dublin informed me that a specimen of this bird which 1 saw in his 
collection was shot at Wexford. 

13. Smew, Mergus albellus, Linn. Of this bird I have seen speci- 
mens from different parts of Ireland. 

14. Little Auk, Mergulus mclanoleucos, Ray. There is a s|)cci- 
mcn of tins bird in the collection of Dr. Graves, which was shot at 
We-xford. 



31 

15. * Black Tern, Sterna nigra, Linn. Mr. Ball has seen this 
bird in tlie month of July, for some years successively, at Roxborough, 
near Middieton, co. Cork. 

Jn addition to these I may mention the 

1 6. * Blackcap H'arbler, Curruca atricapilla, Bechst., which, though 
stated in Rutty's Dublin to be frequent in that county, admits of some 
doubt, as more than one species is commonly called by the name of 
Blackcap in Ireland. On the 1st March, 1834, I saw, in the shop of 
Mr. Galbraith, Bird Preserver, Belfast, a fresh specimen of an adult 
male Blackcap, which had been killed (probably the day before) in the 
garden at Down and Connor House, co. of Down. 

Other individuals of the species marked thus * have been recorded 
in the MS. Catalogue of the late J. Templeton, Esq.— W. T. 

Mr. Thompson also stated that specimens of the true Lestris para- 
siticus, Temm., have repeatedly occurred in the Bays of Dublin and 
Belfast. He added, that during the great storm which took place on 
the 31st August, 1833, a great many specimens of the Octopus octo- 
podia (which hud not before been recorded as occurring on the shores 
of Ireland) were thrown ashore in Belfast Bay. 

Mr. Owen read a Paper " On the Structure of the Heart of the 
Perennibranchiate Amphibia, or Reptiles douteux of Cuvier." 

He briefly noticed the progressive discoveries relating to the heart 
of Reptiles which have been made since the time of Linnaeus, and 
which have successively rendered inapplicable to the Saurians, Cheloni- 
atis, and Ophidians, the phrase " Cor uniloculare, uniauritum", applied 
to the whole of the Reptilia in the ' Systema Naturce'. He alluded to 
the researches of Dr. Davy and M. Martin St. Ange on the structure 
of the heart in the Caducibranchiate Amphibia, from which it appeared 
that two auricles were appended to the ventricle in those Reptiles, as 
well as in the higher orders above mentioned. He then proceeded to 
give the results of an examination of the hearts of specimens of Am- 
phiinna, Cuv., Menopoma, Harlan, Proteus, Schreib., and Siren, Linn. 
He selected the heart of the Siren lacertina as the subject of detailed 
description, considering that the genus Siren, in combining with per- 
sistent external branchice a limited number of extremities, exhibits the 
simplest form of the Amphibious Reptile. 

The heart in this species consists of three distinct cavities, as in the 
higher Reptilia, viz. of two auricles and one ventricle. The auricles 
appear to form externally one large and remarkably fimbriated cavity, 
situated behind, and advancing forwards, on both sides of the ventricle 
and bulbus arteriosus. The venous blood is poured into a large mem- 
branous sinus by one posterior and two anterior vente cava prior 
to passing into the auricle. The conjoined trunk of the pulmonary 
veins appears also to enter this sinus, but it passes through without 
communicating with that cavity, and terminates in a small separate 
auricle, which opens into the ventricle by an orifice distinct from, but 
close to, the orifice of the right auricle. In the ventricle a rudimen- 
tary septum was noticed as affording an indication of a type of forma- 



32 

tion superior to that of Fishes. In the hulbus arteriosus a longitudinal 
projection appears as a commencing division of the single artery, 
which is given off from the ventricle. 

The differences in the structure of the preceding parts, and in the 
origin and distribution of the different vessels exhibited by the other 
genera of Perennlbranchiata, were successively noticed ; and the affini- 
ties indicated by these modifications to the Caducibranchiate Reptiles 
on the one hand, and to the Cartilaginous Fishes on the other, were 
also pointed out. 

The Paper wa.s illustrated by drawings of the structures described 
in it. 



33 



May 13, 1834. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

A Note was read from Mrs. Barnes, in which it was stated that 
that lady had brought up from the nest two of the smallest species of 
Jamaica Humming-birds. They were so tame, that at a call they 
would fly to her, and perch upon her finger. Their food was sugar 
and water. During the passage to England one of them was killed 
by the cage in whicii they were kept being thrown down in a storm ; 
its companion drooped immediately, and died shortly afterwards. 

It was remarked that injury to the bird in consequence of such an 
accident might be prevented by the introduction of a gauze-net screen 
into the cage, at some little distance within the wires. 

Specimens were exhibited of several Mammalia from India, which 
had recently been presented to the Society by Lord Fitzroy Somer- 
set. They were brought under the notice of the Meeting by Mr. Ben- 
nett, who called particular attention to the skin of a Paradoxurus, 
which he regarded as that of Par. prehensilis, Gray, a species hitherto 
known only by a drawing of Dr. Hamilton's preserved in the East 
India House. 

The general colour of the animal is a pale greyish brown, in which 
longer black hairs are sparingly intermixed on the sides. On the 
back of the head and neck, and along the middle line of the back, 
these black hairs are almost the only ones that are visible. On the 
loins they form three indistinct black bands, of whicli the lateral are 
in some measure interrupted. The head is brownish, with the usual 
grey mark both above and below the eyes, and there are some short 
grey hairs between the eyes and across the forehead. The limbs are 
brownish black, rather darker towards their upper part. The tail, at 
its base, is of the same colour ar, the back, and rapidly becomes black ; 
its terminal fifth is yellowish white. The ears are rather large, and 
sparingly covered with short brownish hairs. 

Specimens were exhibited of three species of horned Pheasants, in- 
cluding the Tragopan Temminckii, Gray. In illustration of the hi- 
story of the latter bird, Mr. G. Bennett, Corr. Memb. Z.S., placed 
upon the table drawings of specimens observed by iiim at Macao, and 
showing the remarkable wattle in various degrees of development. He 
also read a note on the subject. 

In its contracted state the membrane has merely the appearance 
of a purple skin under the lower mandible ; and it is even sometimes 
so much diminished in size as to be quite invisible. It becomes de- 
veloped during the early spring montlis or pairing season of the year. 

No. XVn. — Proceedings of the Zoologic.\l Society. 



34 

from January to March, when it is capable of being displayed or con- 
tracted at the will of the bird. During excitement it is enlarged, falls 
over the breast, and exhibits the most brilliant colours, principally of 
a vivid purple, with bright red and green spots : the colours vary in 
intensity according to the degree of excitement. When they are 
most brilliant, or, in other words, when the excitement is great, the 
purple horns are usually elevated. The living specimens seen by 
Mr. G. Bennett were procured from the province of Yunnan, bor- 
dering on Thibet. Mr. Beale, in whose aviary at Macao they were, 
had nbt succeeded in obtaining females of this race. Its Chinese 
name is Tu Xou Nieu. 

Mr. G. Bennett also read a note on the habits of the King Penguin, 
Aptenodijtes Patachonica, Gmel., as observed by him on various occa- 
sions when in high southern latitudes. He described particularly a 
colony of these birds, which covers an extent of thirty or forty acres, 
at the north end of Macquarrie Island, in the South' Pacific Ocean. 
The number of Penguins collected together in this spot is immense, 
but it would be almost impossible to guess at it with any near ap- 
proach to truth, as, during the whole of the day and night, 30,000 or 
40,000 of them are continually landing, and an equal number going 
to sea. They are arranged, when on shore, in as compact a manner 
and in as regular ranks as a regiment of soldiers ; and are classed 
with the greatest order, the young birds being in one situation, the 
moulting birds in another, the sitting hens in a third, the clean birds 
in a fourth, &c. ; and so strictly do birds in similar condition congre- 
gate, that should a bird that is moulting intrude itself among those 
which are clean, it is immediately ejected from among them. 

The females hatch the eggs by keeping them close between their 
thighs ; and, if approached during the time of incubation, move away, 
carrying the eggs with them. At this time the male bird goes to sea 
and collects food for the female, which becomes very fat. After the 
young is hatched, both parents go to sea, and bring home food for 
it ; it soon becomes so fat as scarcely to be able to walk, the old 
birds getting very thin. They sit quite upright in their roosting- 
places, and walk in the erect position until they arrive at the beach, 
when they throw themselves on their breasts, in order to encounter 
the very heavy sea met with at their landing-place. 

Although the appearance of Pewguins generally indicates the neigh- 
bourhood of land, Mr. G. Bennett cited several instances of their 
occurrence at a considerable distance from any known land. 

The Secretary announced the recent addition to the Menagerie of 
the Perdix sphenura, Gray ; the Philippine Quail, Coturnix Sinensis, 
Cuv. ; and the Hemipodius DussumierijTemm,} : all presented to the 
Society by John Russel Reeves, Esq., of Canton. He added, that a 
second male specimen of the Reeves's Pheasant, Phasianus veneratus, 
Temm., had also been sent to the Menagerie by John Reeves, Esq. 
A pair of the middle tail-feathers of the last-named bird, measuring 
upwards of five feet in length, and presented by Wm. Craggs, Esq., 
were exhibited. 



35 

Numerous specimens were exhibited from Mr. Cuming's collec- 
tion, in illustrufion of a Paper by Mr. Broderip, entitled, " Descrip- 
tions of several New Species of Cdbjplrmda." 

The new species described in this paper are distributed and charac- 
terized as follows : 

Subgenus Calyptr^a. 
Testa subconica, subucuniinala, cyalhi basi adhserentc, lateribus 
liberis. 

a. Cyatho integro. 
Calyptb^ba rudis. Cul. testd fused, auidepressd, suborbiculari, ra- 
diatim corrugatd, limbo crenato ; cyatho concentrice lineato,alb'ido, 
irregulariter subcirculari ; epidermide subfuscd : diam. 2 poll, 
circiter, alt. -^. 
Hub. ad Panamam et Real Llejos. 

This species, whose white onyx-like cup, adhering only by its base, 
shows to great advantage against the ruddy brown which is the ge- 
neral colour of the inside of the protecting shell, was found under 
stones. The young shells are the flattest and most regular in form, but 
their inside is generally of a dirty white, dimly spotted with brown. — 
W. J. B. 

/3. Cyatho hemiconico, longiludinaliter quasi diviso. (Calyptreea, Less.) 
CALYPTHiE.\ CORBUGATA. Citl. testd subalbidd , suborblcuUtri, subde- 
presid, corrugatd ; intiis nitente ; cyatho concentrice Uneato, pro- 
ducto ; epidermide fused : diam. \-^ poU. circ, all. ~i%f. 
Hab. in America Centrali. (Guacomayo.) 
Found under stones at a depth of fourteen fathoms. — W. J, B. 

Calyptu^a varia. Cal. testd nlbidd, suborbiculari, crassiusculd, 
longiludinaliter creberrime striata ; cyatho concentrice Uneato, 
crassiusculo, producto : diam. \f, alt. max. 1, alt. min. -^ poll. 
Hab. in Oceano Pacifico. (Lord Hood's Island, the Gallapagos, 
and the Island of Muerte in the Bay of Guayaquil.) 

This is a very variable species allied to Cal. equestris, and taking 
almost every shape which a Calyptraa can assume. It difi'ers in 
thickness according to localities and circumstances. — W. J. B. 

Calyptr.sa ckpacea. Cal. testd alba, suborbiculari, subconcavd, 
tenui, diaphand, slriis numerosis subcorrugatd ; intus nitente ; 
cyathi lerminutionibus lanceolatis : long, \-r-j, lut. 1 i, tilt, i poll. 
Hab. in sinu Guayaquil. (Island of Muerte.) 

This was dredged up, adhering to dead shells, from sandy mud, at 
a depth of eleven fathoms. Besides other difierences, the terminat- 
ing points of the divided cyathus axe much more lanceolate than they 
are in Cal. varia. — W. J. B. 

CALYPTRiEA CORNEA. Cal. tsstd suborbiculori, complanatd, albidd, 
subdiaphand, concentric^ lineatd et radiaiim striatd ^ intUs ni- 
tente : diam, -I, alt. -j- poll. 

Hab. ad Aricam Ptruviae, 

Predged up from sandy mud at a depth of nine fathoms. — W.J. B. 



36 

Subgenus Calypeopsis, Less. 
Cyatho interno integro, lateialiter adliaerente. 

Calypth^ea badiata. Cal. Icstd conico- orbicular i, albida fusco ra- 
iliatd, striis longiludinaliliis crehris ; limbo crenulato ; apice acuta, 
subreciirvo ; cynllio depresso : diam. 1 , nit. ^V poll. 

Hah. in America Meridionali. (Bay of Caraccas.) 

The cup of this pretty species is pressed in, as it were, on one side, 
and adheres to the shell not only by its apex, but also by a lateral 
seam, which scarcely reaches to the rim of the cup. The apex of the 
younger specimens, both externally and internally, is e^enerally of a 
rich brown, and there can be little doubt that when first produced 
they are entirely of that colour. 

Found in sandy mud, on dead shells, at a depth of from seven to 
eight fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Calyptujea iMBincATA. Cal. testa albidd, crassd, suhconicd, avatd, 
coslis longitudinalibuset sqiiamis transversis imbricatd ; apice sub- 
incurvo, acuto ; limbo cretia to ; cyatho depresso : diam. \,lat.%, 
alt. I poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

Found on stones, in sandy mud, at a depth of from six to ten fa- 
thoms.— W. J. B. 

Calyptk.ea lignaria. Cal. testd crassd, fused, cleformi, striis cor- 
rugatd; apice promiitentesubadunco, acuto, posteriore : long. IxV, 
lat. 4, alt. -I poll. 

Hab. in America Central!. (Real Llejos.) 

The majority of individuals of this species have their shells so de- 
formed that they set description at defiance : the comparatively well- 
formed shell occurs so rarely that it may be almost considered as the 
exception to the rule. When in this last- mentioned state, the circum- 
ference of the shell is an irregular, somewhat rounded oval, and it 
rises into a shape somewhat resembling the back of Ancylus,-w'\\\\ the 
o/jea? very sharp and inclining downwards. The shell in this shape is 
generally less corrugated than it is in deformed individuals, though 
some of those are comparatively smooth ; but in both states the shell 
is striated immediately under the apex, and is for the most part cor- 
rugated on the other side of it. 

Found under stones. 

Var. fi. Enormiter conica, cyatho vald^ profundo. 

This variety is often one inch and six eighths in height, and its cup 
nearly one inch deep, while the diameter of the shell at the aperture 
does not exceed one inch. 

Found on shells at the Island of Chiloe, in sandy mud, at the depth 
of four fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Calyptr^ea tenuis. Cal. testd irregulari, tenia, subdiaphand, ere- 
berrime striata, albidd in terdum fusco pallide strigatd : diam. 1 
circ.i alt. -^ poll. 
Hab. ad Peruvise oras. (Samanco Bay.) 

Found on living shells, in muddy sand, at a depth of nine fathoms. 
— W. J. B. 



Ii7 

Calyptr^a HisPiDA. Cal. testa subovatd, suhconicd, albd strigis 
maculisque subpurpureo-fuscis vctrid, slriis frequentibus et spinis 
tubular ibus erectishispidd; limbo crenulato ; apice turhinato ; cya- 
tho suhdepresso : diam. !*, lat. -i\, alt.-,^„ poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Mueite. (Bay of Guayaquil.) 
This elegant species, the circumference of whose somewhat de- 
pressed cup is free, with the exception of one part where it adheres 
laterally, was found on dead shells, in sandy mud, at a depth of twelve 
fathoms.— W. J. B. 

Calyptr ea maculata. Cal. testd ovatd, albidd purpureo-fusco ma- 
culald, longiiudlnaliter rugosd ; limbo serrato ; apice subturbi- 
nato, subincurvo : diam. i-^, lat. tV. oH- v poll- 

Hab. ad Insulam Muerte. 

The external contour of this shell, more especially in the position 
of the subturbinated apex, much resembles that of Ancylus. The cir- 
cumference of the cup is free, excepting at one point, where it adheres 
laterally throughout its length. 

Found in sandy mud, on dead shells, at a depth of eleven fathoms. 
_W. J. B. 

Calyptk^a serrata. Cal. testd suborbiculari, albd subpurpureo 
vel fiisco interdum fucatd vet strigatd, costis longitudinalibus 
prominentibus rugosls ; limbo serrato ; apice subturbinato ; cyatho 
valde depresso : diam. ^, lat. -iV> «'<• tV poll. 

Hab. ad Real Llejos et Muerte. 

Var. testa alba. 

Found on dead shells, in a muddy bottom, at the depth of from six 
to eleven fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Subgenus Syphopatella, Less.? 
Laming interna subtrigona, subcirculari, latere dextro replicato. 

Calyptr^a sordida. Cal. testd subconicd, sordide luted, longitudi- 
nalite.r subradiatd ; apice turbinato ; cyatho depresso, subtrigono, 
haud profunda : diam. i^, lat. tV> oH' tV poll. 
Hab. ad Panamam. 

This species, the inside and outside of which are of a sordid yellow, 
is generally covered externally with coral or other marine adhesions. 
The plate is spoon-shaped. 

Found on stones, on a sandy bottom, at depth of twelve fathoms. — 
W. J. B. 

Calyptr^a Unguis. Cal. testd tenui, corded, corrugatd, fused; 
apice subturbinato ; cyatho depresso, subtrigono ; diam. -,V, alt. -it. 
poll. 
Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

The plate is spoon-shaped, but not so shallow as that of Cal. 
sordida. 

Found on shells, at a depth of from seven to fortv-five fathoms. — 
W. J. B. 

CALYPTRiEA LiciiEN. Cat. lestd albidd, interdum pallide fusco 



38 

sparsd, subdinphami , sulturbinatd , orhiculatd, complanatd : diam. 
■S-, nit. I poll. 
Hah. ad Insulam Muerte. 

Found on dead shells, in sandy mud, at a depth of eleven fathoms. 
— W. J. B. 

Calyptr^a MAMiLLARis. Col. testd albidd, subconicd ; apice sub- 
purpureo, mamillare : diam. -^, alt. -^y poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Muerte. 

This pretty species varies. It is sometimes milk white, with the 
mamillary apex of a brownish purple, and with the inside sometimes 
of that colour, sometimes white, and sometimes yellowish. In other 
individuals the white is mottled with purplish brown stripes and spots. 

Found on dead shells, in sandy mud, at a depth of eleven fathoms. 
— W. J. B. 

Calyptrjea STRIATA. Cal. tcstd sordid^ albd, suborbiculafd, subco- 
nicd, subturbinatd, striis longitxuUnalibus elcvatis creberrimis cor- 
rugatd ; intilsfusco-Jlavescente: diam. -\q-, alt. ^\r polL 

Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

Found on shells in sandy mud, at a depth of from forty-five to sixty 
fathoms. 

Calyptr^a conica. Cul. testd conicd, fused albido maeulatd, sub- 
turbinatd : diam. \^, alt. -fyy poll, 
Hab. ad Xipixapi et ad Salango. 
Found attached to shells in deep water. 

Subgenus Cri-.pipatklla, Less. 
Lamina, rotundatd, apice laterali et subterminali. 
Calyptr^a foliacka. Cal. testd suborbicnlari, albidd, foUaced ; 

intils castaned vel albd eastaneo varid : diam. 1 , alt. i poll. 
Hab. ad Aricam Peruviae, saxis adhaerens. 

This Crepipatella, which bears no remote resemblance to the upper 
valve of some of the Chamce when viewed from above, was found on 
exposed rocks near the shore. — W. J. B. 

Calyptr^a dorsata. Cal. testd svbalbidd, planittsculd, eostis longi- 
tudinalibus irregularibus rugosd ; intus medio fitsco-violaced : 
diam. i, lat.^ poll, 
Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

The back of this shell is not unlike the upper valve of some of the 
Terebratulee. 

Found on dead shells, in sandy mud, at a depth of six fathoms. — 
W. J. B. 

Calyptr^a dilatata, Lam., varietas intus nigro-castanea. Cal. 
testd sordid^ albd eastaneo strigatd ; intils nitide nigro- castaned ; 
lamindalbd: diam. \-^,lal. \^, alt. -i^ poll. 
Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

This highly coloured variety was found on exposed rocks at low 
water. The pure white of the plate shows to great advantage, lying 
above the rich back ground of the interior of the shell. In some in- 
dividuals this internal colour is all but black. — W. J. B. 



39 

Calyptr^a STRiGATA. Ccil. testct suhcorrugutd, sonlide ruhrd alio 
varid ; intus suhrufd interdum alhd vel nlbd rnbro-custaneo varid : 
diam. 1 poll, 

Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

This varies mucli both in colour and shape. Some of the specimens 
are quite flat, and the lamina almost convex. An obscure subar- 
cuate longitudinal whitish broad streak may be traced on the backs 
of most of them. It is not impossible that it may be a variety of Cat. 
dilatato. 

Found on Mytili at depths varying from three to six fathoms. — 
W. J. B. 

Calyptr^a Echinus. Cat. testd albidd violaceo maculatd, inter- 
dum fusca, striis longitudinaiibus creberrimis spinis fornicatis hor- 
ridd ; inihs Jlavente vel alba : diam. l-J-, lat. \^, alt. \ poll. 
Hnb. ad Peruviam. (Lobos Island.) 

In old specimens the spines are almost entirely worn down, and 
rough stri(F only, for the most part, remain. In this state it bears 
a great resemblance to the figure given of Crepidula fornicata in 
Sowerby's Genera of Shells, No. 23, f . 1 . 
Found under stones at low water. — VV. J. B. 

Calyptr^a Hystuix. Col. .lordide albd vel fused, complanatd, 
longiludinaliter striatd, spinis magnis fornicatis apertis seriatim 
dispositis ; intus albidd, interdum castuneo maculatd: diam. Jj-, 
lat. I, alt. 1 poll. 
Hab. ad Peruviam. (Lobos Island.) 

Approaching the last, but difl'ering in being always more flatiened, 
in the comparatively great size of the vaulted spines, and in the com- 
paratively wide interval between them ; still I would not be ])ositive 
that they are not all varieties of Crepidula aculeata. Lam. — W. J. B. 

Calyptr^a pallida. Cal. testd sordid^ albd, ovatd ; apice promi- 

nente : diam. I, lat. ^, alt. i poll. 
Hab. ad Insulas Falkland dictas. 
Found under stones. — W. J. B. 

Subgenus Crepidula, Less. 
Lamina subrecta, apice postico et submedio. 

Crkpidula unguiformis. Lam., varietas complanato-recurva : 
long. 1 1, lat. I- poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Chiloen et ad Panamam. 

This variety affords a good example of the powers of adaptation of 
the animal. The shell is either flattened or concave on the back, and 
recurved in consequence of its adhesion to the inside of dead shells 
of Ranella Fexillum, calata, &c. 

It was dredged from sandy mud, at a depth ranging from four to 
ten fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Calyptr^a Lkssonii. Cal. testd complanatd, subconcentrice folia- 
cedffoliis tenuibus, albdfusco Ion gitudina liter strigatd ; intus al- 
bidd ; limbo inlerno interdum fusco cilia to-strigato : long. l-^V, lat. 
-14-, alt. ipoll. 



40 

Hub. in sinu Guayaquil. (Isle ot Muerte.) 

This beautiful species, which I have named in honour of M. Lesson, 
was found under stones :it low water. It will remind the observer of 
the upper valves of some of the ChamcE. — W. J. B. 

Calyptr^a iNCURVA. Cal. testd fusco nigricante, tortuosd, corru- 
gatd ; intHs nigricante, septo albo ; apice adunco: long. %, lat. ^j-, 
alt. -i- poll. 
Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam et ad Xipixapi. 

Found on dead shells dredged from sandy mud, at a depth ranging 
from six to ten fathoms. — W. J. B. 

CalyptrjEA excavata. Cal. testd crassiusculd, subtortuosd, lavi, 
albidd vel subfavd fusco punctata et strigntd ; intiis albdvel albd 
fusco fucatd, limbo interdum fusco ciliato-strigato : long. 1 i, 
tat. 14^, alt. I- poll. 
Hab. ad Real Llejos. 

This species is remarkable for the depth of the internal margin be- 
fore it reaches the septum. In Crepidula adunca, Sow., this depth is 
even greater than it is in Crep. excavata. The apex is close to the 
margin, and obliquely turned towards the right side. — W. J. B. 

Calyptr^a arenata. Cal. testd subovatd, albidd rubro-fusco cre- 
berrime punctatd ; infils subrubrd vel albidd subrubro maculatd, 
septo albo .- long. I ^, lat. ^, alt. nV poll. 
Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

This approaches Crep. porcellana. The septum is somewhat distant 
from the margin, and the apex, which is also somewhat distant from 
it, is obtuse and obliquely turned towards the right side. 

From sandy mud, on shells, at a depth ranging from six to eight 
fathoms.— W. J. B. 

Calyptr«a marginams. Cal. testd subovatd, sublavi vel vix cor- 
rugatd, subfldvd vel albidd fusco strigatd ; intus nigricante vel 
Jiavd fusco strigatd, septo albo: long. 1^, lat. 4^, alt. -r\ poll. 
Hab. ad Panamam et ad Insulam Muerte. 

This species was found on stones and sliells, in sandy mud, at a 
depth ranging from six to ten fathoms. The white septum shows 
beautifully against the black-brown of the interior. The apex is al- 
most lost in the margin, and is (directed towards the right side. — 
W. J. B. * 

Calyptr^a squama. Cal. testd suborbiculari, complanatd, sublavi, 
subtenui, pallidejlavd vel albidd fusco substrigatd; intus subjlavd 
vel subjlavd fusco strigatd: long. 1, lat. -}-|-, alt. -tt^ poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

The apex of this very flat species is lost in the margin. Found under 
stones. — W. J. B. 



41 



May 27, 1834. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A Letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by Sir R. Ker Por- 
ter, Corr. Memb. Z. S., dated City of Caracas, April 7, 1 834. It 
related chiefly to a Monkey, and to some Tortoises, recently presented 
to the Society by the writer. 

The Monkey is described in detail. It is the Pithecia sagulata, the 
jacketed Monkey or Siviia sagulata of Dr. Traill. Sir R. Ker Porter 
points out the several differences in colouring which exist between 
this individual and the published description by the Baron Humboldt 
of the Pithecia Chiropotes : these consist chiefly in the comparative 
paleness of its back, and the greater darkness of the remainder of its 
body and of its bushy beard. He adds that the animal drinks fre- 
quently, always bending down on its hands, and putting its mouth 
to the surface of the water, heedless apparently of wetting its beard, 
and indifl'erent to the observations of lookers-on : he never saw it 
take up water in the hollow of its hand, and carry it in this manner 
to its mouth in order to drink. Its favourite fruit is the apple ; and 
it does not refuse the pinion of a roasted chicken. Its voice is a 
weak and chirping whistle, which becomes shrill and loud when the 
animal is angry. It was obtained from the vicinity of the Orinoco, 
not far distant from the Rio Negro, in the heart of Guiana. It is 
known as the Mono Capuchino. 

The Tortoises are referable to the Testudo carbonarin, Spix. 

The Secretary announced that there had recently been added to the 
Menagerie a white-crested Cockatoo, Plyctolophus cristatits, Vieill.; 
- and a pair of the blue Jay, Garrulus cristatus, Cuv. 

He also stated that there had been acquired for the Menagerie a 
Rhinoceros of the one-horned species of Continental India. It is said 
to be about four years old. Its height at the loins, the highest part 
of the back, is 4 feet 10^ inches ; its length, from the root of the tail 
to the tip of the nose, measured in a straight line, is 10 feet 6 inches j 
its weight is about 26 cwt. 



o 



A specimen was exhibited of the young of the Sandwich Island 
Goose, Bernicla Sandvicensis, Vig., which was hatched at Knowsley. 
It was accompanied by the following note from the President, Lord 
Stanley. 

" Through the kindness of Jolin Reeves, Esq., I received at 
Knowsley a pair of these birds on the 15th of February, 1834. 



4.2 

They did not at first, when turned out on the pond among tlie other 
water-fowl, appear to take much notice of each other ; but some 
workmen being at the time employed about the pond, one of the 
birds (I think, from recollection, it was the male,) seemed to have 
formed some sort of attachment to one of the men working. When- 
ever he was present the goose was always near to him, and whenever 
absent at his dinner, or when otherwise employed, the bird appeared 
restless, and gave vent to its solicitude by frequent cries, which as 
well as the anxiety, always ceased with the reappearance of the 
workman. 

" The man having frequently occasion to pass through a door, which 
was obliged to be kept open, it was feared that the attachment of the 
animal might lead to its following its friend, and that on its exit, it 
might fall in with and be worried or stolen by vermin, and in conse- 
quence the pair of geese were confined in one of tlie divisions adja- 
cent to, but divided from, the pond, on February 26. 

" Within this small inclosure, in the sheltered half of it, in one 
corner, stood a small hutch, in which the female on the 5th of March 
laid her first egg. Till within a few days of that period no alteration 
took place in their manners, but it then became obvious that the male 
was jealous of intruders, and would run at and seize them by the 
trowsers, giving pretty sharp blows with his wings ; but this always 
ceased if he observed that the female was at some distance, when 
he would instantly rejoin her : his return to the female was always 
accompanied by great hurry and clamour, and much gesticulation up 
and down of his head, but not of the wings. Three other eggs followed 
on the 7th, 9th, and 1 ith of March. The eggs were white, and very 
large in proportion to the size of the bird, being, I should imagine, 
(for, having no proper scales at hand, 1 did not weigh or subtract any 
of them, hoping that more might be laid,) fully equal to those of the 
Swan Goose or Anas cygnoules. The goose also surprised us by the 
rapidity of her operations, for we were hardly aware of the fourth egg 
having been laid that morning, when it was evident that she had be- 
gun to sit. During the whole period of incubation there could not 
be a more attentive nurse, and indeed she could not well help it, for 
the male, if she seemed inclined to stay out longer than he thought 
right, appeared, by his motions, to be bent on driving her bacjf, nor 
was he satisfied till he had accomplished his object, when he again 
resumed his usual position, with his body half in half out of the 
hutch and his head towards the female ; but if any person cro.ssed the 
yard of the division, he would immediately hurry after the intruder, 
though, if he found there was no intention of molesting the nursery, 
he seemed generally satisfied, and did not like to quit the sheltered 
part of the division. At nigh; he constantly made room for himself 
by the female, the result of which was unfortunate towards the pro- 
geny. 

" On the 12th of April the eggs began to chip, and on the 13th 
two goslings were excluded ; but it was found that the mother had 
pushed from under her the other two eggs, which were consequently 
taken away and put under a hen, though, as one was very nearly 



43 

cold, little hopes of any success with that were entertained, and it was 
in fact never hutched, but probably died in consequence of the re- 
moval by the goose at an important moment. On the morning of the 
14th it was ascertained that she or the male, who always now sat 
close beside her in the box, had killed one of the two she had at first 
hatched, for it was found dead and perfectly flat. The fourth egg, 
which was put under the hen, was assisted out of the shell, and ap- 
peared weakly from the first, and as its mother had lost one, we put 
it to her, in hopes it would do better than with its nurse. She took 
to it at first very well ; but subsequently, both the parents beating it, 
it was returned to, and well cared for, apparently, by its nurse, but 
died on the 20th, having received some injury in one eye, either from 
the old ones, or perhaps from the hen scratching, and thereby hitting 
it. The remaining gosling is doing very well, and appears strong 
and lively, and the parents are extremely attentive to it ; and I have 
little doubt but these birds may easily be established, (with a little 
care and attention,) and form an interesting addition to the stock of 
British domesticated fowls. 

" In its general appearance, and its Quaker-like simplicity of plum- 
age, it seems to approximate most to the family of the Bernacles j but 
it appears to have almost as little (if as much) partiality for the water 
as the Cereopsis." 

The bird in question was named by Mr. Vigors at the Meeting of 
the Society on June 1 1 , 1833. It may be characterized as follows : 

Bernicla Sanijvicensis. Bern, brunneo-nigrescens, subtiis mar- 
ginibusque plumarum pallidioribus ; collo albescenti ; guld, facie, 
capite superne, linedque longitudinali nuchali nigris ; crisso albo. 

Long. tot. 24 unc. ; rostri, rictus, I4- ; alee, 134 j caudee, 5; tarsi, 

Hub. in insulis Sandvicensibus, et in Owhyhee. 

Mr. Owen read a Paper " On the young of the Ornithorhynchus 
paradoxus, Blum." It was illustrated by drawings of the young ani- 
mal and of various details of its structure, both external and internal, 
derived chiefly from the examination of the individual recently pre- 
sented to the Society by Dr. Weatherhead : this individual was ex- 
hibited, as was also a smaller specimen, forming part of Dr. Weather- 
head's collection. 

The circumstances which first attract attention in these singular 
objects are the total absence of hair ; the soft and flexible condition 
of the mandibles ; and the shortness of these parts in proportion to 
their breadth as compared with the adult. The tongue, which in 
the adult is lodged far back in the mouth, advances in the young ani- 
mal close to the end of the lower mandible, and its breadth is only 
one line less in an individual four inches in length than it is in fully 
grown animals : a disproportionate development which is plainly in- 
dicative of the importance of the organ to the young Ornithorhynchus 
both in receiving and swallowing its food. 

On the middle line of the upper mandible, and a little anterior to 
the nostrils, there is a minute fleshy eminence lodged in a slight de- 



44 

pression. In the smaller specimen this is surrounded by a discon- 
tinuous margin of the epidermis, with which substance, therefore, — 
and, probably, from its having been shed, of a thickened or horny con- 
sistence, — the caruncle had been covered. It is a structure of which 
the upper mandible of the adult presents no trace, and Mr. Owen re- 
gards it as analogous to the fcetal peculiarity of the horny knob on the 
upper mandible of the Bird. He does not, however, conceive that 
this remarkable example of the affinity of Ornilhorhynchus to the fea- 
thered clas.s is necessarily indicative of its having been applied, under 
the same circumstances, to overcome a resistance of precisely the 
same character as that for which it is designed in the young bird, 
since all the known history of the ovum of Ornilhorhynchus points 
strongly to its ovoviviparous development. 

The situation of the eyes is indicated by the convergence of a few 
wrinkles to one point ; but the integument is continuous, and com- 
pletely shrouds the eyeball. In the absence of vision in the young 
animal, strong evidence is afforded of its being confined to the nest, 
there to receive its nourishment from its dam ; and this deduction is 
corroborated by tlie cartilaginous condition of the bones of the ex- 
tremities, and by the general form of the body : the head and tail are 
closely approximated on the ventral aspect, requiring force to pull the 
body into a straight line ; and the relative quantity of integument on 
the back and belly shows that the position necessary for progressive 
motion is unnatural at this stage of growth. 

Mr. Owen describes other external appearances of the young Orni- 
Ihorhynchus, and then enters at considerable length into its anatomy. 
The stomach is nearly as large in an individual four inches in length 
as in the adult animal. In this specimen it was found filled with 
coagulated milk, and no trace was visible, on the most careful exa- 
mination, of worms or bread, on which, up to the time of his dis- 
covery of the mammary secretion, Lieut, the Hon. Lauderdale Maule 
had believed that this individual had been sustained. A portion of 
this coagulated substance was diluted with water, and examined un- 
der a high magnifying power in comparison with a portion of cow's 
milk coagulated by spirit, and similarly diluted. The ultimate glo- 
bules of the Ornithorhynchus' s milk were most distinctly perceptible, 
detaching themselves from the small coherent masses to form new 
groups : the corresponding globules of the cow's milk were of larger 
size. Minute transparent globules of oil were intermixed with the 
milk globules of the Ornithorhynchus. A drop of water being added 
to a little mucus, it instantly became opake ; and its minutest divi- 
sions, under the microscope, were into transparent angular flakes, en- 
tirely different from the regularly formed granules of the milk of the 
Ornithorhynchus. 

In passing in review the several viscera of the young Ornithorhyn- 
chus, Mr. Owen observed on various physiological deductions which 
might be drawn from them, and on the differences and resemblances 
borne by them to the same organs in the ordinary viviparous Mam. 
malia and in the Marsupiata. 



45 



June 10, 1834. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

A collection of objects of Zoology, made by Lieut. Allen, R.N., 
Corr. Menib. Z. S., during his late expedition up the Quorra into 
the interior of Africa, and presented by him to the Society, was exhi- 
bited. It was accompanied by another collection formed by the same 
gentleman at Fernando Po. They comprehended a previously un- 
described species of Plover; an undescribed Telrodon and a Myletes; 
specimens of Polypterus Senegalus, Cuv., and of a Gymnarchus, Ej. j 
and specimens of the three- horned Chamacleon, Chamceleo Oweni, 
Gray, and of a Galago, Galago Senegalensis, Geoff.; the two latter 
being from Fernando Po. They also included numerous Insects and 
Arachnkla, both from the interior and from the island. 

The bird was characterized by Mr. Gould : 

Vanellus albiceps. Van. capite, gidd, alls in medio, uropygio, 
ventre, crissoque albis ; faciei lateribus collogue purpurascenti- 
cinereis; scapularibus, remigibus prioribus tribus, caudecque di- 
midio apicali nigris. 

Long. tot. arostri ad caudae apicem, 13 unc, a rostri ad digitorum 
apicem, 15 unc. ; alee, 8; caudce, 4; tarsi, 3 ; femoris, 3j rostri, 
a rictu ad apicem, l^. 

Rostrum viridi-aurantiacum, ad apicem nigrum. 

Between the eye and the upper mandible is situated a fleshy sub- 
stance (resembling that of the common Cock) which hangs down at 
right angles with the beak ; it is of an orange colour, and is narrow 
in form, being one inch and a half long and half an inch wide at the 
base, whence it gradually tapers throughout its whole length to the 
tip. The spur on the shoulders is strong and sharp, and is nearly an 
inch in length. 

The Fishes were characterized by Mr. Bennett, who remarked on 
the complete analogy borne by these species of the rivers of Western 
Africa to some of those of the Nile. The form of Myletes, Cuv., to 
which Lieut. Allen's fish belongs, has hitherto been obtained only in 
Egypt; the genus Polypterus, Geoff., originally observed in the 
Nile, seems to be limited to that river and to Senegal ; the genus 
Gymnarchus, Cuv., has previously been noticed only in the Nile; and 
the Telrodon of this collection resembles in its markings that of 
Egypt. The new species may be thus characterized : 

Myletes Allenii. Myl. oblongus ; pinnd dorsali primd supra 

ventrales positd. 
D. 10,0. A. 14. C. 19. P. 15. V. 9. 

Specimen minimum, biunciale, a Myl. Hasselquistii, Cuv., (^Sal- 
mo Dentev, Hass.,) differre videtur situ pinnae dorsalis primae. 
No. XVIll, — Proceedings of tuk Zoological Society. 



46 

Tetrodon strigosus. Telr. dorso hispido, nigrescente ; ventre 
lateribusque Icevibus, his alio nigroque longitudinaliter Uneatis, 
illo albo : pinnd caudali quadratd; pectoralibus late rotundatis. 
D. 12. A. 9. P. 19. C. 8. 

Tetr.Uneato. Linn., (Tetr. Physa, GeoS.,) analogus videtur. Dif- 
fert maxima ventre lateribusque baud armatis. 

The exhibitiori was resumed of the new species of Shells collected 
by Mr. Cuming on the western coast of South America and among 
the islands of the South Pacific Ocean. Those brought on the pre- 
sent evening under the notice of the Society were accompanied by 
characters by Mr. G. B. Sowerby. They belonged to the 

Genus Petricola. 

Petricola kluptica. Pet.tesld ovato-elUpticu,rufescenti-albidd; 
radiatim costatd, poslici lavi ; lamellis cone entricis spar sis ; lu- 
nuld untied distinctd : long. 1-2, lot. 07, alt. 0-9 poll. 

Hob. ad Paytam. 

Found in hard mud at low water. — G. B. S. 

Petricola oblonga. Pef. testd oblongo-ellipticd, pallescente ; 
radiatim costellutd ; lined dorsali posticd rectiusculd; lamellis 
concentricis pluribus, postici lavigatis : long. 0'9, lat. O'b, alt. 
07 poll. 

Hub. ad oras Peruvise. (Pacosmayo.) 

Found in hard mud at low water. — G. B. S. 

Petricola solioa. Pet. testd subgloboso-ellipticd, pallescente, 
umbonibus extremitatibusque ambabus fusco-violaceis ; radiatim 
costatd, postici Icevigatd ; Uneis incrementi nonnunquam subla- 
viellosis, posticd magis eminentibus : long. 1*3, lat. 0'8, alt. 
10 poll. 
Hab. ad oras Peruviae. (Lambeyeque.) 
Found in hard clay and stones at low water. — G. B. S. 

Petricola discoks. Pet. testd oblongo-ellipticd, brunnescente; ra- 
diatim costellutd, costellisacutis, postice lavi ; lined dorsali redd : 
long. 0-8, lat. 0'3, alt. 0-55 poll. 

Hab. ad littora Peruviae. (Lambeyeque.) 

Found in hard clay. — G. B. S. 

Petricola concinna. Pet. testd oblongd, pholadiformi, albicante ; 
concentrice costellutd; antice rotundatd, radiatim sulcatd ; dorso 
declivi, allerius valves lamelld Icevigald ; postici acuminatiusculd , 
colesllis concentricis lamellosis, confertis: long. 0*8, lat. 0-35, 
alt. 0-35 poll. 

Hab. ad Montem Christi. 

Only one perfect pair and a single valve could be preserved. 

Found in hard clay at low water.— G. B. S. 

Petricola denticulata. Pet. testd oblongd, pholadiformi, ex- 
iiis pallescente, intds ad extremitates fusco-nigricnnte tinctd ; 
antice siibrostratd , posiici rotundatd} lined dorsali rectiusaila. 



47 

ventrali subprominuld ; omninh radiatim sulcatd et concentrice 
striatd, striis antice sublamellosis denticulatis : long. 1*3, lat. 0'6, 
alt. 0*6 poll. 

Hub. ad Paytam Peruviae. 

Found in hard clay and stones at low water,— G. B. S. 

Var. abbreviata. Testa breviore, striis sublamellosis denticulatis 

nullis : long. I'l, lat. 0'6, alt. 0'6 poll. 
Hub. ad Insulam Platae. 
Found in stones at low water. — G. B. S. 

Petkicola rugosa. Pet. testd oblongd, pholadiformi, albicante ; 
radiatim costellatd, tenuissime concentrice striata; marginibus 
plerumque deformibus : long. 1*4, lat. 0"55, alt. 0'7 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Chilenses. (Conception.) 

Found in Balani?ii from three to seven fathoms depth. — G.B. S. 

Petricola tenuis. Pet. testd oblongd, pholadiformi, tenui, al- 
bicante ; radiatim costellatd, costellis anticis posticisque fortio' 
ribus, omnibus striis exilissimis rugulosis decussatis; latere antico 
brevissimo : long. 1', lat. 0*5, alt. 55 poll. 

Hab. ad littora Peruviae, (Lambeyeque & Pacosmayo,) 

Found in hard clay at low water. — G, B. S. 

Petricola robcsta. Pet. testd rotundato-subtrigond, subgibbosd, 
solidiusculd, extHs rufescente-fuscd, intHs nigricante; radiatim 
costatd, costis anticis tenuioribus confertioribus, posticis altio- 
ribus ; interstitiis omnibus exilissime decussatim striatis; latere 
antico rotundato, postico subacuminato ; margins dorsali declivi : 
long. 1-2, lat. 0-8, alt. 0-9 poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam et ad Insulam Muerte dictara. 

Found in rocks at the depth of from six to eleven fathoms, — G. B. S. 

Petricola amygdalina. Pet. testd tenui, subhyalind, Jlavescente, 
obovatd, Icevi ; latere antico brevissimo, angustiore ; postico Ion- 
giore, altiore, lamellis nonnullis elevatis distantibus omato : 
long. 1-3, lat. 0-5, alt. 0-8 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

Found in Mother. of -Pearl Shells in from three to six fathoms at 
Lord Hood's Island.— G,B.S, 

The following " Description of a new Genus of Gasteropoda, by 
W.J, Broderip, Esq,, Vice President of the Geological and Zoological 
Societies, F.R.S., &c." was read. 

Scutella. 

Testa Ancyliformis, intils nitens. Apex posticus, medius, invo- 
lutus. Impressiones musculares duee, oblongo-ovatae, laterales, 
Apertura magna, ovata. 

Animal marinum. 

This genus appears to be intermediate between Ancylus and Patella, 
while the aspect of the back sometimes reminds the observer of Navi- 
cella or Crepidula, Lam, Its place will most probably be among 
the Cyclobranches of Cuvier. 



48 

The two muscular impressions are situated on each side of the in- 
terior a little below the summit ; while, in Patella, they nearly 
surround the internal circumference of the same part of the shell. 
The aperture is generally surrounded by a margin, and the apex, 
which in Ancylus is oblique, is central though posterior. 

Mr. Cuming brought home the following species which I now pro- 
ceed to describe. 

ScuTELLA CRENULATA. Scut. testd subcouicd, concelUitd, striis ah 
apice radiantibus exasperatis, albd; intiXs nitente ; annulo mar- 
ginali et margine crenulalis : long, f , lat. ^, alt. -rV poll. 

Hab. ad insulam Anaan (Chain Island), 

This shell was found dead on coral sand on the beach of the island 
at a distance from any fresh water. 

The marginal ring is very strongly developed, and the margin it- 
self is not even ; for when the shell is placed with the aperture down- 
wards on a fiat surface, it rests on the two ends> the sides of the 
margin forming each a low arch. 

ScuTELLA iRiuESCENS. Scut. testd oblougO'Ovatd, complauatd, mi- 
nutissime substriatd, albo et rosea guttatim tessellatd ; intus iri- 
descente, margine interno albo, roseomaculato : long. -r\, lat^ i^, 
alt. -rV poll. 
Hab. in Oceano Pacifico. (Grimwood's Island.) 
This species was gathered by Mr. Cuming on the sands when the 
tide was out. There was no fresh water near, and though he obtained 
several individuals in the finest condition, the soft parts were gone, 
having evidently but lately fallen a prey to some carnivorous crea- 
ture. 

The shape of Scut, iridescens is very elegant, and the silvery iri- 
descent nacre which lines the inside of the shell, contrasted- as it is 
with the less brilliant but lively coloured margin, is almost dazzling. 
The back of the shell, which is very brittle, is mottled with white and 
rose colour. This disposition of its markings almost conveys the im- 
pression that the surface of the back is uneven ; but with the excep- 
tion of the very minute strice, which are almost imperceptible, it is 
smooth. 

ScuTELLA ROSEA. Scut. testd' xubcouicd , siriatd, albd, lineisjlam- 
mulisque roseis ornatd; intiis nitente, interdum suhiridescente : 
long. -J-, lat. iV, alt, tV poll. 

Obs. Varietas forsan prsecedentis, 

Hab. cum praecedente. 

The shape and many other points in this shell differ from those of 
Scut, iridescens. Externally it is much more conical and the strite 
which run from the apex to the interior margin are direct and minute, 
while those which are lateral are much coarser and cross the some- 
what elevated white parts obliquely: in Scut, iridescens, the exceed- 
ingly minute strice radiate evenly from the apex. In Scut, rosea we 
lose the brilliancy of the internal nacre which distinguishes Scut, 
iridescens, and, in some individuals, it is entirely absent. Still the 



49 

former mav only be a variety of the latter : both were found to- 
gether.— W. J. B. 

Tne Shells described in this communication were exhibited. 

A note by Mr..G. Bennett, Corr. Memb. Z.S., was read. It gave 
an account of a Pelican now living in the grounds of Mr. Rawson at 
Dulwich, which wounded itself just above the breast to such an ex- 
tent as to expose a spacious cavity. The bandages applied to the 
part were repeatedly torn off by the bird for the space of ten days, at 
the expiration of which the wound was healed. During the whole of 
the time the bird was in perfect health; eating fish and drinking as 
usual. The scar of the wound is still readily observable. 



50 



June 24, 1834. 
Joseph Sabine, Esq., Vice President, in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by Keith E. Abbott, 
Esq., and dated Trebizond, Dec. 10, 1833. It referred principally 
to a collection of objects of Zoology formed by the writer in his neigh- 
bourhood and presented by him to the Society^ and contained notices 
of other objects which he expects to be able to procure and 
transmit. 

It also gave some account of " the famous honey of Trebizond, which 
is spoken of by Xenophon in his history of the retreat of the ten thou- 
sand Greeks, as having produced the effect of temporary madness or 
rather drunkenness on the whole of the army who ate of it, without, 
however, causing any serious consequences. It is supposed to be 
from the flowers of the Azalea Pontica that the Bees extract this 
honey, that plant growing in abundance in this part of the country, 
and its blossom emitting the most exquisite odour. The effect which 
it has on those who eat it is, as I have myself witnessed, precisely 
that which Xenophon describes : when taken in a small quantity it 
causes violent head-ache and vomiting, and the unhappy individual 
who has swallowed it resembles as much as possible a tipsy man ; a 
larger dose will completely deprive him of all sense and power of 
moving for some hours afterwards." A portion of the honey accom- 
panied the letter, and was exhibited. 

The other objects presented by Mr. Keith Abbott were also exhibited. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Gould brought the Birds se- 
verally under the notice of the Meeting. Their principal interest 
rested on the assistance afforded by a collection formed in such a loca- 
lity towards the determination of the geographical limits of certain 
species. Those among the Birds of Europe which are found in India 
also would, it is reasonable to anticipate, occur in the intermediate 
locality of Trebizond ; but there are, among the Trebizond Birds, 
various European species which do not, as far as is yet known, occur 
in India, and the existence of which in so eastern a range is conse- 
quently interesting. 

The following species are contained in the Trebizond collection 
presented to the Society by Mr. Keith Abbott. The remarks as to 
the localities inhabited by them respectively are by Mr. Gould. 

1. Aquila pennata. Inhabiting eastern Europe and the adjacent 
parts of Asia and Africa. 

2. Buteo vulgaris, Bechst. European j but not previously observed 
in Asia, although there is a nearly allied species in the Himalayan 
mountains. It has not yet been noticed in Africa. 

3. Circus ceruginosus. European, Indian, and African. 

4. Circus cyaneus. European, African, Indian, Chinese, and North 
American specimens present no apparent specific differences. 



31 

5. Circus cineraceus. European, Indian, and African. 

6. Coracias garrula, Linn. Inhabiting Europe, and abundantly 
Northern Africa ; but hitherto not observed in India. 

7. Lanius Collurio, Linn. Hitherto not obtained from India. 

8. Cinclus aquaticus, Bechst, Hitherto not obtained from any lo- 
cality so far to the east as Trebizond. 

9. Saxicola CEnanthe, Bechst. Similarly circumstanced with the 
last. 

10. Parus major, Linn. Also similarly circumstanced. 

11. Parus biarmicus, Linn. European, and of Eastern Asiaj but 
hitherto not observed in India. 

12. Pyrgita domestica, Cuv. European, and obtained also from 
the Nubian mountains, as well as from the Himalayan and from other 
parts of India. 

13. Carduelis communis, Cuv. Not hitherto observed in India. 

14. Emheriza miliaria, Linn. Previously not obtained from any 
locality so far to the east as Trebizond. 

15. Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. Common to the three continents of 
the old world. 

16. Troglodytes communis, Cuv. Not hitherto observed in India. 

17. Tichodroma muraria, 111. Inhabiting the South of Europe, 
and found also in the Himalayan mountains, but not in the low lands 
of India. 

18. Otis Tetrax, Linn. Inhabiting Europe and Africa, but not 
India. 

19. CEdicnemus crepitans, Cuv. Similarly circumstanced with the 
last. 

20. Vanellus ? A young bird of a species apparently un- 

described. 

21. Tringa variabilis, Meyer. European and American; but hi- 
therto not observed in India or Africa. 

22. Tringa pugnax, Linn. European and Chinese. 

23. Totanus Glottis, Bechst. Not hitherto observed in India or 
Africa. 

24. Botaurus stellaris. Inhabiting the three continents of the old 
world. 

25. Sterna Hirundo, Linn. Inhabiting Europe and America, but 
not observed in India. 

26. Sterna leucoptera, Temm. Hitherto not observed out of Eu- 
rope. 

27. Tadorna Vulpanser. Similarly circumstanced with the pre- 
ceding. 

28. Anas Boschas, Linn. Almost universal. 

Mr. Keith Abbott states that in addition to the above-named birds 
he has shot at Trebizond the following : 
Falco rufipes, Bechst, 
Oriolus Galbula, Linn. 
Pastor roseus, Teram. 
Pterocles arenarius, Temm. 
Totanus Calidris, Bechst. 



52 

Totanus ochropus, Temm. 
Anas Tutila, Pall. 

At the request of the Chairman Capt. Stoddart exhibited, with 
the permission of the Committee of the Naval and Military Museum, 
three Birds forming part of that collection. These were the Columba 
spiloptera, Vig. ; the Tetraognllus Nigellii, Gray; and a new species 
of Numida, Linn., remarkable for the nakedness of the head and of 
the greater part of the neck ; for the possession of long hackled fea- 
thers round the base of the neck and on the breast ; and for the ab- 
sence of caruncle on the head. The latter bird was accompanied by 
a detailed description by Major-General Hardwicke, which was read. 
In it the author pointed out the distinctive characters between this 
new species and the several previously described birds of the genus 
Numida. It may be characterized as follows : 

Numida vultukina. Nuju. capite hand cristato coUique parte an- 
teriore nudis, occipile tanttlm hrunnen-plumoso ; colli inferioris 
pectorisque plumis elongatis, lanceolatis, coeruleo yiigroque variis, 
vittd albd mediand notatis ; brunneo-nigra, albo guttata, Jas- 
ciata, et lineata. 
Long, a rostri ad caudas apicem, 18 unc; ad digiti medii apicem, 
24 ; rostri, 2 unc. 

Rostrum brunneo-rubrum. 

The specimen was brought by Capt. Probyn from the Western 
Coast of Africa. From the injured condition of the tail- and wing- 
feathers it is evident that it had been kept in confinement, and it has 
the appearance of having been under the influence of mouUing when 
it died. 

Mr. Sabine called the attention of the Meeting to a specimen of a 
hybrid Bird between the common Pheasant, Phasianus Colchicus, 
Linn., and the grey hen, Tetrao Tetrix, Linn., which was exhibited. 
Its legs were partially feathered ; it bore, on the shoulder, a white 
spot ; and its middle tail-feathers were lengthened. Mr. Sabine 
stated his intention of entering at some length into the history of 
hybrid and cross animals in connexion with his description of this 
bird. It was bred in Cornwall. 

A specimen was exhibited of a Bat captured in New Holland by 
George Bennett, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. S. It was brought under 
the notice of the Meeting by Mr. Gray, who regarded it as previously 
undescribed. He characterized it as 

Rhinolophus mkgaphyllus. Rhin. prosthemate posteriore ovato- 
lanceolato, faciem latitudine subcequante ; pallid'^ murinus ; pa- 
tagiis subnudis pills parcis albis subtils prope corpus instructis. 
"Long, humeri, l'2^1in.; ulnee, 224- ,• pollivis cum ungue, 4 ; tibia, 
9 ; pedis, 5 j calcaris, t> ; cauda, 12. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandia, in cavernis prope fluvium Moorumbidjee 
dictum. 



53 

" Tlie hinder nose-leaf is bristly, ovate-lanceolate^ nearly as broad 
at the base as the face, with a rather produced tip; the septum of the 
nose is grooved ; and the front leaf expanded with a quite free mem- 
branaceous edge. The head is elongated ; the face depressed ; the 
muzzle rounded ; the ears are large, reaching when bent down 
rather beyond the tip of the nose. The fur is soft and of a pale 
mouse colour. The membranes are dark and naked, with rather di- 
stant whitish hair on the under side near the sides of the body. 

" This Rat is very nearly allied to the true European Rhinolophi, 
and agrees with them in having four cells at the base of the hinder 
nose-leaf, and distant pectoral teats. It differs from them in having a 
much broader nose-leaf. The pits on the nose and the distant teats 
are not found in the other Rhinolophi, which have no hinder nose- 
leaf. These I propose to separate from the others under the name 
of Hipposiderus." 

Mr. Gray also exhibited specimens of tieveral fresh-water Tortoises. 

Of these he had recently received three from John Russel Reeves, 
Esq., of Canton, two of which he regarded as being previously un- 
described. These he now characterized as follows : 

Emys nigricans. Em. testd ohovato-ohlongd, convexd, nigro- 
fuscd ; subtricarinatd, carind mediand obtusd postici continud, 
lateralibus indisiinctis distantibus ; scuteUis obscure radiatis, ver- 
tebralibus latis, anterioribus pentagonis ; marginibus revolutis, 
posticd subserratd ; infrcL ad latera luteo maculatd; sternum sub- 
convexum, luteum, nigra variegatum. 
Long, teslce, 3 poll. 
Hob. in China prope Canton. 

This species is nearly allied in shape and colour to Em. crassi' 
collis, Bell, biit diff^ers by the distance and indistinctness of its la- 
teral keels, the convexity of its sternum, and the shape of its anterior 
vertebral plates. From Em. Thurjii, Gray, it is distinguished by its 
smaller size, the darkness of its colour, and the yellow spotting 
on the under side towards the edge of the shell. 

The character is taken from a half-grown shell, from which the 
animal had been removed. 

Emys Sinknsis. Em. testd ovatd, convexd, subcarinatd, olivaced 
nigro punctatd ; scuteUis lavibus, luteo strigatis, vertebralibus 
latis hexagonis ; marginibus integris, lateralibus subrevolutis ; sub- 
tUs luted, maculis oblongis olivaceis nigro marginatis ornatd; 
sterni lateribus subcarinatis : collo lineis tenuissimis Jlavis notato. 
Long. testcB, 5 poll. 
Hab. in China. 

Allied to Em. vulgaris, Gray, but easily distinguished by the 
orange streaks in the centre of each discal shield. The under side 
of each of the marginal plates is marked near its hinder edge by a 
large oblong subquadrate olive spot, which is dotted and margined 
with black ; the axillary and inguinal plates are marked with a black 
ring. The sternal plates are varied with brown. 
A third undescribed species of Emys, of which a specimen was ex- 



54 

fiiblted by Mr. Gray, was brought from Dukhun by Lieut. Col. Sykes. 
It was characterized as the 

Emys tentoria. Em. testa ovato-oblongd, olivaced ; dorso sub- 
angulariier compresso ; scuteltis subrugosis, vertebralium primo 
quadralo, reliquis elongato-hexagonis carinatis postici productis 
{tertio prcEcipue) tuberculatis, niarginalibus sternalibusquejlavo 
carinatis ; sterno subplano parum elevato. 
Hab. in Indise Orientalis regione Dukhun dicta. 
A fourth new species characterized by Mr. Gray was the 
Emys platynota. Em. testd ovatd, convexd, fused ; dorso covi- 
planato ; scutellorum vertebralium primo lato hexagono ; margine 
suhintegro ; sterno piano ; capite luteo variegato, 
Hab. in India Oriental!. 
Long, test^, 9 poll. 

The shell differs at first sight from all the other species of the ge- 
nus by the flatness of the middle of the back, agreeing in that cha- 
racter with Hijdraspis planiceps, Bell. 

Mr. Gray also exhibited a specimen of the fresh-water Tortoise 
which he had described in his ' Synopsis Reptilium,' under the name of 
Cistuda Bealii, from a drawing communicated to him by Mr. Reeves. 
The examination of the specimen subsequently received from Mr. 
Reeves has enabled him to ascertain that it is really an Emys, which 
is easily distinguishable from all the other known species of that ge- 
nus by the possession of two eye-like spots on each side of the nape : 
the shell is in form like that of Em. vulgaris. Gray ; its colour is dull 
olive, speckled with black as in Cistuda Europcea, Gray. The name of 
the species will now necessarily be changed to Emys Bealii. 

With these Terrapins Mr. Reeves had also transmitted to Mr. Gray 
three specimens of Cistuda Amboinensis, Gray, two of which, differing 
very much from each other and from the typical species in external 
form, were exhibited. 

The first is extremely heavy and solid, with a very high back. 
It appears to have belonged to an old animal, as the plates are 
worn nearly smooth ; its sternum is solid, flat, rounded before and 
behind, and the gular and anal pairs of plates are each united into 
one, leaving only a slight groove between the gular pair, showing 
where the division is generally placed. 

The second is very much depressed, expanded on the sides, so as 
to be nearly orbicular, and is as wide as it is long. This extension is 
chiefly produced by the length of the costal plates, for the vertebral 
ones are very narrow, the front one being rather longer than broad, 
and much narrower behind. The sternum is very broad, flat, rounded 
before, and slightly keeled behind. All the plates are separate. 

Colonel Sykes exhibited several pieces of the leaden pipes used 
for the supply of water to his house, which were perforated by 
having been gnawed by Rats. 

The following notes, by Mr. Rymer Jones, of the dissection of a 



55 

Tiger, Felis Tigris, Linn., which recently died at the Society's Gar- 
dens, were read. 

The stomach was simple, 18 inches in length, and 13 in its 
greatest circumference. It was seated in the left hypochondriac 
and in the umbilical regions. The oesophagus entered it at 3 inches 
from its cardiac end. Its mucous coat exhibited beautifully minute 
convoluted p/iftP, perhnps from the arrangement of the gastric glands. 
The pyloric valve was little distinct. 

The omentum was loaded with fat, and extended about two thirds 
of the distance to the pubes. 

The duodenum was loosely attached by a broad mesentery, and 
measured in length about 1 2 inches : the length of the small intes- 
tines was 18 feet; their circumference was uniform throughout, 
24- inches. Tlie caecum was 2 inches long, and the same in circum- 
ference ; its form being that which is met with in the domestic Cat. 
The length of the large intestines was 2 feet 10 inches ; their circum- 
ference 4 inclies. The muscular coat of the intestines was thick 
throughout their whole extent. 

The liver, when spread out, resembled in form a vine-leaf, being di-* 
vided by deep fissures reacliing nearly to the hepatic vessels. It con- 
sisted of five lobes, the middle one of which was the largest ; this 
presented below a deep fissure lodging the gall-bladder, which 
seemed to perforate the substance of the visciis, its fundus appearing 
in a hole on the convex surface. The length of the gall-bladder was 
3 inches ; its circumference 34- ; its shape pyriform ; and its neck 
convoluted as in the domestic Cat -. the length of the neck, when 
unravelled, was 2-i inches. The bile entered the intestine at 4 inches 
from the pylorus, in common with the pancreatic secretion. 

The pancreas was placed between the layers of peritoneum which 
formed the mesentery of the duodenum. It was of a long ribband- 
like form ; 22 inches in length ; 1 inch in its greatest and -f^ths 
in its least breadth. 

The spleen was loosely attached to the cardiac extremity of the 
stomach ; of a flat, club-shaped form ; and measured at its broadest 
part 3 inches in width, at its narrowest, 1 inch : its greatest thick- 
ness was ^ inch. 

Tlie lungs consisted of four lobes on the right and three on the 
left side. 

The heart, of a pyramidal shape, and measuring 5 inches in length 
and 4 in breadth, was seated in the middle of the chest upon the ster- 
num. The medium thickness of the muscular parietes of the right ven- 
tricle was 4c inch, of the left ventricle, fths. There were no traces 
of Eustachian valve, or of valve to the coronary vein. The vence cavee 
were two, one superior and one inferior. The primary branches of the 
aorta were also two. 

The trachea consisted of forty-five rings, each forming rather more 
than a semicircle and being completed behind by a membrane which 
had the appearance of being muscular. It divided inferiorly into 
three branches, two of which passed to the right, and one to the left 
lung. The vocal ligaments were little prominent, and the sacculus 
laryngis was scarcely perceptible. 



66 

The pharynx was very muscular. The lining membrane of the 
asophagus was disposed, in its upper third, in longitudinal plioB, 
and throughout the rest of its extent in transverse folds resembling 
thickly placed valvuUe conniventes, becoming more numerous and 
smaller towards the stomach. The tonsils were exceedingly small, 
consisting of three or four little glandular patches under the mucous 
membrane. The apex of the epiglottis was obtusely pointed, and 
much curled towards the tongue : the frcenum epiglottidis contained 
a powerful muscle serving to raise the epiglottis : the aryteno-epi- 
glottidean ligament was so studded with mucous follicles as to repre- 
sent glandular masses. The dorsum of the tongue, 10 inches in 
length, was thickly studded with retroverted spines, which towards 
the posterior part became converted into loose, triangular, fleshy 
appendages attached here and there to the surface. 

The supra-renal glands were imbedded in fat and situated about 
1 inch internal to the anterior extremity of the kidneys ; their length 
was 2^ inches, their breadth 1 inch. The kidneys were 4 inches in 
length, 2^ in breadth, and 2l in thickness. They had the ordinary 
position and form, and exhibited on their surface the arborescent 
vessels observable in the Felida and Fiverridca generally. Their cor- 
tical and tubular portions were beautifully distinct; the medium 
thickness of the former being 3 lines. One papilla received the 
tubuli uriniferi of the whole kidney. The ureters terminated about 
] inch from the neck of the bladder. The urinary bladder, of an 
oval shape and 6 inches in length, was so small that without disten- 
sion it would not have contained more than three or four ounces of 
fluid. 

The prostate gland was 4 of an inch in diameter and 4ths in 
thickness; its form was circular, flattened from before backwards; 
it was placed behind the neck of the bladder, which it did not em- 
brace. When cut into, its substance exhibited a rosy white colour. 
Its secretion resembled whey, and was poured into the urethra through 
several little orifices on each side of the verumontanum, which was a 
little eminence half an inch in length. The vasa deferentia terminated 
with the ducts of the prostate. Nothing analogous to vesiculte se- 
minales was observed. Cowper's glands were of the size of mode- 
rately large hazel-nuts, surrounded by a strong muscular envelope; 
on cutting through this case the glandular masses were found to be 
of the size of large peas, the remainder of the bulk being made up 
by the thickness of the muscular covering; their secretion was poured 
out by two ducts into the bulbous portion of the urethra. The 
urethra was 94- inches in length; its mucous lining presented no la- 
cuncp, and was, when slit open, -l^ths of an inch broad at the veru- 
montanum, 4- at the membranous portion, -f at the bulb, and about 
-Iths throughout the rest of its extent. The penis was 5 J^ inches in 
length ; the glans measuring iths of an inch and being of a conical 
form ending in a sharp point; its surface was studded with minute 
papilla', but was quite smooth; it inclosed an ossiculum 4 of an inch 
in length. 

The morbid appearances observed consisted of tubercular disease 
of the lungs, with rupture of the air cells in several places. 



57 



July 8, 1834.. 

William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A Letter was read addressed to the Secretary by M. Julien 
Desjardins, Corr. Memb. Z.S., dated Mauritius, January 10, 1834. 
It accompanied a collection of objects of Zoology, consisting chiefly 
of Mammalia and Birds, which were exhibited to the Meeting. 

Mr. Gray exhibited various undescribed Shells, chiefly contained 
in his own collection. He characterized them as follows : 

Unio Nov^ Hollandi^. Un.testd ohlongo-elongntd, gracili, 
solida ; antice subcompressci, Icevi, rotundatu, postice subventri' 
cosd, productd, tuberculis magnis incequalibus in seriebus curvatis 
radiantibus dispositis ; disco argenteo purpurea maculato, margine 
injeriore antice crassissimd ; dente cardinali anteriore parvo, 
parum elevato, bituberculato ; dentibus posterioribus parvis, sub 
cartilaginis margine posteriore positis ; periostraca crassu, nigra. 
Hab. in Novae Hoilandiae flumine Macquarrie, 70 circiter mill, 
ab ejus ostio. 

Anodon Parishii. An. testa ovatd, ventricosd, solidd ; antice 
compressd, subproducta, subgracili, postice expansd, dilatatd, 
rotundatd ; margine cardinali rectd, marginis injerioris dimi' 
dium longitudine cequante ; disco margaritaceo-albo ; periostraca 
brunneo-nigrescente. 
Long. 74-, alt. 3f poll. 
Hab. in fluviis Paraguayae. 

The submarginal scar has an acute inflection under the hinder 
muscular one; and there are several small unequal scars behind 
that of the anterior adductor^ as well as others, also unequal, under 
the umbones. 

Anodon penicillatus. An. testd ovata, ventricosa, crassd, 
solidiusculd, Icevi; antice subcompressd, rotundatd, subgracili, 
postice oblique truncatd; ad marginem inferiorem postice di' 
latato- rotundatd; disco albo, lineis angidaribus brunneo-ni- 
grescentibus prope cicatricem muscularem submarginalem notato; 
periostraca olivacea, Icevi. 
Hab. in fluviis Paraguayae. 

The black lines of the inside of the shell are deposited along the 
upper edge of the submarginal muscular scar, and are gradually co- 
vered by the pearly layer deposited by the surface of the mantle 
over the scar ; the interior ones, being the most thickly covered, 
are the lightest in colour. 

No. XIX. — Proceedings of the Zoological Societv. 



58 

Tliere is a two-lobed oblong muscular scar at the back of the 
lower edge of that of the anterior adductor. There is also a small 
deep scar under the front of the umbones. 

Anodon i'DUCIFER. An.testd ovatd, suhventricosd, crassd, solidd; 
antici; convexd, rotundald, postici productd, pored angulari 
prope depressionem mnrsinis posticcc ; margine hiferiore postice 
suhrotundatd ; disco niitdissimo, iridesccnti-margaritaceo ; perio- 
stracft Icevi, nigra viridi radiatim pictA. 
Hab. in fluviis Paraguaya;. 

There is only a single small ovate scar behind the lower end of 
that of the anterior adductor muscle; the part under the umbones 
is destitute of any. 

Mr. Gray also exhibited specimens of several Sfiells, which he 
referred to a genus to be separated from Helix under the name of 

Nanina. 

Helix (pars), Fcr. Vitrina (pars), Quay. 

Animal. Collare amplum, lobo dcxtro antico, antro respirationis 
in sinu posito, lobo sinistro postico lato expanso partem inferiorem 
testae anfractus ultimi tegente. Pes postice truncatus, processu 
brevi conico dorsali supra truncaturam sito. 

Testa depressa, perforata, polita ; apertura lunat.l ; pcristomate 
tenui, edentulo, costa interna vel nuUfi vel obsoleta. 

Indict, China', Sfc. Jncolfe. 

The shells comprised in this genus have been referred by M. De 
Ferussac, and by most authors, to Helix : they are, however, more 
nearly related to Vitrina, with which M. Quoy intends placing them. 
But from the shell of Vitrina that of Nanina differs by being um- 
bilicated, as well as by its smaller mouth. The lobation of the collar 
of the animal of Nanina distinguishes it also from Vitrina ; the 
collar of the latter being entire, with a linear lobe on the side ex- 
tending over the shell, and with the respiratory hole placed at its 
base. 

The animal was first observed and figured by General Ilardwicke 
in 1797. 

The following species belong to the genus: 

Nan. Nemorensis. Helix Nemorensis, Mtill, 

Nan. Javanensis. Hel. Javanensis, Fer. 

Nan. exilis. Hd. exilis, Mull. 

Nan. citrina. Hel. citrina, Linn. 
Var. Hel. castanea, Milll. 
Hel. Rapa, Chemn. 

Nan. monozonalis. Hel. monozonalis, Lam. 

Nan. ClairvUUa. Hel. Clairvillia, Per. 

Nan. Vitrinoides. Hel. Vitrinoides, Desk. 

Nanina Juliana. Nan. testd solidd, albd ; spird convexiusculd ; 



59 

anfractibus depressis fascid mediand brunned, ultimo antke rosea 
fascid brunned ax'm cingente ; peristomate rotundato, rosea. 
Axis 1 1^ dinin. 20 lin. 
Hub. in Ceylon. 

This is one of the most beautiful of the genus. It approaches to 
Nan. Javanensis, but is thicker and larger. 

Nanina striata. Nan. testd solidiusculd, subpellucidd, albidd ; 
periostracd tenui, olivaced; spird cotivexiusculd, confertim trans- 
verse striatd ; anfractu ultimo antice sublavi. 

Axis 9, diatn. 15 lin. 

Mr. Gray also exhibited an extensive series of Shells of the 

Genus Terebra, 

forming part of his own ^ collection, and illustrating an account of 
many new species of that group which he presented. 

He stated that the animal has a small foot, and a very long pro- 
boscis, at the base of which are seated two very small tentacula ; the 
operculum is ovate, thin, horny, rounded behind, and rather taper- 
ing in front. The shell is covered by a very thin, pellucid, horn- 
coloured periostraca : it is usually white, variously streaked with 
brown, the streaks being often interrupted or broken into spots 
by the two spiral bands of the shell ; one of these bands is placed 
near the spiral groove and the other on the middle of the whorl. The 
apex of the cavity is frequently filled up by a calcareous deposition ; 
but this deposition has never been observed in Ter. duplicata. 

The species may be divided into the following sections : 

I. Anfractibus sulco spirali cingulum posterius efformante ; labia in- 
teriore tenui, concavo. 

Obs. Cingulum in junioribus magis conspicuum; labium internum 
in adultis rarissim^ incrassatum. 

Huic sectioni referendae sunt 

Ter. mnculata. Lam. 

Ter. tigrina. — Buccinum felinum, Dillw. 

Ter. strigata, Sow. — Buccinum elongatum. Wood, Suppl,,/. 22. 

Ter. dimidiata, Lam. 

Ter. striatula, Lam. 

Ter.flammea, Lam. 

Ter. muscaria. Lam. 

Ter. subulate. Lam. 

Ter. oculata, Lam. 

Ter. crenulata, Lam- 

Ter. corrugata. Lam. 

Ter. duplicata, Lam. 

Tcr.pertusa, Sow. Born, Mus., t. 10. f. 13. 

Ter. nubeculata. Sow. 

Ter. myuros, Lam. 

Terebra Knorrii. Ter. testd turritd, subulatd, acuminatd, solidd, 



wu 



6a 

politd ; anfractibus planis, superioribus transversi sulcaiis ; alhd 
brunneo interrupte Ir if asciatd, fascia posteriore lata maculis irre- 
gularibus, mediand angustd, anteriore latiore maculis quadratis. 
Axis 2-!r, diam. -j- unc. 
Knorr, Delicise, vol. iii. t. 23. f. 3. 

This species differs from Ter. maculata by being more slender, 
and by having the front of the whorls spotted. From Ter. tigrina it 
is distinguished by the marbling of the back of the whorls. 

^ Terebba affinis. Ter. testd turritd, subulaid, gracili, solidius- 
culd ; anfractibus planis, transverse punctato-sulcatis, tenuiter 
spiraliter striatis, sulco spirali posteriore profundo ,- aperturd 
parvd ; albd nebulis lineisque spiralibus tribus vel quatuor sa- 
turate nifis. 
Axis 14 unc. 
Var. a. Parva. I^ unc. 

b. Gracilior. 1 unc. 
Allied to Ter. nubeculata, but smaller and more slender in its 
proportions. 

Terkbka rudis. Ter. testd turritd, subulatd, longitudinaliter 
plicatd, spiraliter sulcatd, cancellatd ; anfractibus planis, cin- 
gulo posteriore convexiusculo, noduloso ; aperturd mediocri ; pal- 
lide Jlavd, apicejlavo. 

Axis I4- unc. 

Terebra striata. Ter. testd turritd, subulatd, gracillimd, Icevi, 
striis spiralibus distantibus; anfractibus convexiusculis, sulciscur- 
vatis distantibus, cingulo parum noduloso, superioribus profundi 
sulcatis cinguloque altero albo-noduloso, ultimo antice striis spi- 
ralibus frequentibus ; aperturd minimd ; pallide brunned. 

Axis ]-ir unc. 

Resembles Ter. affinis, but the grooves are not punctate. 

Terebra undulata. Ter. testd turritd, subulatd, gracillimd, 
longitudinaliter undatd, plicis angularibus Icevibus, interstitiis 
linearibus rufis minute punctatis ; anfractibus planiusculis, serie 
posticd tuberculorum alborum majusculorum ; aperturd parvd; 
pallidijlavd. 

Axis H unc. 

Terebra alba. Ter. testd turritd, subulatd, costis longitudinalibus 
spiralibusque frequentibus cancellatd ; anfractibus planis, cingulo 
convexiusculo ; aperturd parvd ; albd. 

Axis 4 unc. 

»' Terebra flava. Ter. testd turritd, ovato-subulatd, longitudina- 
liter plicatd plicis frequentibus aequalibus, striis spiralibus fre- 
quentibus punctatis ; anfractibus planis, cingulo convexiusculo ; 
pallida Jiavd. 

Axis 1 unc. 

Var. Subulata, gracilis, costis longitudinalibus magis acutis. 



61 

"' Terebra punctatostriata. Ter. tesld turritd, subulald, gracili, 
te?iui, Uevi, striis spiralibus distantibus punctatis, sulco spirali 
posteriore profundiore ; anfractlbus convexiusculis , ad suturam 
subcrenulatis, superioribus profunde punctatis; aperturd angustd ; 
pallide rufo-Jlavd. 
Axis 24 unc. 

Terebra gracilis' Ter. testd turritd, lineari-subulatd, pellu- 
cidd, l(em, politd, tenuiter spiralifer striatd, plicis longitudina- 
libus distantibus ; anfractlbus subplanis, sulco posteriore prof undo; 
cinered, anfractu ultimo antice purpureo. 

Axis 1 unc. 

Hub. ad Afiicse oras. 

■ . Terebra tessellata. Ter. testd turritd, subulatd, leevi ; anfrac- 
tlbus pUinis, cingulo convexo noduloso albo, superioribus cingulo 
altero etiam noduloso ; albd hrunneo interrupte trifasciatd, ma- 
culis (equnlibus quadratis. 
Axis (an junloris?) 1 unc. 

This differs from all the other spotted species by the hinder belt 
being destitute of spots : the belt is also more nodulose than in the 
other species which are marked with spots. 

\ Terebra variegata. Ter. testd turritd, subulatd, costis spira- 
libus vix prominentibus partem nodulosis ; anfractlbus planis ; 
albd vel viridescente, seriebus tribus inacularum brunnearum, 
maculis posterioribus quadratis inter cinguli nodulos compressos, 
cceteris oblotigis transvcrsis. 
Axis 2l unc. 
Far. Pellucida, albida brunneo maculata, nodulis albis opacis. 

Terebra plicata. Ter. testd turritd, ovato-subulatd, tenui, tenu' 
iter spiraliter striatd, costis longitudinalibus undatis albis sub- 
distantibus ; anfractlbus planis, cingulo suhelevato costato, su- 
turd crenulatd ; aperturd mediocri ; pallide brunned. 

. Terebra punctata. Ter. testd turritd, stibulatd, gracili, acumi- 

nntd, leevi ; anfractlbus planis, cingulo subangusto noduloso, su- 
perioribus cingulo altero etiam noduloso ; aperturd parvd ; pal- 
lide Jlavescente, seriebus quatuor macularum brunnearum parva- 
rum in strigas aliquando conjiuentium. 

Terebra laevigata. Ter. tesld turritd, subulatd, gracilUmd, 
tcnui, Icevi, tenuissime striatd ; anfractlbus planis, in medio 
subcarinatis, cingulo Iceci siibelevato j)orcn carinatd utrinque 
aiicto ; arifractu ultimo baud cariniito ; aperturd minimd ; al- 
bida. 

Axis l^i- unc. 

Terebra l^vis. Ter. testd turritd, subulatd, Icevi ; anfractibus 
subconcuvis, in medio subcarinatis, superioribus transverse .ml- 



62 

catis, cingulo albo opaco angusto IcBvi sulco subprofundo antice 
porcdque angustissimd carinatd postice aucto ; albdjlavescente 
valid. 
Axis H unc. 

II, Anfractibus sulco spirali cingulum posterius efformante ; labio 
interiore incrassato subelevato. 

Obs. Quoad aperturara Cerithia quodammodo simulantes. 
Huic section! referendae sunt 
Ter. cerithina, Lam. 

Ter. tricolor, Sow. — Ter. tceniolata, Quoy, cui proprii sunt in- 
super sulcum cingulum efformantem sulci alii spirales duo. 

"- Terebra anomala. Ter. testa turritd, subulatd, Icevi, politd; 
anfractibus planis, sulco spirali postico pro/undo crcnato, pos- 
tice longitudinaliter plicalis ; aperturd antice subeffusd, postice 
angustatd acutissimd, labio interiore prcesatim postice incras- 
sato ; alba, fascia latissimd subposticd alterdque angustiore 
anticd cinereis vel brunneis, apice acutissimo brunneo. ^y^ 

Axis I -J unc. 

Terebra ornata. Ter. testa turritd, ovato-subulatd, solidd ; 
anfractibus planis, sulco spirali posteriore profunda, cingulo 
convexo subnoduloso ; aperturd ovatd, labio inteiiore subincras:: 
salo declivi ; albd, seriebus quatuor nmcularum parvarum brun- 
nearuni quadratarum, serientniintermediarum maculis nonnun- 
quam in strigas oblongas confluentibus. 

Axis 4 unc. 

Terekra cancellata. Ter. testa turritd^ subulatd, sulcis spi- 
ralibus frequentibus profundis, plicis longitudinalibus cequalibus 
subconfcrtis ; anfractibus planis, sulco posteriore inofundo ; 
aperturd subparvd, labio interiore incrassato elevato ; pallide 
cinered. 

Axis I4 unc. 

Terebra straminea. Ter. testa turritd, subulatd, subrugosd, spi- 
raliter confertim sulcata ; anfractibus subplanis, cingulo po- 
itico subelevato oblique transversim sulcato alteroque noduloruni 
magis rotundatorum ; aperturd parvd, labio interiore postice 
subcalloso ; flavescente. 

Axis 24- unc. 

Terebra triseriata. Ter. testd turritd, subulatd, gracillimd, 
subcylindricd, costis spiralibus subgranulosis confertis ; cingulo 
postico convexo noduloso, ante hoc altero subangustiore, et tertio 
minore pone ; aperturd mininid, labio interiore suhincrassato ; 
pa llidcfla vcscente. 

Axic l^ unc. 



63 

III. Anfractibus sulco postico fiullo. 

* Labia intcriore tenui, 

a. Tesid elongatd, gracili, 

Ter, lanceolata, Lam. 

Ter. strigillata, Lam. 

Ter. hastata, Lam. — Ter. co-3tata, Mcench. 

Terebra albiba. Ter. tesld turritd, ovato-subulatd , acumi-^ 

natd, Icevi ; anfractibus planis, suturd subivipressd ; palhde 

Jlavescenti-albidd. 
Axis It unc. 

b. Testd brev'i. 

Ter. aciculata. — Buccinum aciculatum. Lam. 

Ter. polita. — Buccinum politum, Lam. 

** Labio interiore incrassato, elevato ; testd hrevi. 

Obs. Nass(C quodammodo affines ; sed neque labium internum di- 
latatum, nee externum incrassatum. 

Ter. lineolata, Sow. Wood, Suppl., f. 22. 

Ter. Ta/ti^eHsis.— Buccinum Tahitense, Gme/.— Buccinum Au- 
strale. Sow. 

Mr. Gray concluded by staling that specimens of all the species 
oi^exebra enumerated by him are contained either in his private 



ritish Museum. 



Mr. Gray also exhibited an extensive series of land and fresh- 
water Shells which he regarded as hitherto undescribed. He cha- 
racterized them as follows : 

Helicophanta Falconeri, Reeve, MSS. Hel. testd ovatd, tenui, 
vesiculari, profmde utnbiUcatd ; pallide hrunned, fasciis macu- 
lisque prope suturam saturatioribus ; apice obtuso ; anfractibus 
quatuor convexis, ultimo antice declivi ; umbilico magna, com- . 
presso ; peristomate simplici, fauce albd. 
Hab. in Nova Hollandia. 

This species is very nearly allied to Hel. magnifica, Fer., Moll., 
t. 10. f. 10, but differs in .being much more umbiHcated and ven- 
tricose, having a greater number of whorls, and being deeper co- 
loured. 

Zonites Walkeri. Zon. testd depressd,iimbilicatd, poUtd.flavo- (^f^' 
brunned; anfractibus 3 J- citissime majoribus, ventricosis, tenuiter 
concentrice striatis ; dorso striis densis spiralibus ,• umbilico pro- 
funda ; aperturd magnd, fauce albidd. 
Axis 8 lin., diam. 1 unc. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandia, 70 millia passuum circiter a Fort Mac- 
quarrie. 

This species is allied in form and size to Zon.fuliginosus of North 



64 

America, but differs in the back of the whorls being cancellately 
striated, and in the mouth being larger and more rounded. 

BuLiMus ATOMATus. Bul. tsstd ovtttd, ttcutd, tenui, itnj)erforatd, 
pallide brunned, punclis brunneis triangularibus sape strigosis 
notatd ; spird obtuse conicd ,• anfractibus paulum elevatis ; aper- 
turd elongatd, tertid parte spiram superante ; peristomate sim- 
plici ; labia interna siibreflexa ; columelld antice rectd ; fauce 
albo. 

Axis 2^, diam. H unc. 

Hab. in Nova HoUandia, 70 millia passuura circiter a Fort Mac- 
quarrie. 

The three following species were discovered in the interior of 
New^ Holland by Mr. Allan Cunningham, and two of them have 
been figured, but not described, in Mr. Griffith's Edition of Cuvier's 
' Animal Kingdom.' 

Helix Cunninghami, Gray, in Griff. Anim. Kingd., t. 6. f. 4. 
Hel. testd valde depressd, albo brunneoque fasciatd ; spird pla- 
niusciild ; anfractibus paulum convexis, vltimo depressissimo, ro- 
iwidato ; umbilico hitissimo anfractus omnes monstrante ; aperturd 
ablongu, dejlexd ; labia externa reflexo, subincrassata, dextror- 
sum rotundato, sinistrorsum complannto recto ; fauce purpuras- 
cente. 
Axis 11, diam. 2.9, aperturse diam. 12-^ lin. 

Hab. in Nova HoUandia, in sylvis densis obscuris apud Hay's Peak. 
This species varies in the size of its brown bands, some individuals 
being nearly white with a few narrow brown bands in the centre 
of the last whorl ; while in others the bands spread over the whole 
upper part and the upper half of the lower portion of that whorl. It 
is allied to Hel. sepulchralis in form, but is larger and has no keeled 
band round the umbilicus, which is also wider ; and to Hel. Ra- 
dama. Less., Cent. ZooL, t. 9, from Madagascar, which differs from 
it in being thinner, of a uniform brown colour, and having a larger 
mouth, the front of the whorls near the umbilicus appearing also to 
be constantly white. 

Helix Fraseei, Gray, in Griff. Anim. Kingd., t. 6. f. 6. Hel. 
testd globosd, imperfarafd, pallide brunned fasciis plurimis an- 
gustis linearibus spiralibus brunneis ; spird canvexd, hemispharicd ; 
anfractibus ratundatis, ultima maxima ventricosa ; aperturd ab- 
longd, setnilunatd ; labia externa ratundata, reflexo, subincrassata, 
purpurascenti-brunneo ; interna vix incrassata. 

Axis 19, diam. 24, aperturae lat. 12, long. 14 lin. 

Hab. in Novd HoUandia. 

'I'his species most nearly resembles Hel. crispata, but is larger 
and more globular ; the whorls are more ventricose, and the bands 
continuous : it is covered with a thin greenish horny periostraca. 



65 

Helix Jacksoniensis. Hel. testd depressd, pallida brunned, po- 
litd, concentrice substriatd ; spird convexd ; anfractibus planis, 
ultimo rotundato, depresso ; aperturd lunatd ; fauce albidd ; labia 
externa tenui. 

Axis 3, diam. 3+ lln. 

Hab. in Nova HoUandia, prope Port Jackson. 

The shell resembles Hel. nitida in form, but is imperforate. 

To Mr. Cunningham Mr. Gray was also indebted for three species 
discovered by him in Phillip's Island, a small island about 5 miles 
South of Norfolk Island. These he characterized as follows : 

Helix Campbellii. Hel. testd conicd, subglobosd, depressius- 
culd, imperforata , subrugosd, rugis transversis densis, striisque 
spiruUbus indistinctis ; pallide brunned, fascia lata subposticd 
pallida ; spird conicd, convexd ; anfractibus platiiusculis , ultimo 
carind mediand indistinctd, antice leEvi ; peristomate tenui, acuta, 
juxta axin subincrassato , albo. 

Axis 5-J-, diam. 8-J- lin. 

Hab. in Insula Phillip Maris Pacifici. 

Helix Phillipii. Hel. testd subglobosd, depressd, imperforata, 
pallide corned, pellucidd, maculis viridibus sparsis irregularibus ; 
transversim subdistanter rugosd ; spira convexd ; anfractibus pla- 
niusculis, ultimo pnrum ventricosa, rotundato, fascia posticd sv.b- 
mediand angustd ulbd ; aperturd semilunatd ; labio tenui, supra 
axin subincrassato, albo. 

Axis 5, diam. 8 lin. 

Hab. in Insula Phillip. 

Jun. spird planiusculd, anfractu ultimo subcarinato. 

This species is allied to the former in the shape of the mouth and 
structure of the lip ; but the whorls are angular in the young state 
only, as in most of the Helices of Lamarck. 

Carocolla Stoddartii. Car. testd conico-subglobosd, depressi- 
usculd, tenuissime rugosd, brunned pallide fasciatd vel flaves- 
ccntefasciis saturatioribus, imperforatd ; spird conicd, convexd; 
anfractibus planiusculis, ultimo indistincte in medio carinato ; 
peristomate tenui, juxta axin subincrassato, acuta. 

Axis 4, diam. 7 lin. 

Var. 1 . Testd saturate brunned, fascia prope suturam latiusculd. 

Var. 2. Testd supra brunned, infra favescente, fascid pone carinam 
lata brunned. 

Var. 3. Testd pallide flavd, fascid ante carinam latd brunned. 

Var. 4. Testd pallidr fiavd supra brunneo subnebulosd. 

Hub. in Insula Phillip. 

The remaining species were described from specimens in Mr. 
Gray's own collection ; they were characterized as foUows : 

BuLiMus RHODosTOxMus. Bul. tcstd ovtttd, pcrforatd, salidd, 



66 

striatd, albidd roseo marmoratd, periostracd tenui olivaced ,- su- 
turd tenuiter crenulatd ; anfractibus fasciis duabus posticis obscu- 
ris latis ; fauce rosed; peristomate paulum incrassato; axi antice 
saturate brunned. 

Axis 1+, diam. ^ unc. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandia ? 

BULIMUS CRASSILABRIS. Bul. testd OVUtU, ttCUtd, IcRVl, poUtd, 

albd brunneo parum tinctd ; spird conicn, apice obtuso subpro- 
ducto; anfractibus convexiusculis ; aperturd parvd; labia externa 
subincrassafo, interna incrassato, callosa, subrepando, perfora- 
tianem parvam Unearemfere tegente. 
Diam. 4 unc. 

BuLiMUS APicuLATus. Bul. testd avatd, elongatd, perforatd, lavi, 
albd, strigis brunneis obliquis ; spird canicd, apice acutiusculo, 
saturate brunneo ; ultimo anfractu obsoletissinii' alba carinato ; 
aperturd spird breviore, subangustd ; labia externa simplice, in- 
terna tenui, ante columellam parum reflexo, saturate brunnea. 

Axis 10, diam. 4-^ lin. 

This shell resembles Bul. Kingii, but is more solid and has a dark 
apex and pillar. 

BuLiMUs PuLLus. Bul. tcstd ovatd, suhcylindricd, subimperforatd, 
pellucidd, albidd, tenuiter striatd ; apice conico, obtusiuscula, 
pellucido; anfractibus novem vel decern vix elevatis ; aperturd par- 
vd, subrotundd , semilunatd ; lubiis subincrassatis ratundatis . 

Axis 8, diam. 2-^ lin. 

Hab. " in India Orientali ad ripas Gangis," Dr. Royle. 

It varies greatly in size, and is often much smaller. 

BuLiMus BuRCHELLii. Bul. tcstd ovato-lttnceolatd, imperforatd, 
albd, rugosiusculd ; apice obtuso, subattenuato ; anfractibus con- 
vexiusculis ; aperturd ovatd, spird tertid parte breviore ; labiis 
paru7n incrassatis, albis. 

Axis 7, diam. 24- lin. 

Jun. anfractibus angulariter subcarinatis , labiis tenuibus. 

Hab. in Africa Australi, prope Lattakoo. 

The specimens were strung together to form a necklace. 

Li GNUS TENUIS. Ltgn. testd ovatd, subturritd, tenuissimd, albd, 
pellucidd, periostracd tenui glabra fuwd indutd ; spird canicd, 
apice obtuso, subproducta ; anfractibus canvexis, ultimo obsale- 
tissime carinato, antice purpurascenti-brunneo ; columelld antice 
tenui, rectiusculd. 

Axis 15, diam. 9 lin. 

Hab. in Africa ? 

This shell is in shape most like the young of Hel. flammigera, F^r., 
Moll., t. 118, f. 5 ; but diifers in colour, in tenuity, and in the shajje 
of the front of the pillar -lip. 



6^ 

Helix Codringtonii. Hel. testd orbiculari, conicd, imperforatd, 

■' solidiuscuM, pallidd irregulariter dense albo lineatd ,• spird con- 

vexd ; anfractibus rotundatis, ultimo depressiusculo ; aperturd 

lunatd, ovatd, obliqud ; labio externa reflexo, albo, antice planius- 

culo, declivi, interna tenui. 

Axis 15, diam. 20 lin. 

Hab. " in Grsecia apud Navarino," S. P. Pratt, Esq. 

Helix fidelis. Hel. testd depressiuscvld, late perforatd, pallidi 
brunned, profunde striatd, periostracd tenui pallidd indutd ; spird 
conicd, convexd ; anfractibus elevatiusculis, citissime majoribus, 
fascid suturali notatis, ultimo rotundato antice brunneo ; aper- 
turd obliqud ; peristomate albo, subrejlexo ; fauce postice albd, 
antice brunned. 

Axis 11, diam. 15 lin. 

Var. spird paulo depressiore. 

Helix Cracherodii. Hel. testd depressd, tenui, late perforatd, 
striatd, pellucidd, albidd prcesertim ad spiram rufescenti-brun- 
neo variegatd ; spird convexd ; anfractibus elevatiusculis, ultimo 
obsoletissime car inato, fascid mediand albd; peristomate simplici; 
fauce brunned, maculd albd in labii medio. 

Axis 9, diam. 14 lin. 

Hab. in India Orientali ? 

This is perhaps a Nanina, but it is more largely perforated than 
any of that genus of which I have seen the animal. 

Helix Maderaspatana. Hel. testd globosd, depressd, perforatd, 
pallide brunned albido marmoratd, substriatd ; spird elevatius- 
culd ; anfractibus rotundatis, cito majoribus, ultimo ventricoso, 
fascid albidd submediand, antice pallidiore ; aperturd semilunatd, 
majusculd ; peristomate subincrassato, albido ; perforatione pro- 
fundd, angustd. 
Axis 9, diam. 13 lin. 

Hab. " in India Orientali, 200 millia passuum circiter a Maderas- 
patana versus Africum," J. W. Heath, Esq. 

While on the subject of Indian Helices, Mr. Gray remarked that 
Hel. ligulata, Y€r., Moll., t. 31. f. 2, 3, is a common Indian species; 
and that Hel. cicatricosa, Chemn., vol. ix. t. 109. f. 913, is found in 
the more elevated regions of India, and has lately been described by 
Mr. Lea under the name of Hel. Himalayana. 

Carocolla Nov^ Hollandije. Car. testd orbiculari, conicd, 
subdepressd, subperforatd, tenui, Icevi, tenuissime elevato-punc- 
tatd, pallide fulvd ; spird conicd, convexd ; anfractibus sex di- 
stinctis, fascid brunned submediand ; ultimo pallide angulariter 
carinato, antice convexo, circum axin saturate brunneo ; aper- 
turd subangulatd ; peristomate pone carinam subinflexo, subin- 
crassato, reflexo, nigro ; labio inferno tenui, brunneo ; fauce 
albidd, fascid. pellucidd. 



68 

Axis 9, diam. 14 lin. 

Hab. in Nov& HoUandia, 200 millia passuum ab Ostio Fluvii 
Macquarrie. 

Helix granifera. Hel. testd conicd, orbiculari, depressiusculd, 
imperforatd, pallide brunned, granis minutis albis aspersd ; spird 
convexd, obtusd ; anfractibus vix elevatis, ultimo acute carinato, 
antice convejciusculo ; aper'urd ovato-ti-igond ; labiis incrassatis, 
reflexis, albis, externa antice recto, in/Equaliter 3-dentato, dentibus 
duobus intends obliquis approximatis, externo majore distante 
compresso. 

Axis 7, diam. 11 lin. 

Hab. vulgaris in India Occidentali. 

Helix pachygastra. Hel. testd orbiculari, depressd, imperfo- 
ratd, badid, Itevi, tenuiter striatd ; spird convexiusculd ; anfrac- 
tibus planis, ultimo ventricoso, rotundato, obsoletissime in medio 
carinato ; aperturd siibtrigond ; labiis incrassatis callosis, externo 
antice inths dente parvo extus plied majore instructo. 
Axis 4-4-, diam. 8 lin. 

Mr. Gray observed on this character that he calls that a tooth 
which is solid, and that a plait which is marked externally by a 
corresponding groove. Thus the Chondri of Cuvier have toothed 
mouths, and the Pupce and Clausilia plaited. 

The exhibition was resumed of the new species of Shells contained 
in the collection formed by Mr. Cuming, chiefly on the Western 
Coast of South America and among the islands of the South Pacific 
Ocean. Those brought on the present occasion under the notice of 
the Society were accompanied by observations and characters by Mr. 
G. B. Sowerby, and comprised the following species of the 

Genus Pholas. 

" The utmost caution is necessary in the examination and de- 
scription of the various sorts of Fholades, on account of the extraor- 
dinary difference in the form of the same specits in different stages 
of growth. The addition of accessory valves also, as they increase 
in age, must be carefully observed, in order to guard against too 
implicit a confidence in their number and form. And though I 
might be considered guilty of asserting a truism by stating that the 
difi'erence in size of different individuals of the same species may 
and sometimes does mislead the tyro in the science of Malacology ; 
lest such difference should mislead" the adept also, let him too pro- 
ceed cautiously, and when he finds a fully grown shell of half an inch 
in length agreeing perfectly in proportions and characters with an- 
other of two inches long, let him not conclude that it is a distii:ct 
species, but if he can find no other difference except that which 
exists in their dimensions, let him consider the one a giant, the other 
a dwarf. Let it be remembered that among the Cyprcea. it is not un- 



69 

common to observe young shells of three inches in length, and fully 
grown ones of the same sort only one inch in length ; likewise, of 
the well-known British Pholades there are individuals quite in a 
young state of two inches in length, and perfectly formed shells of 
the same species not more than half an inch long. For an instance 
in demonstration I need only refer to the Phol. papi/raceus, so 
abundant at Torquay, of which the young shells have been considered 
by many as a distinct species and have been named by Dr. Turton 
Phol. lamellosus. This varies in size exceedingly, so that it may 
be obtained both in an incomplete and young state and in a fully 
grown condition from half an inch to nearly two inches in length. 
The circumstance of its having rarely occurred in an intermediate 
state of growth, when the anterior opening is only partly closed 
and the accessory valves only partly formed, led Dr. Turton and 
others to persist in regarding the young and old as two distinct 
species. Other similar instances will be shown in the course of the 
present concise account of some hitherto undescribed species of the 
same genus brought to England by Mr. Cuming." — G. B. S. 

Pholas cruciger. Phol. testa oblongd, scahra, marginibus un- 
tied ventrali apertd, anticd dorsali rejlexd ; valvd accexsorid 
soUtarid, posticd, transversa: long. 17, lat. 0*65, alt. 0"7 
poll. 
Hah. ad oras Columbiae Occidentalis et Americae Centralis. 
In this species the anterior ventral opening is somewhat more 
closed in some specimens than in others. It appears to form only one 
accessory valve, which crosses the valves behind the umbones: the 
dorsal margins are closed by epidermis. 

Found in three localities ; namely, in soft sandstone at half-tide 
on the shores of the island of Puna in the Gulf of Guayaquil j in soft 
stone at low water in the Bay of Caraccas ; both in West Columbia; 
and in hard clay at a depth of thirteen fathoms in the Gulf of No- 
coiyo in Central America. — G.B. S. 

Pholas Chiloensis, var. parva. Phol. Chiloensis, testd parvd, 
tenutore: long. 1*6, lat. 06, alt, 0' 6 poll. 

Found in soft stone at a depth of seventeen fathoms at the island 
of Plata, West Columbia.— G. B. S. 

Pholas subtruncata. Phol. testd ovato-oblongd, scabrd, postice 
rotundato-subtruncatd, Icevi; margine anticd ventrali hiatu maxima ; 
valvd accessorid soUtarid, anticd, lanceolatd, antice acuminatd : 
long. 1-9, lat. 09, alt. 0-8 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Platse, Columbiae Occidentalis. 

Found in soft stone at a depth of seventeen fathoms. Very like 
our British Pholas parva. — G. B. S. 

Pholas calva, Gray, MSS. Phol. testd ovatd, . antice retusd, 
postice subacuminatd, hiante ; valvis singulis in areas tres divi- 
sis ; areis, anticd scabriusculd ; intermedid epidermide corned Ion- 



'?/V, 



70 

gitudinaliter striatd indntd ; posticd squamis corneis, postice ro- 
tundatis, imhricatis, lavibus, gradatim minoribus, ornatd; parte 
anticd ventrali clausd Icevigatd ; valvd accessorid anticd dorsali 
maximd, leevi, quinquelobatd ; marginibus dorsali ventralique 
posticis epidermide corneo-testaced obtectis : long. 2', lat. !•, alt. 
1- 1 poll. 
Hab. ad Sinum Panamse. 

Obs. Testae junioris parte antica ventrali apert^, hiatu maximo ; 
valva accessoria nulla, marginibus dorsali ventralique posticis baud 
obtectis: long. 1"5, lat. 0*7, alt. 0'7 poll. 

This is another remarkable instance of extreme dissimilarity be- 
tween the young and fully grovi^n shells ; the large anterior ventral 
opening, so conspicuous in the young shell, being completely closed 
up in the fully grown individual ; the enormous accessory valve co- 
vering the umbones and spreading widely over the anterior dorsal 
parts of the shell is also a remarkable addition formed at its full 
growth. 

Found in Spondyli, at a depth of twelve fathoms, at the Isle of 
Perico in the Bay of Panama : the young shells have also been taken 
out of hard stones at low water in the same place. — G. B. S. 

Pholas calva, var. nana. Phol. calva, testd nand : long. 0'5, 

lat. 0-25, alt. Q- 25 poll. 
Hab. ad Panamam. 
Found in hard stones at low water. — G. B. S. 

Pholas acuminata. Phol. testd ovatd, antice rotundatd, postich 
acuminatd, hiatu minimo ; valvis singulis in areas tres divisis ; 
areis, anticd scabriusculd ; intermedid epidermide corned lon- 
gitudinaliter striatd indutd ; posticd squamis corneis, postici acu- 
minatis, imbricatis, Icevibus, gradatim minoribus, ornatd ; parte 
anticd. ventrali clausd, lavigatd ; valvd accessorid anticd dorsali 
magnd, subtetragond, antice unilobatd ; marginibus ventrali dor- 
salique epidermide corneo-testaced obtectis, tegmine dorsali antice 
inflato : long. 2", lat. 0"9, alt. 0'9 poll, 
Hab. ad Panamam. 

Found in limestone at low water. The same sort of difference is 
observable between the young and fully grown shells in this species 
as in Phol. calva. 

One specimen of this shell in Mr. Cuming's collection merits 
particular notice. It demonstrates a fact of considerable importance 
to geologists. It is in argillaceous limestone, very much resem- 
bling lias, and in forming the cavity in which it resides, it has, by 
such chemical process as frequently takes place, absorbed a much 
greater quantity of the rock than could be retained or converted ; 
this is again deposited at the upper part of the cavity; and thus the 
rock is recomposed. — G. B. S. 

Pholas melanura. Phol. testd ovatd, antice rotundatd, postici 
obtusd, hiatu mediocri ; valvis fascid impressd transversim sul- 



71 

catd dimidiatis ; areis, anticd oblique divisd, parte posticd dorsali 
radiathn cornigatd, parte anticd ventrali tenuiore, injlatd ; po- 
sticd longitudinaliter striatd, postice epidermide nigrd indutd ; 
margine dorsali anticd injiato-reflexd ; valvis accessoriis duabus, 
posticis, subtrigonis, superne fornicatis : long. 1-4, lat.0 15, 
alt. 0-8 poll. 

Hub. ad Montem Christi, Columbise Occidentalis. 

Found in hard clay at low water. — G. B. S. 

Pholas tubifera. Phol. testa oblongd, postice subattenuatd, sub- 
truncatd, antice rotundatd; valvis fascid transversim sulcatd di- 
midiatis ; areis, anticd oblique divisd, parte posticd dorsali radi- 
atim sulcatd, decussatd, parte anticd ventrali tenuiore, subin- 
flatd ; posticd longitudinaliter striatd ; margine dorsali anticd 
reflexo-inflatd ; valvis accessoriis dorsalibus duabus, posticis, sub- 
ovatis ; epidermide postice in duas valvas planulatas decurrente, 
deinde tubulum calcareum ad extremam partem conspicuum : long. 
1-3, lat. 0-5, alt. 0-45 poll. 

Hub. ad Sinum Caraccensem, Columbise Occidentalis. 

Obs. Testa intermediae setatis tubulum caret. 

Found in decayed wood dredged up at ten fathoms' depth. 

A marked resemblance may be easily traced between this and the 
Pholas papyracea of Southern Devonshire. 

Pholas Quadra. Phol. testd oblongd, tenuissimd, antice inflatd, 
rotundatd, postice subattenuatd, subtruncatd; valvis fascid trans- 
versim sulcatd dimidiatis ; areis, anticd oblique divisd, parte posticd 
dorsali concentrice lamellosd, lamellis squamuliferis, parte an- 
ticd ventrali tenuiore, inflatd, radiatim obsolete costellatd; po- 
sticd longitudinaliter sulcatd ^ margine dorsali anticd concavo- 
reflexd, musculum recipiente, epidermide obtectd ; epidermide 
postice in vesiculas quatuor, undique duas, decurrente ; deinde tu- 
bulum calcareum ad extremam partem conspicuum : long. 1*, lat. 
0-3, alt. 0-3 poll. 

Hab. ad Montem Christi, Columbiae Occidentalis. 

Found in stones at low water. — G. B. S. 

Pholas Quadra, var. Phol. Quadra, testd parvd, margine dorsali 

anticd inflato-reflexd. 
Hab. ad Montem Christi. 

This variety differs only in the circumstance of the epidermis 
which covered the muscle contained in the concave reflected ante- 
rior dorsal margin being changed into calcareous matter. The 
young shells are without any tube or other accessory parts. — 
G. B. S. 

Pholas curta. Phol. testd ovali, postice acuminatd, antice ro- 
tundatd; valvis fascid transversim sulcatd dimidiatis ; areis, an- 
ticd oblique divisd, parte posticd dorsali longitudinaliter striatd 
et radiatim corrugatd, parte anticd ventrali tenuiore, subinflatd ; 



72 

posticd concenlrice striata ; valvd accessor'ui soUtarid, dorsali, 
anticd, utrdque esctremitate subacuminatd, medio coarctatd ; mar- 
ginibus ventrali dorsalique epidermide corneo-testaced obtectis, 
parte dorsali postice furcatd : long. 0'6, lat. 03, alt. 035 
' poll. 
Hab. ad littora Columbise Occideiitalis. 

From the Isle of Lions, Province of Veragua, in soft stone at low 
water.— G. B. S. 

Pholas cornea. Phol. testd ohlongd, tenui, antice rotundatd, po- 
stice obtusd ; epidermide tenui corned indutd ; valvis fascid dirni- 
diatis ; ared anticd oblique divisd, parte posticd dorsali rugosius- 
culd, parte anticd lavi ; ared posticd majore, leevigatd ; valvis 
accessoriis tribus, anticd dorsali rotundatd, postice subemargi- 
natd, antice subacuminatd ; hiatu postico magno : long. 09, lat. 
0-5, alt. 0-5 poll. 

Hab. ad littora Columbiae Occidentalis. 

Found in the trunk of a tree at low water at Chiriqui in the pro- 
vince of Veragua. — G. B. S. 

The whole of the Toucans of the Society's collection were exhi- 
bited in illustration of an account given by Mr. Gould, at the re- 
quest of the Chairman, of the species of Ramphastos, 111., and Ptero- 
glossus, Ej., constituting the family Ramphastida. Mr. Gould's 
attention having been of late particularly directed to this family in 
the preparation of a Monograph of it, illustrated ky coloured figures 
of all the birds comprised in it, he was enabled to state the existence 
of the under-mentioned species of the 

Fam. Ramphastid^, Vig. 

Rostrum magnum, ad basin nudum ; tomiis serratis. 
Lingua pectinata. 
Pedes scansorii. 

Genus Ramphastos, III. 

Ramphastos (pars), Linn. 

Rostrum maximum. 

Nares frontales, prope basin maxillae sitae. 

Cauda aequalis. 

Nigri, torque pectorali tectricibusque caudce inferioribus coccineis,pe- 
dibus caruleis. Rostrum, guttur, tectrices cauda superior es, orbita- 
que nudcE discolores. 

* Cauda tectricibus superioribus flavis. 

Ramphastos erythrokhynchus, Gmel. Ramph. rostro rubra, 
culmine fascid que basalt flavis, hdc postice lined antice fascid to- 
miisque nigris. 

Long. tot. 23 poll. ; rostri, 6-J- ; alee, 8-J- ; caudte, 6\ ; tarsi, 2. 



73 

Red-beaked Toucan, Edio., Gleanings, I. 238. — Lath., Syn., torn. 
i. p. 328. 

Ramphastos erythrorhynchus, Gmel. et Auct. 

Tucana Cavennensis gutture albo, Briss., Orn., torn. iv. p. 416. 
^31./. 2. 

Toucan, Le Vaill., Ois. de Par., torn. ii. t. 3. 

Toucan &, collier jaune ? Id., lb., t. 4. 

Toucan a gorge blanche de Cayenne, appelle Toucan, Buff., PL 
Enl., n. 262. 

Ramphastos Levaillantii ? Wagl., Syst. Avium. 

Hab. in Cayenna, Guiana, et ad ripas fluvii Amazonum. 

Descr. Torques pectoralis mediocris. Irides rubrae. Orbitae cce- 
rulese. Guttur album sulphureo nonnunquam tinctum. 

Ramphastos Cuvieri, Wagl. Ramph. rostro nigra, culmine fas- 

cidque basali luteis, lateribus convexis. 
Long. tot. 24 poll. ; rostri, 7-i ; alas, 9 ; caudce, 6-J- ; tarsi, 2. 
Ramphastos Cuvieri, Wagl., Syst. Avium. 
Hab. prop^ fluvium Amazonum ? 

Descr. Prsecedenti coloribus simillimus ; sed paullo major, 
rostrique colores alii. Tectrices caudse superiores aurantio tinctae. 

Ramphastos culminatus, Gould. Ramph. rostro nigro, culmine 
fascidque basali stramineis, lateribus compressis subconcavis. 

Long. tot. 18 — 20 poll.; rostri, 4 — 5; ala, 84- — 9; caudce, 6-5 — 7; 
tarsi, 2. 

Ramphastos culminatus, Gould, in Proceedings Zool. Soc, Parti, 
p. 70. 

Descr. Prsecedenti simillimus, sed minor ; mandibula sHperior 
compressa, nee ad latera convexa. Tectrices caudse superiores po- 
sticfe in aurantio-coccineum vergentes. 

** Cauda tectricibus superioribus albis. 

Ramphastos Swainsonii, Gould. Ramph. rostro oblique dimi- 

diatimflavo, torque pectorali lined albd antice auctd. 
Long. tot. 18unc. ; rostri, b^ — 6; alee.d ; caudce, 6^; tarsi, Ig-. 
Ramphastos Swainsonii, Gould, in Proceedings Zool. Soc, Part i. 
p. 29. 

Tocard ? Le Vaill., Ois. de Par., torn. ii. pi. 9. 

Ramphastos ambiguus ? Sivains., Zool. III., pi. 168. 

Hab. in Columbia et in Mexico Australi. 

Descr. Rostri pars superior flava ; pars inferior (pro tempes- 
tate ?) colore variat, quippe aliquando nigra, aliquando rufa nigro, 
prsesertim antice, cincta. Guttur flavum, a torque pectorali coccinea 
linea alba sejunctum. Irides, orbitaeque cceruleae. 

Ramphastos carinatus. Swains. Ramph. rostro ad apicem san- 
guineo, mandibula superiore viridi culmine maculdque irregulari 
utrinque ad tomium flavis, inferiore caruled. 



Y4 

Long. tot. 20 unc. ; rostri, 6; ala, 8 ; Cauda, 7 ; tarsi, 2. 

Ramphastos carinatus, Swains., Zool. III., pi. 45. 

Brazilian Pie, Edic, Glean., vol. ii. t. 64. 
■ Yellow-breasted Toucan, Id,, lb., vol. lii. p. 253. t. 329. (adul- 
tus). 

Ramphastos Tucanus ?, Shaw, Gen. Zool., i?o/. viii. j». 362. 

Hab. in Mexico. 

Descr. Prsecedenti coloribus simillimus. Linea alba pectoralis 
nulla. Rostrum pluricolor compressum, fascia angusta basali nigrS, 
cinctum. 

Ramphastos Toco, Gmel. Ramph. caudce tectricibus superioribus 
Cauda dimidium longitudine (equantibus. 

Long. tot. 27 unc. ; rostri, 7J-; ala, 10; caudce, 7 ; tarsi, 2. 

Toucan de Cayenne appelle Toco, Buff., PL Enl., n. 82. 

Ramphastos Toco, Auct. 

Toco, Le Vaill., Ois. de Par., torn. iii. p. 7. t. 2. 

Hab. in Guiana et ad flu^dum Platae. 

Descr. Maximus. Cauda subabbreviata. Rostnmi maximum, au- 
rantiacum, fascia basali raaculaque magna utrinque ad apicem 
mandibuloe superioris nigris. Guttur album. Torques pectoralis sub- 
evanescens. Orbitae rubrse. 

*** Cauda tectricibus superioribus coccineis. 

Ramphastos vitellinus. 111. Ramph. rostro nigro, fascid prope 
basin coeruled cincto ; gutturis flavi marginibus genisque albidis. 

Long. tot. 17 — 18 unc; rostri, 5 ; ala, 7; cauda, 64-, tarsi, 1^, 

Ramphastos ^'itellinus, Auct. — Swains., Zool III., pi. 56. 

Pignancoin, Le Vaill., Ois. de Par., torn. ii. pi. 7. 

Hab. in Guiana, Cayenna, et ad fluvium Amazonum. 

Descr. Guttur in medio aurantiaco-flaviun, latera versus multo- 
ties pallidius, praesertim ad genas auresque ubi in album evadit. 
Torques pectoralis latior. Orbitse ccerulese. Irides rubrse. 

Ramphastos Ariel, Vig. Ramph. rostro nigro, fascid prope ba- 
sin flavd, culmine basin versus coeruleo ; gutture flavo fascid 
pallid e flavd a pectoris torque latd coccined sejuncto. 
Long. tot. 18 unc. ; rostri, 4 ; ala, 74-; cauda, 64- ; tarsi, I4. 
Ramphastos Ariel, Vig., in Zool. Journ., vol. ii. p. 466. 
Ramphastos Tucanus, Linn. ? 

Tucana Brasiliensis gutture luteo, Briss., Orn,, vol.iv. p. 419. 
pi. 32./. 1. 

Toucan a gorge jaune de Bresil, Buff., Pi. Enl., n. 307. 

Toucan de Para, Vieill., Gal. des Ois., Suppl. 

Ramphastos Temminckii, Wagl., Syst. Avium. 

Hab. in Brasilia. 

Descr. Irides cceruleae. Orbitse rubrse. 

Ramphastos dicolorus, Linn. Ramph, rostro viridescente, fas- 
cid basali nigrd ; pectore coccineo. 



75 

Long. tot. 14-17 unc. ; rostri, 24-34; alte, 7 ; caudee, 6J-; far- 
si, U. 

Ramphastos dicolorus, Auct. 

Yellow-throated Toucan, Lath., Syw., vol. i. p. 325. 

Petit Toucan a ventre rouge, Le Vaill., Hist. Nat. des Toucans, 
pi. 8. 

Tucai, Azar., Voy., torn. iii. p. 143. 

llampliastos Tucai, Licht., Cat., p.1 . 

Ramphastos chlororhynchus, Temm., Man. d'Orn. 

Hub. in Brasilia. 

Desce. Guttur flavum in medio subaurantiacum. Pectus totum 
coccineum. Irides coerule?e. Orbitae rubras. 

Obs. In junioribus rostrum brevius, sordide flavum. 

Genus Pteroglossus, III. 

Rostrum magnum. 

Nares superse, in maxillae basi sitae. 

Cauda gradata. 

Supra viridescentes, uropygio (nisi in perpaucis) discolore ; subtiis, 
capite, collo, rostro, orbitisque nudis utplurimmn discoloribus ; pe- 
des carulei. 

Pteroglossus Aracari, 111. Pter. gastreeo flavo, fascid latd 
coccined; rostro flavescente, culmine maxilldque inferior e nigris. 

Long. tot. 18-19 unc. ; rostri, 4-5 ; alee, 6; caudee, 1\; tarsi, \\. 

Pteroglossus Aracari, III., et Auct. 

Ramphastos Aracari, Linn. 

Aracari a ventre rouge, Le Vaill., Ois. de Par., torn. ii. p. 29. 
pi. 20.' 

Hab. in Brasilia. 

Descr. Caput collumque nigra. Uropygium coccineum. Pectus 
venterque maculis indistinctis sparsis coccineis notati. Orbitae cce- 
rulese. Rostrum ad basin linea elevata flavescente cinctum. 

Pteroglossus regalis, Licht. Pter. gastrao Jlavo, macula pec- 
torali nigrd, fascid antice nigrd postice coccined subventrali. 

Long. tot. 15-17 unc; rostri, 4-4 ^; alee, 6; caudte, 74-; tar- 
si, H. 

Hab. in Mexico. 

Descr. Rostrum flavescens, culmine, maxillae superioris serra- 
turis, maxillaque inferiore nigris ; hac ad basin linea elevata fla- 
vescente cincta. Caput collumque nigra, hoc supernfe castaneo 
inferne coccineo postice cincto. Pectus, venter, femoraque macu- 
lis indistinctis sparsis coccineis notati. Fascia gastraei bicolor pectus 
inter et ventrem interposita. Uropygium coccineum. Orbitae coe- 
ruleae. 

Pteroglossus castanotis, Gould. Pter. gastrao flavo, fascid 
latd coccined ; aurihus castaneis. 

Long. tot. 17l unc. ; rostri, 5; ala:, G\; caud<z, 7i; tarsi, 1 1. 



76 

Pteroglossus castanotis, Gould, in Proceedings Zool. Soc, Part i. 
p. 119. 

Hab. in Brasilia. 

Descr. Pteroglosso Aracari simillimus, nisi rostri capitisque co- 
loribus. Rostrum flavum, culmine, maxilld inferiore (prseter li- 
neam elevatam flavam basalem), maxilla superiore oblique dimidi- 
atim, serraturisque nigris. Genae auresque vel etiam gula nucha- 
que castanese. 

Pteroglossus bitorquatus, Vig. Pter.pectore nuchdque coc- 
cineis. 

Long. tot. 14' unc. ; rostri, 3 ; alee, 5 ; caudce, 6 ; tarsi, 1^. 

Pteroglossus bitorquatus, Vig., in Zool. Journ., vol. ii. p. 481. 

Hab. in Guiana. 

Descr. Rostrum flavescenti-albidum, maxillae inferioris dimidio 
apicali oblique nigro. Caput supra nigrum. Capitis latera guttur- 
que castanea, hoc postice torque angusta nigra alteraque flava 
cincto. Venter crissumque flavi. Uropj'gium coccineum. Orbitae 
rubrae. 

Obs. Fascia flava inter guttur et pectus aliquando deest. 

Pteroglossus Azar^, Wagl. Pter.pectore coccineo, fascia latd 
7iigrd. 

Long. tot. 15 unc. 

♦' Aragari Azara, Le Vaill., Ois. de Par., Suppl., p. 40. t. A." fide 
Wagler. 

Ramphastos Azarce, Vieill., Nouv. Diet, d' Hist. Nat., torn, xxxiv. 
p. 282. 

Pteroglossus Azarae, Wagl., Si/st. Avium. 

Hah. rarissimus " in Brasilia." Wa"l. 

■■-V 

Descr. Rostrum flavum, serraturis nigris. Nucha castanea. 
Fascia flava inter guttur et pectus nulla. Orbitse cceruleae. In 
caeteris prsecedenti simillimus. 

Obs. Maxilla superior aliquando oblique dimidiatim fusco-vi- 
ridis. 

Pteroglossus ulocomus, Gould. Pter. plumis capitis, genarum, 
nucliaque foliiferis . 

Long. tot. 18 unc; rostri, 4 ; alee, 5^ ; caudce, 7-V ; tarsi, 2+. 

Pteroglossus ulocomus, Gould, in Proceedings Zool. Soc, Part i. 
p. 38. 

Hab. prope fluvium Amazonum? 

Descr. Verticis piumae latae, baud barbatae, crispae, nigrae, niti- 
dissims; occipitis nucha-que magisangustae,spatulatae, itidem nigrae; 
genarum gulaeque magis spatuiatae, flavide albescentes nigro api- 
culatae. Rostrum elongatum, albo serratum, ad apicem aurantiaco- 
flavum, linea elevata basin cingente rubra; culmine aurantiaco, 
vitt^ utrinque lata sordide coerulea, lateribus basin versus rubris ; 
maxilla, inferiore, praeter apicem aurantiaco-flavum, straminea. Ju- 
gulum gastraeumque flava, pectore parce ventre confertim coccineo 



77 

maculatis, pectoris maculis sublunatiSj ventris fascias interruptas 
simulantibus. Interscapulium uropygiumque coccinea, Orbitce 
cceruleae. 

Pteroglossus hypoglaucus, Gould. Pter. subtus ccendeo- 
canus, crisso coccineo. 

Long. tot. 18^ unc. ; rostri, 4; alte, 6^; caudce, 7; tarsi., l-f. 

Pteroglossus hypoglaucus^ Gould, in Proceedings ZooL Sac, 
Part. i. ;;. 70. 

Hab. in Columbia. 

De.scr. Coloruin diversitate singularis admodum. Corpus totum 
subtiis, preeter crissum coccineum, cceruleo-canum. Caput caudaque 
nigrae. Nucha coeruleo-cana. Interscapulium, tergum, et pteromata 
olivaceo-brunnea. Uropygium flavum. Remiges secundarii virides. 
Rectrices ad apices brunnei. Mandibularum basis oblique flava, 
utrinque macula fascia;formi nigi-a notata; superior, nisi ad basin, 
sanguinea j inferioris diniidium apicale nigrum. Orbitee ccerulese. 

Pteisoglossus Bailloni, Wagl. Pter. siibtiis et ad caput cro- 
ceits. 

Long. tot. 14-16 unc. ; rostri, 24- 34- ; alee, 54^; caudce, 1-\ ; tarsi, 
U. 

Pteroglossus Bailloni, Wagl., Syst. Avium. 

Ara9ari Baillon, Le Vaill., Ois. de Par., torn. ii. ;;. 44. t. 18. 

Raraphastos Bailloni, VieilL, Nouv. Diet. d' Hist. Nat.,tom, xxxiv. 
p. 283. 

Pteroglossus croceus, Jard. 8f Selby, III. of Orn., vol. i. pi. 6. 

Hab. in Brasilia. 

Descr. Simplex. Supra olivaceo-viridis, fronte flavo, uropygio 
coccineo. Subtus croceus. Rostrum lutescens, basin versus in oli- 
vaceum transiens. Orbitse rubrffi. 

Pteroglossus viridis. 111. Pter . gastrceo luteo ; rostro superne 
Jlavo, in medio aurantiaco, injerne violaceo-nigro. 

Long. tot. 14 unc; rostri, 34-; alee, 4^; caudce,5; tarsi, Ij-. 

Green Toucan, Lath., Syn., vol. i./?. 331. 

Tucana Cayanensis viridis, Briss., Orn., vol. iv.p. 423. t. 33.y] 1. 

Toucan verd de Cayenne, Buff., PI. EnL, n. 727. (mas.), 728. 
(fcem.) 

Ramphastos viridis, Linn. 

Hab. in Demerara, Guiana, &c. 

Descr. Supra olivaceo-viridis, subtias luteus; uropygio cocci- 
neo. Capite colloque in mari atris, in foemina castaneis. Rostrum 
robustum, culmine late sordide flavo linea longitudinali a lateribus 
aurantiacis mandibulas superioris discreto ; mandibula inferlore vio- 
laceo-nigra, ad basin rosea. Orbitse cceruleae. 

Pteroglossus INSCRIPTUS, Swains. Pter. gastr ceo Jlavo ; rostro 
Jlavo, culmine, apice, serraturarum maculis transversis, Jascidque 
irrope basin nigris. 



78 

Long, tot, 12-13 unc. ; roxtri, 2^ ; ales, 4; caudce,5; tarsi, 1^. 
Pteroglossus iuscriptus, Sivains., Zool. Ill.,j)l' 90. 
Hab. in Guiana. 

Descr. Prsecedenti coloribus simillimus ; abdomen magis flavum, 
rostrumque maxime diversum. 

Pteroglossus maculirostris, Licht. Pter. ventre lutescente, 
crisso coccineo ; mandibulce superioris lateribus maculis transversis 
nigris subfasciatis. 

Long. tot. 12 unc. ; rostri, 2i ; alee, H ; caudce^S; tarsi, 1 1. 

Ara^aii Koulik du Bresil, Le VailL, Ois. de Par., vol.W. p.^5. 
t. 15. " Suppl.p.A'l.f. A A (mas.)." fide Wagler. 

Ara9ari a bee tachete; Ramphastos maculatus, Vieill., Gal. des 
Ois., torn. ii. 

Pteroglossus maculatus, Jard. and Selby, III. of Orn., vol. i. 
pi. 26. 

Hab. in Brasilia. 

Descr. Uroj)ygium cum stragulo concolor. Fascia lunata inter 
cervicem et stragulum sulpliurea. Caput (prseter genas auresque), 
collum, pectusque in marl aterrima, in fcemina castanea ; genae in 
mari aurantiacae, in foemina viridescenti brunnese; aures sulphurei, 
foeminas magis sordidi. Rostrum pro genera brevius, cinerascens, 
ad culmen in olivaceum vergens, ad latera maculis irregularibus 
nigris circiter quatuor notatum. Rectrices sex intermedii rufes- 
centi-brunneo apiculati. Orbitae coerulese. 

Pteroglossus Culik, Wagl. Pter. ventre imo olivaceo, crisso 
coccineo ; rostro nigro basin versus in rubrtim transeunte. 

Long. tot. 12-13 unc.} rostri, 2-i; alee, i^;caud(e, 4i; tarsi, H. 

Aracari Koulik de la Guiane,Z-e VailL, Ois. de Par., torn. ii. 23.41. 
^/. 13.' 

Green Toucan, Edw., Glean., vol. iii. pi. 330. 

Toucan a collier de Cayenne, Buff., Pi. Enl, n. 577 (mas.). 

Toucan a ventre gris de Cayenne, Id., lb., n. 729 (foem.). 

Ramphastos piperivorus, Linn. 

Pteroglossus Culik, Wagl., Syst. Av. 

Reinwardtii ? Id., lb. 

Langsdorffii? Id., lb. 

Hab, in Cayenna et Guiana. 

Descr. Praecedenti simillimus mas differt rostro, rectricibus om- 
nibus castaneo apiculatis, genisque cum auribus concoloribus flavis. 
Fceminse caput superne nigrum ; collum castaneum ; fascia cervi- 
calis nulla; genae auresque flavse ; jugulum pectusque cceruleo- 
cana. Orbitae, in sexu utroque, coeruleae. 

Pteroglossus prasinus, Licht. Pter. supra aureo-viridis, uro- 
pygio concolore ; subtus viridis; crisso rectricvmque apicibus rnjis ; 
genis guldque albescentibus. 

Long. tot. 13 ])oll.; rostri, 3. 

Hab. in Mexico. 



79 

Descr. Rostrum flavum, culminis strigii, macula ante nares, 
altera longitudinali ad tomium, mandibulaque nigris. Rectrices ante 
apices rufos remigesque in coeruleura vergentes. 

Obs. In junioribus maxilla ad basin rufo nebulosa apicem 
versus in flavum et lutescentem transit. In his venter sordide vi- 
ridis. 

PxEROGLOSSUS suLCATUS, Swains. Pter. viridis, uroTpygio cris- 
soque concoloribus ; guld albescente ■ genis ccerideis. 

Long. tot. \\-Vd poll.; rostri, 3-3^; alee, 5; caiidce, 4^ ; tar- 
si, U. 

Pteroglossus sulcatus. Swains., in Journ. Roy. Instil., vol. ix. 
;;. 267. Zool. Ill, pi. 44. Temm., PI. Col, pi. 356. 

Hal), in Guian^. 

Descr. Subunicolor. Remiges rectricesque in cceruleum ad 
apices vergentes. Rostrum pro genere brevius, latum, ad latera et 
superne complanatum ; maxillae latera 2-, mandibulae 1-suIcata: 
nigrum, culmine apiceque saturate rufo-brunneis, mandibulae an- 
gulo sanguineo. 

The whole of the species characterized above are figured in Mr. 
Gould's 'Monograph of the Ramphastidae,' which is just completed; 
and all of them, with the exception of Pteroglossus Azarce, Pter. in- 
scriptus, and Pter. prasinus, are contained in the Society's collec- 
tion, and were exhibited to the Meeting. 



80 



July 22, 1834. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Cliair. 

A letter was read, addressed to Mr. Vigors by B. H. Hodgson, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., and dated Nepal Residency, February 14, 
1834. It referred to various living animals which it is the intention 
of the writer to forward to Calcutta for transmission to England 
during the ensuing season. It also referred to a collection of skins 
of Mammalia and Birds which have already been dispatched by 
Mr. Hodgson for the Society. Among them are skins of the Chiru 
Antelope, Antilope Hodgsonii, Abel, male and female ; and the writer 
refers to these as elucidating the points which had been unascer- 
tained by him at the time of making to the Society his several pre- 
vious communications, abstracts of which have been published in 
the Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence, 
Part i. p. 52, and Part ii. p. 14 ; and in the Proceedings of the So- 
ciety, Part i. p. 110. 

The communications referred to " left only the inguinal pores, the 
number of teats in the female, and the fact of her being cornute or 
otherwise, doubtful : those points are now cleared up. The female 
is hornless, and has two teats only : she has no marks on the face 
or limbs, and is rather smaller than the male. The male has a large 
pouch at each groin, as in Ant. Dorcas : that of the female is con- 
siderably smaller. These escaped me," Mr. Hodgson says, " till I 
got this season's specimens, remarkable as the pouches are. But 
the fact is that they are composed of very thin brittle skin, and, as 
they hang loose by a narrow neck, they are apt to be torn oft" by the 
Bhoteahs while preparing the specimens." 

Mr. Hodgson again describes in detail the maxillary tumours or 
accessory nostrils of the Chiru Antelope. He regards as analogous 
to these accessory nostrils, and as essentially the same with them 
in use, the intermaxillary pouches noticed by Col. Hamilton Smith 
as partially characteristic of his Cephalophine and Namorrlmdine 
subgenera of Antilope. 

Referring to Col. Hamilton Smith's distribution of the genus An- 
tilope, Mr. Hodgson remarks that " the Chiru Antelope can only be- 
long either to the Gazelline or the Antilopine group. Hornless 
females would place it among the latter ; but lyrate horns, ovine 
nose, and want of sinus, would give it rather to Gazella, and its sin- 
gular inguinal purses further ally it to Ant. Dorcas of this group. 
But from Gazella it is distinguished by the accessory nostrils or in- 
termaxillary pouch, the hornless females, the absence of tufts on the 
knees, and of bands on the flanks. The Chiru with his bluff" bristly 



u 

nose, his intermaxillary pouches, and hollow-cored horns, stands in 
some respects alone," and hence Mr. Hodgson is disposed to sug- 
gest the regarding it as representing " a new subgenus, to be termed 
Pantholops , the vulgar old name for the Unicorn." " The habits and 
manners of the Chirti, his medial size, and his elegant vigorous form, 
ally him most to the Antilopine and Gazelline groups, and equally 
to both." 

Some extracts were read from a Letter addressed by the Presi- 
dent, Lord Stanley, to the Secretary, giving an account of the 
breeding of seveval Birds in his Lordship's Menagerie at Knovvsley. 
The red Grosbeak, Loxia Cardinalis. Linn., has a nest of three young 
which are nearly fledged ; and a single young one of the Toivhee 
Bunting, Emberiza erythrophthalma , Gmel., has been hatched. The 
Loxia cucuUata has this year, as last year also, made a nest and laid 
one egg ; and the American yellow Bird, Fringilla tristis, Linn., is 
now sitting. 

The gosling of the Sandvjich Island Goose, respecting which 
a. notice from Lord Stanley was read on May 27, (p. 4<L) 
<' is now fully as large as tlie parents, and nearly resembles them 
in plumage ; the only differences being about the neck, which 
is more indistinct in front and wants the full extension of the 
black down the nape, and the collar at the bottom just above the 
breast is only faintly marked. The legs also are as yet of a dirty 
greenish yellow tinge. It is not pinioned, but has hitherto shown 
no wish to use its wings. In fact they are the tamest of the tame, 
scarcely will move out of one's way if in the walks, and are con- 
stantly coming into the building, even more familiarly than the 
common Ducks." 

A specimen was exhibited of the Manis Temminckii, Smuts, 
forming part of the collection made by Mr. Steedman in Southern 
Africa. Mr. Bennett stated that his object in calling the attention 
of the Society to it was to point out the external characteristics of 
a species known to its original describer by its skeleton alone and 
by a few detached scales. 

It may be thus characterized: 

Manis Temminckii, Smuts. Man.capite breviore ; corpore latiore, 
squamis magnis, ll-seriatis ; cauda truncum longitudine suha- 
quajtte, latitudine paullo minore, ad apicem subtruncahim vix an- 
gustiore. 
Hab. apud Latakoo? 

Long. tot. 25.V unc. ; cauda, 12 j lat. dorsi, 8; cauda, prope 
apicem, 5. 

The most remarkable features of this animal are the shortness of 
the head ; the breadth of the body j and the breadth of the tail, 
which is nearly equal to that of the body, and continues throughout 
the greater part of its extent of nearly the same width, tapering 

c 



82 

only slightly towards tlie end where it is rounded, and almost trun- 
cate. Jn the shortness of the head and the general form of its upper 
part, the Man. Teniminckil bears nearly the same relation to the 
Man. Javanica, as is borne by the Weasel-headed Armadillo, Da- 
sypus 9-ciuctus, Linn., to the six-banded. Das. 6-cinctus, Ej. Of the 
eleven series of scales on the body, one on each side is ventral rather 
than dorsal. The scales are very large, longitudinally striate, smooth 
as though rubbed towards their hinder margin, and slightlj' pro- 
duced into a thin;Short, and rounded process: they are comparatively 
few in number, the large scales of the middle line of the back from 
t\\e occipiit to the tip of the tail being twenty only in number; in 
Man. pentadactyla, Linn., they are about thirty ; and in Man. Ja- 
vanica, Desm., they vary from about forty-five to fifty. A pecu- 
liarity in the distribution of the scales of Man. Temminckii is the 
cessation of the middle series of them at a short distance anterior 
to the extremity of the tail, so that the last four transverse rows 
consist of four scales each, each of the preceding ones having five. 

Some notes by Mr. Rymer Jones of the dissection of an Agouti, 
Dasyprocta. ylguti, 111., were read. 

The animal was a malej adult; measuring 19Ath inches from 
the extremity of the jaws to the root of the tail ; and weighing 4lbs. 
^Jj^oz. Its head measured 41^ inches in length ; the tail, l-rV* 

The testes were situated within the abdomen, in contact with the 
abdominal muscles, to which they were connected by a duplicature 
of j}eriloneum ; the epididymis, contained in a pouch apparently 
formed by the cremaster muscle, protruded through the internal ob- 
lique. The preputial orifice was l^v '"ch from the anus. 

The stomach, 5^ inches long and 8 inches in its greatest circum- 
ference when moderately distended, had a remarkable constriction 
between its cardiac and pyloric portions which gave it the appear- 
ance of consisting of two distinct cavities ; the pyloric portion 
bulged out on each side of the pylorus so as to make the duodenum 
commence from a central depression. 

The omentum was shrivelled up under the stomach, and reached, 
when unfolded, rather more than half way to the pubes : it extended 
further on the right side than on the left. 

The intestines measured in total length 253 inches. The length 
of the small intestines was 222 inches, and their greatest circum- 
ference (at the duodenum) l^V ; the cacum was 6 inches long, and 
its greatest circumference 2-rV ; the large intestines measured 25 
inches, the greatest circumference being at the commencement of 
the colon, where it was 2 inches, and whence it gradually tapered 
towards the rectum v/hich was only -rV in circumference. There 
were two glands, each ^V of an inch in length, and placed on each 
side of the anus : they secrete a yellow substance resembling the 
cerumen of the ear and of a fragrant odour. 

The liver, weighing 44^oz., occupied the usual situation, and con- 



8S. 

sistcd of five lobes. The anterioi* or cystic was the largest, and pre- 
sented inferiorly two deep fissures, one of which (the left) received 
the suspensory ligament, and the other the gall-bladder. The next 
in size was the left lobe. To the inferior surface of the right lobe 
two lobuli were appended. The concave surface of the liver was 
very irregular in its aspect. The gall-bladder was pyriform, 1 inch 
in length, and deeply buried in a fissure in the concavity of the 
largest lobe of the liver. The bile entered the intestine 4- inch from 
the pyloric ring. 

The pancreas , of an elongated form and running along the dorsal 
aspect of the stomach across the spine, measured 2^ inches. 

The spleen weighed 54 drachms. It laid close to the spine, above 
or anterior to the left kidney, and attached to the cardiac extre- 
mity of the stomach. Its form was flat ovoid, with a deep^ossa on 
its posterior margin lodging the anterior portion of the kidney. 

The lungs consisted of four lobes on the right side and of three on 
the left. They nieasured 34- inches in length ; the breadth of the 
right was InVj of the left, 1. They weighed (much diseased and 
studded with tubercular masses) 2 oz. 6 drachms. 

The heart, of a globular shape, and very muscular, measurec^ l^j 
inch in length, l^V in lateral breadth, and IxV in its antero-poste- 
rior diameter. It was seated more in the left than in the right side 
of the chest, lying on the cartilages of the second, third, fourth, 
fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs, and on the corresponding portion of 
the sternum. 

The vence cavce were one superior and one inferior. The aorta 
gave oft" from the convexity of its arch one large trunk, which, after 
running half an inch from the main artery, divided into an arteria 
innominata, a left carotid, and a left subclavian. 

The trachea consisted of tw^enty-eight rings, each forming nearly 
a complete circle. The superior cornu of the os hyoides was com- 
posed of three parts. The upper opening of the larynx was cup- 
shaped and patulous, owing to the prolongation of the arytenoid 
cartilages. The rima glottidis was small and triangular. The bor- 
ders of the epiglottis formed two sides of an equilateral triangle. 

The mucous membrane oi the pharynx presented numerous pro- 
minent papilla. The tongue was 2-rV inches in length, and had nu- 
merous very delicate papillce, which were scarcely visible to the 
naked eye. 

The nostrils were contracted and very moveable. 

The pupil was oval, its long axis being placed horizontally. 

The suprarenal glands, each 1 inch in length, were of an oblong 
shape and dingy yellow colour. They were situated close to the 
sides of the bodies of the second and third lumbar vertebrce in con- 
tact with the anterior extremity of the kidneys. 

Of the kidneys the left rested on the transverse processes of the 
third, fourth, and fifth lumbar vertebrce ; the right was placed more 
anteriorly, extending from the posterior margin of the last rib to 



84 

the transverse process of the fourth lumbar vertebra. They were 
flattened behind, and each measured in length 1-rV inch, in breadth 

At the anterior and external extremity a portion was separated 
from the rest by a deeply indented line, and resembled a patch 
stuck on. The weight of the two kidneys was loz. 54 drachms. 
The urinary bladder, pyriform, and measuring, when moderately 
distended, 3l inches in length and H i" diameter, was situated 
chiefly above the brim of the -pelvis. 

The testes were barrel-shaped, 1+ inch long and v in diameter. The 
epididymis was of a triangular form, about 4- inch long and the same 
in diameter, and attached by the apex of the triangle to the extre- 
mity of the testis. The vasa dejerentia terminated at the sides of 
the verumontanum. The vesiculce seminales, 2\ inches in length, 
consisted of a middle portion, into which sixteen or eighteen little 
appendices opened : they terminated at the sides of the verumonta- 
num. The prostate glands, four in number, formed of masses of 
convoluted vessels, the two superior ones evidently differing in tex- 
ture from the two inferior, terminated in the same situation. Cow- 
per's glands were of the size of kidney beans, internally very spungy, 
and filled with glairy fluid. 

The penis was 4 inches in length. Its muscles consisted of two 
levatores penis, arising from the posterior margin of the os pubis 
close to the symphysis, sending forwards two tendons running upon 
the dorsum penis to be inserted into the bone covering the dorsal 
aspect of the glims .- and two erectores penis, arising from the whole 
length of the posterior margin of the os pubis, and embracing the ex- 
ternal aspect of the crus penis on each side, into the sheath of which 
they were inserted. The ejaculatores seminis were very massive ; and 
the wreiAm very muscular. The glans penis was H inch in length, and 
bifid at the extremity, which contained a spacious orifice, at the bot- 
tom of which were seen two smaller apertures : the anterior of these 
was the opening of the urethra ; the posterior led to a rugous canal 
about 4 inch in length, at the bottom of which were placed two 
osseous spurs, which, by a muscular apparatus, may be protruded 
from the extremity oi the penis. Externally ihe glans was studded 
with very fine bristles, both upon its upper and lower surface, which 
were arranged for the most part in longitudinal lines pointing back- 
wards. From the lateral aspects of the middle half of the glans 
projected two horny plates, serrated at their external margin, all 
the minute teeth pointing backwards. 

The morbid appearances observed were tubercles in the lungs, 
liver, and kidneys. 



■S5 



August 12, 1834. 
N. A. Vigors, Esq., M.P., in the Chair. 

A Letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by B. H. Hodgson, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. S., and dated Nepal, February 28, 1834. 
It related chiefly to the distinguishing characteristics between the 
Ghoral and the Thdr Antelopes. 

Mr. Hodgson remarks that Antilope Goral, Hardw., and Ant. 
Duvaucellii, Ham. Smith, agree with each other in manners, form, 
and characters ; us do also Ant. Sumatrensis, Shaw, and Ant. Thar, 
Hodgs. But the two former appear to him to differ very consider- 
ably in characters, as they certainly do in structure and in manners, 
from the two latter. He is, nevertheless, disposed to leave the 
whole of them for the present in one group, for which it will, how- 
ever, be necessary to propose amended characters. Tlie double 
thick coatft)f Antt. Goral and Duvaucellii, he is aware, may be re- 
ferred to their cold habitat, and he suggests that possibly even their 
want of suborbital sinus may be attributable to the same cause. 

Observing first that the solidity of the core of the horns must 
cease to form part of the generic character of Antilope, he proceeds 
to offer the following characters for the 

Subgenus Nemoehedus, Smith. 

Structure assuming a Caprine form, suited for heavy climbing or 
for leaping. Horns in both sexes ; their cores hollow and connected 
with the frontal sinuses, but not porous and only subcellular ; in- 
serted behind the orbits, short, conical, simply bent back, annulo- 
wrinkled, parallel to the plane of the face, and nearly so to each other, 
subremote at the base. Suborbital sinus small or wanting. No in- 
guinal pores. Tail Caprine. Ears longish, pointed, and striated. 
Muzzle small. Maned. Hair of two sorts and thick, or of one 
sort and sjiare. Foiu- teats in the females. 

Reside in the mountainous and woody regions of the continent 
and islands of India, solitarily or in small groups. 

1. Ant. Sumatrensis, Shaw. Cambing Ootan. 

2. Ant. Duvaucellii, Ham. Smith. Variety of ^w?. Goral} 

3. Ant. Goral, Hardw. Characters extremely Caprine, being al- 
lied to Antilope only by its round and ringed horns. Size small. 
Attitude gathered, with the back much arched, and sti-ucture adapted 
for leaping. Limbs moderately stout and rigid. General form of 
the scull Caprine, with the ridge-line much bent, and the parietes 
depressed at a strong angle to the frontal bones, and no indentation 

No. XX. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



86 

before the orbits. Fifty inches long, exclusive of the tail, and 
twenty-seven high. Horns seated on the crest of the frontals, six 
inches long, parallel to each other, and the points inclined inwards; 
20 to 30 annuli extending two thirds up the horns, crowded and 
vague, especially towards the base, somewhat interrupted by faint 
longitudinal stria, pearled, truncated, independent of each other, 
and equally developed all round. No suborbital sinuses. A half 
muzzle. Upper lip clad. Tail conico-depressed and half nude only 
below. Fur of two sorts, abundant and loosely applied to the skin. 
A short semi-erect mane on the vertex. Knees usually callous and 
nude, but not congenitaUy so. 

Colours rusty and brown, paler below. Line of the vertex, tail, 
chest, and a stripe down the front of the fore legs and back of the 
hind brown-black. Outsides of the ears rusty. Lips and chin ru- 
fescent white. A large patch of pure white at the junction of the 
head and neck below. Horns, hoofs, and muzzle black. Iris 
dark hazel. Eye mean. 

Female : rather smaller and paler hued. 

Young : redder and destitute of marks, or mane. 

Inhabits the juxta-Himalayan region of Nepal. 

4. Ant. Thar, Hodgs. The Thdr of the Nepalese. Characters 
less decidedly Caprine than in the last. Very nearly allied to the 
Camhing Ootan. Back straight. Withers higher than the croup, 
and structure suited for heavy climbing, not for leaping. Limbs 
very stout and rigid, with higher hoofs, the edges of which are 
raised above the pads. General form of the scull Cervine, with the 
ridge-line moderately convexed, and the parietes not depressed at a 
strong angle to the frontal bones. A deep indentation before the orbits. 
Horns posterior to the orbits but below the crest of the frontals, eight 
inches long, rather stouter and less falcated than in the preceding, 
subdivergent with the points inclined outwards ; with 20 to 30 crowd- 
ed annuli extending two thirds up the horns, the annuli truncated, 
pearled, equal all round, independent, broken by decided longitu- 
dinal stria. One inch below the eye a suborbital sinus opening on 
a nude space by a round puncture, and furnished with a fleshy 
thick gland secreting a viscous humour, as in Ant. Sumatrensis. 
A half muzzle larger than in the preceding, and spreading a little 
over the upper lip. Tail shorter, depressed, nude below. Fur of 
one sort only, and scanty, harsh, and applied to the skin. A semi- 
erect mane, as in the Ghoral. Knees callous, perhaps congenitaUy 
so : sternum not so. Size large. Sixty-four inches long by thirty- 
eight high, and upwards of 200 lbs. in weight. 

Colour of the whole aninaal above, with the entire head and neck, 
jet black ; on the flanks mixed with deep clay red. The limbs and 
hams outside, as far down as the great flexures, clay red, nearly or 
wholly unmixed ; the rest of the limbs hoary or rufescent hoary. Out- 
sides of ears dark. Chest pale. No stripes down the legs. Lips and 
chin dull hoary, and a stripe of pure hoary running backwards over 



87 

the jaws from the gape. Horns, hoofs, and muzzle black. Iris 
dark hazel. Eye mean. 

Female : as large as the male and like him in all material respects. 

Young : paler and mixed with grey. 

Inhabits the precipitous and wooded mountains of the central 
region of Nepal, up and down which it rushes with fearful rapidity, 
though it does not spring or leap well ; nor is it speedy. 

The exhibition was resumed of the new species of Shells con- 
tained in the collection formed by Mr. Cuming on the Western 
Coast of South America, and among the Islands of the South Paci- 
fic Ocean. Those exhibited on the present evening consisted of 
various species of Anatinidce and of the Myidous genus Saxicava : 
they were accompanied by characters by Mr. G. B. Sowerby. 

Genus Peeiploma, Schum. 

Periploma lenticularis. Per. testd elUpticd, lenticulari, csqui- 
valvi, albd, impoUtd, tenui ; epidermide tenuissimd ; margins 
dorsali untied sinuatd, cum margine anticd unguium superne 
efformunte : long. 07, lat. 0-3, alt. 0-55 poll. 

Hub. ad Insulam Muerte dictam. 

The inside of this species shines with a silvery lustre, but is not 
iridescent. 

It was found in sandy mud at a depth of eleven fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Periploma planiuscula. Per. testd ohlongd, planiusculd, ince- 
quivalvi, albicante, impolitd, tenuiusculd ; latere antico brevi, 
subrugoso ; murginibus, anticd subdeclivi subtruncatd, dorsali 
rectiusculd ; epidermide tenui, pallescente : long. 2"4, lat.Q'S, 
alt. 1-8 poll. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

Odd valves alone were found on the sands. 

This species bears some resemblance to Professor Schumacher's 
Per. intequivalvis ; it diifers, however, in shape from that species, 
and both the valves are deeper, — G. B. S. 

Genus Anatina. 

Anatina prismatica. An. testd oblongd, subtrapeziformi, crus- 
siusculd, opucd, lumind internd prismaticd; latere antico trun- 
cate, hiatu maximo ; lumelld utriusque vulva internd subumbonali, 
ex tuberculo ligumentifero decurrente, ramoque ligamenti cornei 
fere parallelo, antice inclinuto : long. 2'7, lat. TS, alt. l' 8 poll. 

Hab. ad littora Oceani Polaris Meridionalis. (New South Shet- 
land. ) 

Driven on shore after a gale. — G. B. S. 

Anatina costata. An. testd oblongd, albd, postic^ rostratd, 
^■.i,\ untied rotundatd ; costis acta radiuntibus, anticis gradatim mino- 



88 

ribus; rostro lavi; margine ventrali crcnatd: long. 0"3, lat. 0"15, 

alt. 0-2 poll. 
Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

A single specimen was found in sandy mud at a depth of six 
fathoms. 

In form it resembles An. longirostrata. — G. B. S. 

Genus Lyonsia. 

^^\C\^ ILtonsia picta. Ly. testd obovatd, tenui, postici latiore ; epi- 

• dermide fused, lineis nigris undulatis pictd ; marginibus, anticd 

dorsali declivi, posticd dorsali rectiusculd ; anticd ventrali hiante, 

hiatu parvo, postied et posticd ventrali rotundatis: long. 0"85, lat. 

0-4, alt. 0-65 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Muerte dictam. 

Found attached to particles of sand in eleven fathoms' water. 
As it increases in size it becomes rather irregular in its form. — 
G. B. S. 

Lyonsia brevifrons. Ly. testd oblongd, pallescente ; epidermide 
obscurd, corned ; latere antico brevi, acuminata, postico longiore, 
attenuato ; marginibus, dorsali posticd elongatd rectiusculd, 
dorsali anticd brevi declivi, anticd ventrali hiante, hiatu declivi, 
elongato, mag no : long. 0' 8, lat. O'S, alt. 0'4 poll. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

Found in sandy mud at from six to eighfe fathoms' depth, attached 
to particles of sand. — G. B. S. 

Genus Saxicava, 

Saxicava tenuis. Sax. testd oblongd, tenui, albd ; epidermide pal- 
lescente; latere antico brevi, subtruncato: long. O'S, lat. 0'25, alt. 
0-4 poll. 

Hab. ad Pacosmayo et ad Lambeyeque. 

Found in coral rock at twenty-five fathoms' depth. — G. B. S. 

Saxicava puepurascens. Sax. testd oblongd, solidiusculd, mtich 
brevissimd, postice truncatd ; epidermide tenuissimd, postici pur- 
purascente : long, l-l, lat. 0'4, alt. 0' 4 poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Muerte dictam. 

A single specimen was found in sandy mud at a depth of eleven 
fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Saxicava solida. Sax. testd oblongd, solidd, rugosd, subin-e- 
gulari, albicante ; epidermide corned ; latere antico brevissimo, 
postico elongato truncato, costis divergentibus duabus conspicuis: 
long. 1-4, lat. 06, alt. OS poll. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

Foimd In clefts of rock brought up from a depth of eighteen 
fathoms. 



89. 

The specimens from which the above characters have been taken 
appear to give the most perfectly regular form of the species. There 
are other varieties from Payta and the Isle of Muerte. — G. B. S. 

A collection of land a.nd fresh-water Shells, formed in the Gangetic 
Provinces of India by W. H. Benson, Esq., of the Bengal Civil 
Service, and presented by that gentleman to the Society, vi^as ex- 
hibited. It comprised forty species, and was accompanied by a de- 
scriptive list prepared by the donor, and also by detailed notices of 
some of the more interesting among them. These notices were 
read : they are intended by Mr. Benson for publication in the forth- 
coming No. of the ' Zoological Journal.' 

From the time that he first became acquainted with the animal of 
a Shell resembling in all respects, except in its superior size, the 
European Helix lucida, Drap., Mr. Benson regarded it as the type 
of a new genus of Helicida intermediate between Stenopus, Guild., 
and HelicoUmax, Fer. He had prepared a paper on this genus, for 
which he intended to propose the name of Tanychlamys ; he finds, 
however, that Mr. Gray has recently described (page 58) the same 
genus under the name of Nanina. The generic characters observed 
by Mr. Benson are as follows : 

Nanina, Gray. 

Tes^a heliciformis, umbilicata; peritremate acuto, non reflexo. 

Animal cito repens. Corpus reticulosum, elongatum. Pallium 
amplum, foramine communi magno perforatum, peritrema amplex- 
ans ; processubus duobus transverse rugosis (quasi articulatis) 
omni latere mobilibus instructum, unico prope testae apertures 
angulum superiorem exoriente, altero apud peripheriam testae. 
Os anticum inter tentacula inferiora hians ; labia radiato-plicata. 
Tentacula saperiora elongata, punctum percipiens tumore oblongo 
situm gerentia. Penis prsegrandis ; antrum cervicis elongatum la- 
tere dextro et prope tentacula situm. Solea complanata pedis latera 
sequans. Cauda tentaculata; tentaculum subretractile, glandula ad 
basin posita humorem yiscidum (animale attrectato) exsudante. 

Mr. Benson describes particularly the habits of the species ob- 
served by him, which he first discovered living at Banda in Bundel- 
kund on the prone surface of a rock. The animal carries the shell 
horizontally or nearly so ; is quick in its motions ; and, like Heli- 
coUmax, it crawls the faster when disturbed, instead of retracting its 
tentacula like the Snails in general. In damp weather it is rarely re- 
tracted within its sheU, the foot being so much swelled by the ab- 
sorption of moisture that if it is suddenly thrown into boiling water 
the attempt to withdraw into the shell invariably causes a fracture 
of the aperture. In dry weather the foot is retracted, and the aper- 
ture is then covered by a whitish false operculum similar to that of 
other Helicidce, The two elongated processes of the mantle are con- 



90 

tinually in motion, and exude a liquor which lubricates the shell, 
supplying, apparently, that fine gloss which is obsen'able in aU re- 
cent specimens. The fluid poured out from the orifice at the base 
of the caudal horn-like appendage is of a greenish colour ; it exudes 
when the animal is irritated, and at such times the caudal appen- 
dage is directed towards the exciting object in such a manner as to 
give to the animal a threatening aspect. 

Of several specimens brought to England by Mr. Benson in 1832, 
one survived from December 1831, when it was captured in India, 
until the summer of 1833. 

Another Shell particularly noticed by Mr. Benson is the type of 
a new genus, allied to Cyclostoma, which he has described \mder 
the name of Pterocyclos in the first No. of the ' Journal of the Asi- 
atic Society of Calcutta.' Mr. Benson has ascertained, by the in- 
spection of specimens in the collection of Mr. G. B. Sowerby, that 
the Cycl. bilahiatum of the latter is the same shell at a more advanced 
period of growth ; when, in addition to the notch and overhanging 
wing at the upper part of the aperture, the peristome becomes 
thickened and sinuated. The Cycl. Petiverianum, Gray, exhibits 
an approach to Pterocyclos in the crude formation of a wing at the 
upper part of the right lip. 

A species of Assiminiu, Leach, obtained at Barrackpore, has the 
shell ovate-conical, narrowly umbilicated, varying infinitely in co- 
lour, and generally banded with red, white, and glaucous; the 
aperture is entire, oblong-oval, angular at the upper part. The head 
has only two short, thick, subcylindrical tentacula, with the perci- 
pient points placed at their summits. The snout is like that of 
Paludina, transversely corrugated, and bilobed or rather emarginate 
at the middle of the extremity ; the lobes rounded. The mantle is 
free ; the branchial cavity open. The foot has a spiral horny oper- 
culum, angular at the upper end. 

Specimens of this Assiminia were preserved alive in a glass, reple- 
nished occasionally with fresh or salt Avater, until after the vessel 
in which Mr. Benson returned to England had passed St. Helena. 

A Snail obtained near Sicrigali and the river Jellinghy, one of 
the mouths of the Ganges, is thus characterized by Mr. Benson : 

Helix interrupta. Hel. testd sinistrorsd, orbiciilato-convexd, in- 
fra tutnidd, umbilicatd, ad peripheriam obtuse angulatd, longitu- 
dinaliter confertissirrie striata, supra striis interruptis, fasciis 
transversalibus dispositis; spird apice obtusd; peritremate tenui, 
acuta. 

Animal. Tentacula duo superiora elongata capitulis tumidis puncta 
percipientia gerentibus, duo inferiora capitulis parvis tumidis. 
Pes elongatus, compressus, marginatus, suprcL granulatus, aper- 
turd terminali anum et mcmbrum carnosum mucorem emittens 
continente. 

In this latter character, that of the excrement being voided from 



91 

an opening in the terminal and posterior part of the foot Instead of 
from the foramen commune, the animal of Hel. interrupta differs 
most materially from the other Helices. The angulated periphery 
of the shell shows an approach to Carocolla, but Mr. Benson is not 
aware that the animal of this genus differs from that of Helix. From 
Hel. Himalayana, Lea, the Hel. interrupta is distinguished by its 
peculiar sculpture ; its spire is also more exserted. 

The collection also contained specimens of an Arcaceous Shell 
found in the bed of the Jumna at Humeerpore in Bundelkund. Its 
form, its lozenge-shaped ligamental scar, and the position and order 
of the teeth are those of the Arcacete generally ; while the oblique 
production of the teeth on the posterior side down the inner surface 
of the cardinal lamina ; the separation of the teeth into two sets by 
the interposition of an edentate portion of the cardinal lamina ; and 
the freedom of the shell from ribs, with the exception of the ridges 
which occur at its angles ; distinguish it from the marine Arcacece. 
Mr. Benson proposes for the fluviatile form the generic appellation 
Scaphula. 

Referring to specimens contained in the collection of a new form 
of Solenaceous Shell, described by him in the ' Journal of the Asi- 
atic Society of Calcutta,' under the name of Novaculina, Mr. Ben- 
son describes also a second species of the genus which he has recently 
obtained from South America, and points out the characters which 
distinguish it from Nov. Gangetica. 

The following Note by Mr. Benson relative to the importation of 
the living Cerithium Telescopium, Brug., adverted to at the Meeting 
on March 25, 1834, (page 22,) was read. 

" The possibility of importing from other countries, and especially 
from the warmer latitudes, the animals which construct the innu- 
merable testaceous productions that adorn our cabinets and mu- 
seums, the accurate knowledge of which is so necessary to enable 
the conchologist rightly to arrange this beautiful department of na- 
ture, must be an interesting subject to every naturalist, and will 
render no apology necessary for the following notices extracted from 
my journal. Their publicity may incite others who may have op- 
portunities of trying the experiment to follow the example. 

" January 1832. Observed near the banks of the canal leading 
from the eastern suburb of Calcutta to the Salt Lake at Balliaghat, 
heaps of a Cardita with longitudinal riljs, of a large and thick Cy- 
rena, and of Cerithium Telescopium, exposed to the heat of the sun 
for the purpose of effecting the death and decay of the included ani- 
mals previously to tlie reduction of the shells into lime. 

" Early in the month I took specimens of them, and leaving them 
for a night in fresh water I was surprised to find two Cerithia alive. 
I kept them during a fortnight in fresh water, and on the 22nd 
Januaiy carried them, packed up in cotton, on board a vessel bound 
for England. After wc had been several days at acn I placed them 



92 

in a large open glass with salt water, in which they appeared un- 
usually lively. I kept them thus, changing the water at inten'als, 
until the 29th May, when we reached the English Channel. I then 
packed them up, as before, in a box, and carried them from Ports- 
mouth to Cornwall, and thence to Dublin, which I did not reach 
until the 14th June ; here they again got fresh supplies of sea wa- 
ter at inter\-als. One of them died during a temporary absence be- 
tween the 30th June and 7 th July ; and on the 11th July the sur- 
vivor was again committed to its prison, and was taken to Cornwall 
and thence to London, where it was delivered alive to Mr. G. B. 
Sowerby on the 23rd July. 

" This animal had thus travelled, during a period of six months, 
over a vast extent of the surface of the globe, and had for a con- 
siderable portion of that time been unavoidably deprived of its native 
element."— W. H. B. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Heming exhibited a Swift, 
Cypsehis Apus, 111., preserved in spirit, and showing a consider- 
able dilatation at the base of the lower jaw and upper part of the 
throat. White has observed that " Swifts, when wantonly and 
cruelly shot while they have young, discover a lump of insects in 
their mouths, which they pouch and hold under their tongue ;" 
but from this notice it would scarcely have been anticipated that so 
large a collection was made as was found in the present instance. 
The dilatation had a rounded appearance ; distended the skin so 
as to show distinctly and widely separated tlie insertion of each of 
the small feathers at this part; and measured in length 11 lines, 
and in depth 6. On opening the pouch it proved to be simple, and 
unconnected except with the ca-vdty of the mouth. 

Mr. Heming also exhibited a drawing taken from the recent bird. 

Dr. Marshall Hall showed some experiments in the decapitated 
Turtle. Irritation of the nostrils, larynx, and spinal marrow induced 
acts of inspiration ; that of the fins and tail induced movements of 
the other parts respectively. 

But the principal object of Dr. Hall was to show that irritation 
of the nen^es themselves equally induced movements of the limbs, 
&c. When either the sentient or the motory branch of the lateral 
spinal nerves was stimulated, motions were induced in all the limbs. 
Dr. Hall stated that a movement of inspiration and of deglutition 
was caused in the Donkey by irritation of the eighth pair of nerves. 
It has been already stated that irritation of the nostrils, or the 
branches of the fifth pair of nerves, induced inspiratory acts in the 
Turtle. From these and other facts. Dr. HaU is induced to consider 
the functions of these two nerves as similar. He further observed 
that both are nerves of secretion, and that both are muscular ner\'es 
— if the mmor portion of the fifth be included — as well as exciters 
of respiration ; the fifth differs chiefly in being sentient, being dis- 



93 

tributed to external as well as internal surfaces. With the fifth and 
eighth. Dr. Hall associates other spinal nerves. He considers re- 
spiration as a part of a general function of the nervous system, 
wliich presides over the larynx, pharynx, sphincters, ejaculators, &c., 
to which he has given the name of reflex, from its consisting of im- 
pressions carried to and from the medulla oblongata and^medulla 
spinalis. Some illustrations of this function were given by Dr. Hall 
at the Meeting of the Committee of Science and Correspondence 
on November 27, 1832, (Proceedings, Part ii. p. 190,) and fur- 
ther illustrations of it have formed the subject of a Paper by him, 
which has since been published in the ' Philosophical Transactions'. 
The experiments shown on the present occasion demonstrate the 
existence of a series of physiological facts at variance with the law 
laid down by M. Miiller in his Paper entitled " Nouvelles Experi- 
ences sur I'eflFet que produit I'lrritation mecanique et galvanique sur 
les racines des nerfs spinaux ; par Jean Midler, Professeur a I'Uni- 
versite de Bonn," and published in the ' Annates des Sciences Na- 
turelles, ' tom. xxiii. (1831), p. 95, viz. " II suit encore qu'il y a 
des nerfs qui n'ont point de force motrice ou tonique, qui ne peuvent 
jamais occasionner des mouvemens par eux-memes, qu'ils soient ir- 
rites par Taction galvanique ou mecanique, et qui ne conduisent le 
courant galvanique que passivement, comme toutes les parties molles 
humides ; qu'il y a en revanche des nerfs moteurs ou toniques {nervi 
motorii sen tonici) qui montrent ci chaque irritation mediate ou im- 
mediate lem: force tonique, qui agit toujours dans la direction des 
branches des nerfs et qui n'agit jamais en arriere." In Dr. Hall's 
experiments the influence first piirsued a backward course to the 
spinal marrow, being afterwards reflected upon the muscles. 

Dr. Hall next observed, in regard to respiration, that, whilst Sir 
Charles Bell is contending that it is involuntary, and Mr. Mayo that 
it is voluntary, the old doctrine of its being mixed, or pEirtaking of 
both properties, is the true one. He founded this view upon the 
following facts : 

1 . If the cerebrum be removed, respiration continues as an invo- 
luntary function through the agency of the eighth pair of nerves ; 

2. If the eighth pair be divided, respiration equally continues, 
but as an act of volition ; but 

3. If the cerebrum be first removed, and the eighth pair be then di- 
vided, respiration ceases on the instant. Volition is first removed 
with the cerebrum; the influence of the eighth pair is then removed 
by its division. The two sources of the mixed or double function 
being both cut off, the function ceases. 

Dr. Hall explains and reconciles in this manner the difficult and 
apparently contradictory facts, — that the medulla oblongata alone, 
above the origin of the eighth pair of nerves, or the eighth pair of 
nerves themselves, may be divided, without arresting the respira- 
tion ; but that the medulla oblongata cannot be divided at the origin 
of these nerves without arresting the respiration instantly. In the 



94 

first case the agency of volition is alone removed, and the respira- 
tion continues through the influence of the eighth pair; in the 
second, that of the eighth pair is removed, and the respiration con- 
tinues as a function of volition ; but in the third, both influences are 
destroyed at once, and with them the mixed or double function. 

The same mixed or double character belongs to the other parts of 
the reflex function, as that of the larynx, the sphincters, the eja- 
culators. All the organs of the reflex function are also alike im- 
pressed through the medium of the mental affections or passions. 

The course of the influence which constitutes the reflex function 
must be divided into the incident, or that into the medulla, and the 
reflected, or that from the medulla. The nerves which conduct the 
incident impression have, liitherto, received no designation ; the 
others constitute a part of the system of muscular nerves. To the 
former class belong nerves which doubtless supply the larynx with 
its impressibility by carbonic acid, &c., &c., and hitherto unde- 
scribed, untraced ; to the latter, the superior and inferior laryngeals : 
to the former belong the fifth, in the nostrils, in the face, — the 
eighth in the lungs, &c. ; to the latter the respiratory nerves : to 
the former, nerves hitherto undescribed of the sphincters, ejacula- 
tors, &c. ; to the latter, the muscular nerves supplying these parts. 

The whole constitutes the subject of an investigation in which 
Dr. Hall has been for some time engaged. 



95 



August 26, 1834. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair, 

An extensive series was exhibited of skins of Mammalia, collected 
in Nepal by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. S., and pre- 
sented by that gentleman to the Society. It included twenty-two 
species, several of which were first made known to science by the 
exertions of Mr. Hodgson, while others still remain to be described 
by him. 

A paper " On the Mammalia of Nepal," written by Mr. Hodgson, 
has been read before the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, and has been 
published in the ' Journal ' of that Society : but Mr. Hodgson has 
availed himself of the opportunities which have occurred to him since 
it WEis written, to make various additions and corrections in the 
copy transmitted by him to the Society, portions of which have been 
read at several previous meetings. 

Mr. Hodgson's paper commences by an account of the physical 
characters of Nepal, which are so varied, according to the elevation 
of the several districts, as to render it necessary, when treating on 
its natural productions, to divide it into three regions. The lower 
region consists of the Tarai or marshes, the Bhawar or forest, and 
the lower hills, and has the climate of the plains of Hindoostan, 
with some increase of heat and great excess of moisture. The cen- 
tral region includes a clusterous succession of mountains, varying in 
elevation from 3000 to 10,000 feet, and having a temperature of from 
10° to 20° lower than that of the plains. The juxta-FIimalayan re- 
gion, or Kachar, consists of high mountains, the summits of which 
are buried for half the year in snow : the climate has nothing tro- 
pical about it, except the succession of the seasons. 

Mr. Hodgson then enumerates the Mammalia which have been 
observed in Nepal, adopting in their arrangement the system of 
Cuvier, and noticing as regards each the region in which it occurs. 
He adds occasional remarks as to their habits ; and notices many 
which appear to him to be undescribed. 

The following is an abstract of this portion of his communication : 

QUADRUMANA 

are limited to the southern region, where Mr. Hodgson is aware of 
the existence of 

Semnopithecus Entellus, F. Cuv., which has been introduced by 
religion into the central region, where it flourishes, half domesti- 
cated, in the neighbourhood of temples. 



96 

Macacus radiatus, GeofF. 

He regards it as probable that among the lower hills occurs 

Nycticebus Bengalensis, Geoff. 

Cheiroptera. 

Pteropus, Briss. 

Molossus, Geoff. 

Rhinolophus, Geoff. 

Vespertilio, Geoff. 

Species of these genera are abundant in the Tarai ; but there are 
few in the central region, and fewer still in the northern. One 
species of Rhinolophus and three of Vespertilio harbour in out- 
houses in the central region ; and one species of Pteropus, of a 
smaller size and duller colour than the Pter. medius, Temm., of the 
plains, appears in troops in the autumn to plunder the gardens of 
the ripe pears. 

PlANTIGRADA. 

Talpa, Linn. This genus is found only in the Kachar. 

Sorex Indicus, Geoff. A dull slaty blue variety of this species 
is found only in the lower and central regions. 

Prochilus lahiatus. 111., 

Helarctos Malay anus, Horsf., 
are found in the Tarai. 

Ursus isabellinus, Horsf., 

Ursus Thibetanus, F. Cuv., 
occur in the central and northern regions. 

Gulo orientalis, Horsf. Lower region. 

Ratelus mellivorus, Ston-. In the lower region and also in the 
proximate part of the central tract. 

Ailu7-us fulgens, F. Cuv., 

Ictides albifrons, Val., 
belong to the Kachar, though they occasionally occur in the central 
region. 

Paradoxurus, F. Cuv. Of this genus an undescribed species, co- 
loured, especially in youth, like Mustela flavigula, Bodd., is found 
in the central region. A second species, perhaps the Par. Bandar, 
Gray, occurs in the Tarai. 

DiGITIGRADA. 

Viverra undulata, Gray, ? Common in the central region. 

Viverra Rasse, Horsf., 

Viverra Indica, Geoff., 
are common in the Tar§,i. 

Herpestes griseus, F. Cuv., occurs in the lower region; and a 
second species, apparently undescribed, of a somewhat smaller size 
and darker duller grey colour, is found in the central region. 

Fells Tigris, Linn., 



97 

Felis Par dug, Linn., 

Felis Leopardtis, Linn., 

Felis jubata, Linn., 
are all found in the lower region. 

The Leopard extends into the central region, where it abounds, 
but is much less dreaded than the Bear. 

The Leopard is found moreover in the northern region ; and the 
Tiger also occurs there, close to the snows, but scarcely in the cen- 
tral region. 

Felis Nepalensis, Vig. and Horsf., 

Felis Moormensis, Hodgs., 
belong to the central region ; as does also an undescribed and beau- 
tifully marked species. 

Felis viverrinus, Benn., is confined to the Tarai. 

Other small species of Felis, not yet determined, are found in the 
northern region. 

Mustela flavigula, Bodd., and two allied and hitherto undescribed 
species, occur in the central region. A fourth Martin, with a 
shorter tail than the above and more resembling the common Weasel 
of England, is found in the Kachar. It is the 

Martes laniger, Hodgs. Its fur is thick, spirally twisted, woolly, 
and of a uniform dirty cream colour. 

Mustela putorius, Linn. ? is an inhabitant of the central, and 
more abundantly of the northern, region. 

Lutra, Linn. Of this genus Mr. Hodgson conceives that no less 
than seven species are found in Nepal, five of which differ from the 
two which inhabit the plains of Hindoostan. Four of these he re- 
gards as new, differing materially in length, in bulk and propor- 
tions, and in colour ; one of them is yellowish white all over ; the 
rest are brown, more or less dark, some having the chin and throat 
or under surface paled nearly to white or yellow. 

Cams familiaris, Linn. The Pana A is the only Z)o<7 of the lower 
and central regions. The Thibetan Mastiff is limited to the Kachar, 
into which it was introduced from its native country, but in which 
it degenerates rapidly ; there are several varieties of it. 

Canis primcBvus. Hodgs. 

Canis aureus Indicus. In the lower and central regions ; rare in 
the Kachar. 

Canis Bengalensis, Shaw., the small Indian insectivorous Fox, 
occurs in the Tarai. 

Canis n. s. ? a large Fox, peculiar to the Kachar. 

Canis Lupus, Linn. In the lower region, 

RODENTIA. 

Hystrix leucurus, Sykes. In the central and lower regions. 
Lepus nigricollis, F. Cuv. ? In the Tarai. 

Lepus n. s. A species as large as the ordinary Hare and nearly 
resembling it occurs rarely in the central and northern regions. 



o 



98 

Sciurvs Palmarum, Linn. Abundant in the southern region. 

Sciurus n. s. ?, of an earthy browTi colour tipped with golden yel- 
lOW, occurs in the central region. 

Sciuropterus nitidus, F. Cuv. In the lower and central regions, 
but rarely in the latter. 

Mus decumanus, Luan., 

Mus Rattus, Linn. Both very numerous and troublesome. 

Mus Musculus, Linn. Very uncommon. 

Field Mice are frequently met with. 

Edentata. 

Manis n. s., allied to Man. Javanica, Desm. Of frequent occur- 
rence in the hills of the lower region and in the mountains of the 
central tract. 

Pachydermata. 

Elephas Indicus, Cuv., 

Rhinoceros unicornis, Cuv., are both abundant in the forest and 
hills of the lower region, whence in the rainy season they issue 
into the cultivated parts of the Tarai to feed upon the rice crops. 

Mr. Hodgson suggests that there are two varieties, or perhaps 
rather species, of the Indian Elejikant, the Ceylonese and that of 
the Saul forest. The Ceylonese has a smaller lighter head, which 
is carried more elevated; it has also higher fore-quarters. The 
Elephant of the Saul forest has sometimes five nails on its hinder 
feet. 

The Rhinoceros goes with young from seventeen to eighteen 
months and produces one at a birth. At birth it measures 3 feet 4 
inches in length, and 2 feet in height. An individual born at Kat- 
mandoo eight years since measures now 9 feet 3 inches in length ; 
4 feet 10 inches in height at the shoulders; the utmost girth of his 
body is 10 feet 5 inches ; the length of the head, 2 feet 4 inches ; 
of the horn, 5 inches : he is evidently far from being adult. It is 
beUeved that the animal lives for one hundred years; one, taken 
mature, was kept at Katmandoo for thirty-five years without exhibit- 
ing any symptoms of approaching decline. The young continues to 
suck for nearly two years. It has when bom and for a month after- 
wards a pink suffusion over the dark colour proper to the mature hide. 

Sus. scrofa, Linn., var. 

RUMINANTIA. 

Cervus Axis, Erxl. 

Cervus porcinus, Zimm. 

Cervus n. s. .?, a brown porcine Axis. 

Cervus Elaphus, Linn., ? 

Cervus Aristotelis, Cuv. 

Cervus equinus, Cuv. 



99 

Cervus n. s., of a black colour and belonging to the same group 
as the two last named. 

Cervus Bahrainja, n. s., serving, with Cerv. Wallichii, Cuv., to 
connect the Elephine and Rusan groups of the genus. 

Cervus Ratwa, Hodgs. 

All these Deer, except the last, which belongs to the Muntjaks, 
inhabit the lower hills. The Ratwa is proper to the central region 
and occasionally occurs in the lowest vaUeys of the Kachar. 

Antilope Goral, Hardw. Northern and central regions. 

Antilope Thar, Hodgs. Central region, and occasionally in the 
northern and southern. 

Antilope Chickara, Hardw., 

Antilope Cervicapra, Pall., 
both belong exclusively to the lower region. 

Mr. Hodgson is of opinion that the distinctions attempted to be 
established as between two Chickaras on account of some differences 
in the drawings and specimens of General Hardwicke and Duvaucel 
cannot be maintained. 

Capra Jharal, Hodgs. In the northern region exclusively. 

Ovis Ammon, var. 

Ovis Musmon, var. Also in the northern region. 

Mr. Hodgson states that the wool of the Huniah or Bhotean do- 
mesticated Sheep is superb ; and suggests that attempts should be 
made to naturalize the race in England. To such attempts he is 
willing to render every assistance in his power. It is suited only 
for the northern region of Nepal, suffering much from the heat of 
the central district. 

Bos Taurus, var. Indicus. 

Bos grunniens, Linn. Domesticated in the Kachdr. 

Bos Bubalus, Briss. 

Specimens were exhibited of several Reptiles, which were accom- 
panied by notes by Mr. Gray. These notes were read. 

Mr. Gray regards the Testudo Spengleri, Walb., as the type of 
a new genus of Emydida, having, like the fresh-water Tortoises ge- 
nerally, the toes lengthened and covered by a series of shields, but 
these members, instead of being webbed as in the other genera of the 
family, are quite free from each other ; the legs, moreover, are de- 
stitute of fringe along their outer edge. This structure of the feet 
and limbs indicates habits less aquatic than those of the Emydida 
generally ; and Mr. Gray states that such appears to be the case 
with the Em. Spengleri, for though he has watched for a consider- 
able time the specimen now living at the Society's Gardens he has 
never observed it to enter the water. 

From the beautiful figure of the animal of Em. spinosa given 
by Mr. Bell in his ' Monograph of the Testudinata,' Mr. Gray is 
inclined to believe that this species belongs to the same genus with 
Em. Spengleri, the toes, especially those of the hind feet, being 



100 

represented in the figure as quite free. The shells of the two species 
agree in being of a pale brown colour above, and in being sharply 
toothed on the margin ; in both which respects they differ from- the 
ot\xQr fresh-water Tortoises. 

Geoemyda. 

Testa depressa, ad marginem late serrata. Pedes utrinque squa- 
mis elongatis biseriatis instruct!, haud ciliati : digiti liberi, subgra- 
ciles, supern^ squamis tecti. Caput parvum, cute tenui, leevi, durel 
obtectum. 

India {et Africa ?) Incoloe. 

1. Geoemyda Spengleri. Geo. testd ohlongd, pallida brunned, 
tricarinatd, carinis continuis nigro marginatis ; margine posticd 
profundi! serratd ; sterno nigro luteo marginato ; scutellis ax- 
illaribus inguinalibusque nullis. 

Testudo Spengleri, Walb., in Berl. Naturf., theilv. t. 3. 
Testudo serrata, Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol. iii. t. 9. 
Testudo tricarinata, Bory St. Vine, Atlas, t. 37. y. 1. 
Emys Spengleri, Schweig., 32. 
Hab. " in Chini," J. R. Reeves, Esq. 

2. Geoemyda spinosa. Geo. testd suborbicnlari, carinatd ; are- 
olis spind centrali armatis ; margine totd profunda serratd ; su- 
proi pallidi fused, sterno pallide fusco brunneo radiato ; scutellis 
axillaribus inguinalibusque mediocribus. 

Emys spinosa, Bell, Test., t. . fig. 1, 2. — Gray, Hardw. Ind. Zool., 
torn. ii. t. . fig. 1. 

Hab. " apud Penang," Capt. Hay. 

A new genus of Geckotidce is characterized by Mr. Gray under 
the name of 

Gehyea. 

Digiti 5-5, ad basin dilatati, serie unic^ squamarum transversa- 
lium integrarum tecti, ad apicem compressi, liberi, omnes (prseter 
poUices) unguiculati. Pori femorales nuUi. 

This genus is very nearly allied to Platydactylus, Cuv., in the 
form of the base of the toes ; but the ends of the toes are thin, sim- 
ple, and compressed, instead of being more widely dilated, and 
with the \&s,t phalanx affixed along the upper surface. The body is co- 
vered with small uniform granular scales, and the belly with larger 
flat scales ; the tail is ringed with square scales, those of the under 
surface being the largest. 

Gehyra Pacifica. Ge. pallide brunnea albido punctata, subtits 
alba; occipitis strigd utrinque fasciisque latis irregularibus dor- 
salibus quinque vel sex pallidis ; artubus pallida marmoratis. 

Long, corporis 2-|- poll. ; cauda, totidem. 

Hab. in Insula qu^dam Oceani Pacifici. 



101 

The collection of the British Museum contains a specimen, much 
discoloured, of what appears to be a second species of this genus. 
Another species is contained in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle at 
Paris. 

A living specimen v/as exhibited of the Red Viper of the Somer- 
setshire Downs. It had been sent from Taunton to Mr. Gray, who 
states that he has compared it very attentively with the black and 
with the common Viper of England, and that he cannot discover the 
slightest difference between them except in the shade of the colour. 
They all agree in having the upper lip shield white, with brown or 
black edges, and in having a series more or less distinct of lozenge- 
shaped spots. He consequently refers them all to Viper a Berus, 
Daud. 

Mr. Gray also states that he believes the Lacerta adura, described 
by the Rev. R. Sheppard in the seventh volume of the ' Linnean 
Transactions', to be the male, observed during the summer, of the 
common Lacerta vivipara, the Lacerta agilis of British authors ; the 
several characters which were pointed out by Mr. Gray at the 
Meeting on May 22, 1832, (Proceedings of the Committee of 
Science, Part ii. p. 112,) being at that season so fully developed as 
to produce the appearances noticed by Mr. Sheppard in his account 
of his presumed species. 

The foUovidng notes were read of the dissection of a specimen of 
Azara's Opossum, Didelphis Azara, Temm., which recently died 
at the Society's Gardens. The general dissection was performed by 
Mr. Martin; that of the organs of generation by Mr. Rymer Jones, 

" The animal was an adult male, measuring, exclusive of the tail, 
1 foot 5 inches, the tail being 1 foot 4 inches in length. 

" On opening the body the situation of the viscera was as usual. 
Their examination afforded the following details. 

" The liver was found to consist of three lobes ; one on the left, 
of a pyramidal figure, a large central lobe, and one on the right, 
small, irregvdar in shape, with a bifid margin. On the convex or 
external aspect of the middle lobe, the gall-bladder showed itself, 
filling up a circular aperture so regularly defined as to appear arti- 
ficial ; and on turning back the liver, the gall-bladder was seen to 
occupy a deep sulcus, incomplete or unclosed (as it were) in its 
centre. The gaU-bladder was of a globular form, its diameter being 
about -I- of an inch ; its duct ran in a furrow, which took its course 
midway across the lobe on its under surface. At 2 inches from the 
neck of the gall-bladder, this cystic duct was joined at an acute 
angle by the hepatic ducts, the number of which corresponded with 
that of the lobes. The ductus choledochus communis thus formed 
continued its course for nearly 2 inches, and entered the duodenum, 
about the same distance below the pylorus, the aperture being very 
small and valvular. With the biliary duct, the pancreatic also en- 

B 



102 

tered the intestine, there being but one common termination between 
them. On tracing the pancreatic duct it was found issuing from 
the middle of the right extremity of the gland, which latter was 
somewhat irregular in shape, ha\'ing each extremity divided into 
two cornua, and to the junction of the two right cornua the duct 
was easily traced. The length of the pancreas was 24 inches. 

" The stomach was ovoid in form, the cardiac portion occupying 
nearly one half of the viscus, and the pyloric orifice being not more 
than ^ an inch from the cardiac. The position of the pyloric valve 
was marked by a deep indentation. The length of the stomach was 
3 inches ; its diameter opposite the cardiac orifice, 2-i-. 

" The spleen was attached by a loose fold of mesentery to the 
middle of the greater curvature of the stomach, and was somewhat 
triangular in shape. It was 2-^ inches in length, and 1-j in breadth 
at the broadest part. 

" The duodenum was attached throughout by a mesenteric fold, 
its diameter was about |-, or nearly an inch. From the duodenum 
the small intestines gradually diminished in diameter to the ileo- 
colic valve, their diameter in the narrowest part being reduced to 
-J- an inch. The total length of the small intestines was 3 feet 7 
inches. The ccecum was simple in figure, with a blunt apex, and 
measured 2 inches in length. The large intestines measured 4-j- 
inches. 

" The kidneys were of the usual shape and exhibited no diffe- 
rence in their respective situation, neither being placed higher than 
the other. The membranous capsule was little adherent, and no 
superficial vessels were observable. The papilla was single. The 
length of each kidney was 2l inches, the breadth -|, and the thick- 
ness -1^. The renal capsules appeared wanting. 

" The lungs were very irregularly divided, there being four lobes 
on the right side and but one, without any fissure, on the left. 

" The rings of the trachea at its upper part formed nearly an en- 
tire circle, which, as they proceeded downwards, became less and 
less comj)lete till, at the lower part, three-fourths only of the ring 
was cartilage. The number of rings was twenty-one, but many 
were so bifurcated at the lower part as to render it doubtful whether 
they should be counted as double or single. 

" The sterno-thyroid and stemo-hyoid muscles were very strong 
and distinct. The thyroid glands were found lying one on each side 
of the first six rings of the trachea, and measured -I of an inch in 
length. 

" The mucous lining of the oesophagus was puckered into longitu- 
dinal rug(E throughout its whole extent, except for the last 4ths of 
an inch, where the rugce were transverse. 

" The length of the tongue from the epiglottis was 3 J- inches, its 
breadth J. Its apex was flat and round, and the middle of the 
anterior portion of its dorsum or upper surface covered with retro- 
verted papillcE, a line of fungiform papillae occupying each side of the 



103 

root, between which three Isolated papilla appeared very distinct, 
forming the three angles of a triangle. The submaxillary glands 
were I4- in length, -f inch In breadth, and -^ In thickness, 

" To the above details I am able, through the kindness of Mr. 
Rymer Jones, to add a description of the organs of generation, 
illustrated by a sketch, which that gentleman was so obliging as to 
make from the parts dissected. In removing the skin from the 
animal the penis had been injured. 

" The bladder was 1^ Inch In length and -|- in breadth, its shape 
being oval. The muscular coat was thick. The fibres were ga- 
thered into strong transverse ruga on the anterior and posterior 
aspects of the visctis, while laterally they formed two longitudinal 
bands, each -i Inch in breadth, running from the fundus to the neck. 
Beneath the transverse groups of fibres another set was found af- 
fecting a longitudinal direction. 

" The end of the penis being deficient, — what remained mea- 
suring l-^ Inch, — the urethra measured 5 inches in length ; the 
length of Its prostatic portion being 24 inches, of the membranous -I-, 
of the spongy 1^. Its circumference at the neck of the bladder and 
throughout the prostatic portion was -i of an Inch, at the membra- 
nous portion only 1-^ line, at the bulbous portion it was again di- 
lated to -^ of an Inch. The lining membrane presented no folds, 
but was perforated along the whole prostatic portion by innumerable 
microscopic apertures arranged in parallel rows, through which on 
squeezing the prostate its secretion oozed. 

" The ureters entered the bladder by two little apertures placed 
close together Immediately above its neck. 

" The vasa deferentia terminated by two small orifices upon the 
under surface of the urethra, about 2 lines from the commencement 
of Its prostatic portion. 

" The prostate, 2-1 Inches In length. Inclosed the commencement 
of the urethra for that extent, with a glandular envelopment -rVths 
of an inch in thickness. Its commencement was marked by a decided 
line of black matter, and the first half inch of its extent was 
tinged by the same dark substance, resembling in colour the section 
of a bronchial gland. The succeeding Inch was of a creamy white 
hue, while the last portion presented a dingy green tinge. Its ducts 
have been described. 

" Cowper's glands were two in number on each side, flask-shaped, 
of the size of large peas, soft In texture, of a white colour, and 
wrapped In a fibrous envelope. The ducts from the glands on each 
side joined before entering the urethra, and the four opened by two 
orifices, at the commencement of the bulbous portion of that tube. 

" The bulb of the coi-pus spongiosum was divided Into two parts, 
each of an oblong shape, 4 ths of an Inch in length, and 4- In thick- 
ness ; the parietes formed by a strong muscle constituting nearly the 
whole mass. 



lot 

" The crura penis VI ere unattached to the ischia, but were en- 
veloped in a muscular sac, the walls of which were the eighth of an 
inch in thickness." 

In illustration of the notes, preparations were exhibited of the sto- 
mach and cacum, as was also the drawing above referred to of the 
organs of generation and bladder. 



105 



September 9, 1834. 
Joseph Cox Cox, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by Dr. E. Riippell, 
and dated Frankfort, August 10, 1834. It was accompanied by 
specimens of Magilus antiquus, Rupp., including both the shell and 
the animal, and of the shell and animal of a new genus of Pectini- 
hranchiated Gasteropodous Mollusca. The latter was accompanied 
by a description by Dr. Riippell, who characterizes it under the de- 
signation of 

Leptoconchus. 

Testa tenuis, pellucida, subglobosa, spira depressa, subobsoletel : 
aperturd magna, subovali, extremitatibus in contrarium versis, mar- 
ginibus hand coalitis, dextro tenui antice subexpanso : columelld 
nulla, umhilico nuUo, antice truncata, contorta. 

Animal proboscide elongato, retractili : tentaculis duobus, com- 
planatis, trigonis, intern^ ad basin coalitis, externe in medio oculos 
gerentibus : pede mediocri, operculo nuUo : palUo ad marginem cir- 
culari, haud appendiculato, ad latus sinistrum subproducto : fora- 
mine branchiali submagno. 

The colour of the shell which constitutes the type of this new 
genus is constantly a sHghtly sordid milk-white. It is sulcated ex- 
ternally by numerous longitudinal undulated closely set lines, the 
outer whorls encroaching on the spire of the earlier ones so as almost 
to obliterate it. 

Length of the adult shell, 14^ lines; greatest breadth, 12-J-; 
length of the young shell, 74-; breadth, 6. 

Individuals of all ages have the sheU thin and fragile, and con- 
stantly occur imbedded in the calcareous mass of polypes, having a 
communication with the sea by only a moderate opening. They 
are found in the Red Sea, and are most frequently met with in 
Meandrina Phrygia. 

To distinguish the shell of Leptoconchus from that of Magilus it is 
sufficient to observe that in the latter the two margins of the aper- 
ture are always united, while in the former genus they are always 
disunited. The animals are distinguished by the possession and 
the want of an operculum, and by the difference in the proboscis ; 
the siphon of Magilus, moreover, does not occur in Leptoconchus. 

Dr. Ruppell suggests that the systematic place which should be 
assigned to this genus is near the lanthina. The number of the 
tentacula, the oral proboscis, the mantle destitute of siphon, the pec- 
tinated branchice composed of closely heaped pyramids, and the ab- 
sence of operculum, are so many marks of affinity ; to which may 
be added some of the characters of the shell : but he states himself 
to be perfectly aware that the difference between the habitations of 

No. XXI. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



106 

these genera is so wide as to aftord no confirmation of the correct- 
ness of this approximation. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary hy B. H. Hodgson, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., and dated Nepal, March 4, 1834. 

It commences by remarking on the difficulty experienced by Zo- 
ologists in the determination of distinctive marks adequate for the 
separation of the genera Antilope, Capra, and Ovis ; and then 
refers to the instances in which the writer has shown that the cha- 
racter of Antilope founded on the presumed absence of cavities in 
the cores of the horns connected with the frontal sinuses is incorrect. 
The value of the characters which are generally admitted by authors 
as distinguishing between the genera Capra and Ovis may, he con- 
ceives, be tested by a comparison of the wild race of either genus 
which belongs to the Himalaya. 

" For the last year," Mr. Hodgson proceeds, " I have had alive in 
my garden a splendid specimen of the mature male of each ; and 
I have frequently compared them together in all respects of manners 
and of structure. As the Goat in question, as well as the Sheep, is 
new, I will begin with a synoptical description of the two, and then 
proceed to notice the points of diiFerence and of agreement existing 
between them. 

Tribe CAPRiDiE, H. Smith. 

Genus Capra, Linn. 

Species Capra Jhdral. — The Jhdral of the Nepalese. 

" Affined to the Alpine ^gagri and to Capra Jemlaica. Adult male 
50 inches long from snout to rump, and 33 high. Head finely 
formed and full of beauty and expression, clad in close short hair, 
and without the least vestige of a beard. Facial line straight. Ears 
small, narrow, erect, rounded at the tips, and striated. Eye lively. 
Between the nares a black moist skin. Nares themselves short and 
wide. Knees and sternum callous. Tail short, depressed, wholly 
nude below. Animal of compact powerful make, with a sparish, 
short, and bowed neck ; deep barrel and chest ; longish, very strong, 
and rigid limbs, supported on perpendicular pasterns, and high com- 
pact hoofs : false hoofs conic and considerably developed. Attitude 
of rest gathered and firm, with the head moderately raised, and the 
back sub-arched. Shoulders decidedly higher than the croup. Fore 
quarters superb, and wholly invested in a long, flowing, straight, 
lion-like mane, somewhat feathered vertically from the crown of the 
withers, and sweeping down below the knees. Hind quarters poor 
and porcine, much sloped off from the croup to the tail, and the 
skinmuch constricted between the hams behind. Fur of two sorts: the 
outer, hair of moderate, harshness, neither wiry nor brittle, straight, 
and applied to the skin, but erigible under excitement, and of un- 
equal lengths and colours ; the inner, soft and woolly, as abundant 
as in the Wild Sheep and finer, of one length and colour. Horns 
9 inches long, inserted obliquely on the crest of the firontals, and 
touching at the base with their anterior edges ; subcompressed. 



107 

subtriangular, and uniformly wrinkled across, except near the tips, 
where they are rounded and smooth, keeled and sharpened towards 
the points, obtusely rounded behind ; the edge of the keel neither 
nodose nor undulated, but smooth, or evanescently marked by the 
transverse wrinkles of the horns. The horns are divergent, simply 
recurved, and directed more upwards than backwards. 

" Colour of the animal a saturate brown superficially, but inter- 
nally hoary blue, and the mane, for the most part, wholly of that 
hue. Fore arms, lower part of hams, and backs of the legs, rusty. 
Entire fronts of the limbs, and whole face and cheeks, black-brown ; 
the dark colour on the two last parts divided by a longitudinal line 
of pale rufous ; and another before the eye, shorter. Lips and chin 
hoary, with a blackish patch on either side below the gape. Tip of 
tail and of ears blackish. Tongue and palate, and nude skin of lips 
and muzzle, black. Iris darkish red hazel. Odour very powerful in 
the mature male at certain times. 

" Found in the wild state in the Kachar region of Nepal, in small 
flocks or solitarily. Is bold, capricious, wanton, eminently scanso- 
rial, pugnacious, and easily tamed and acclimatised in foreign parts. 

" Remarks. Jhdral is closely affined by the character of the 
horns to the Alpine ^gagri, and still more nearly, in other respects, 
to Capra Jemlaica. It differs from the former by the less volume of 
the horns, by their smooth anterior edge, and by the absence of the 
beard ; from the latter, by the horns being much less compressed, 
not turned inwards at the points, nor nodose. Jhdral breeds with 
the domestic Goat, and more nearly resembles the ordinary types of 
the tame races than any wild species yet discovered. 

Genus Ovis, Linn. 

" Species Ovis Ndhobr, Mihi. — The Ndhoor of the Nepalese. New.^ 
Variety of Ovis Musmon } 

" Closely aflined to Ovis Musmon, of which it is probably only a 
variety. Adult male 48 inches from snout to rump, and 32 high. 
Head coarse and expressionless, clad entirely in close short hair, 
without beard on the chin or throat, or any semblance of mane. 
Chaffron considerably arched. Ears medial, narrow, erect, pointed, 
striated. Eye duU. Moist space between the naves evanescent. 
Nares narrow and long. Knees and sternum callous. Tail medial, 
cylindrico-depressed, only half nude below. Structure moderately 
compact, not remarkable for power. Neck sparish, bowed, with a 
considerable dip from the crown of the shoulders. Limbs longish, 
firm, but slender, not remarkable for rigidity, and supported on lax 
pasterns, and on hoofs lower and less compact than the Goat's ; false 
hoofs mere Ccdlosities. Attitude of rest less gathered and firm, with 
the head lower, and the back straight. Shoulders decidedly lower 
than croup. Fore quarters not more massive than the hind, nor the 
extremities stronger. Fur of two sorts : the outer, hair of a harsh, 
brittle, quill-like character, serpentined internally, with the salient 
bows of one hair fitting into the resilient bends of another ; exter- 
nally straight, porrect from the skin, and very abundant ; of medial 
uniform length all over the body ; the inner coat, soft and woolly, 



108 

rather spare, and not more abundant than in the Goat. Horns 22 
inches along the curve, inserted high above the orbits on the crown 
of the forehead, touching nearly at the base with their whole depth, 
and carrying the frontal bones very high up between them, the pa- 
rietals being depressed in an equal degree*. The horns diverge 
greatly, but can scarcely be said to be spirally turned. They are 
first directed upwards considerably before the facial line, and then 
sweep downwards M'ith a bold cun-e, the points again being recurved 
upwards and inwards. They are uncompressed, triangular, broadly 
convexed to the front, and cultrated to the back. I'heir anterior 
face is the widest, and is presented almost directly forwards : their 
lateral faces, which are rectilinear, have an oblique aspect, and unite 
in an acutish angle at the back. They are transversely wrinkled, 
excejit near the tips, which are round and smooth. 

" The colour of the animal is a pale slaty blue, obscured with 
earthy brown, in summer overlaid with a rufous tint. Head below, 
and inside of the limbs and hams, yellowish white. Edge of the 
buttocks behind and of the tail pure white. Face and fronts of the 
entire limbs and chest blackish. Bands on the flanks the same, 
and also the tip of the tail. Tongue and palate dark. Eye yellow 
hazel. No odour. 

" Is found in the wild state in the Kachar region of Nepal, north 
of the Jhdral, amid the glaciers of the Himalaya, and both on the 
Indian and Tibetan sides of the snowy crests of that range : is suf- 
ficiently bold and scandent, but far less pugnacious, capricious, and 
curious than the Jhdral. Much less easily acclimatised in foreign 
parts than he is, in confinement more resigned and apathetic, and 
has none of the Jhdral' s propensity to bark trees with his horns, and 
to feed upon that bark and upon young shoots and aromatic herbs. I 
have tried in vain to make the Ndhoor breed with tame Sheep ; be- 
cause he will not copulate with them. The female of the species 
has the chafl'ron straight ; and the horns short, erect, subrecurved, 
and greatly depressed. The young want, at first, the marks on the 
limbs and flanks, and their nose is straight. 

" Remarks. Diff"ers from Ovis Musmon, to which it is closely 
allied, by the decided double flexure of the horns, their presence in 
the females, and the want of a tuft beneath the throat. 

" Having now completed the descriptions of the Wild Goat and 
the Wild Sheep, I shall proceed to the exhibition of the points of dif- 
ference and of resemblance between the two, beginning with the 
former. 

Goat. Sheep. 

Whole structure stronger andl t 

° > Less so. 

more compact. J 

Limbs thicker and more rigid. Feebler and more slender. 

* The Goat's skull has the same form, but less strikingly developed ; and 
unless I am mistaken, this form of the skull would afford a just and general 
mark to separate Oris and Capra from Cerriis and Antdope. There Is a 
gradation of characters in this respect among the Antelopes tending to the 
Caprine type in their general structure. 



109 



Goat. 
Hoofs higher and more compact. 
False hoofs well developed. 
Head smaller and finer. 
Facial line straight. 
Ears shorter and rounded. 
Tail short, flat, nude below. 



Withers higher than croup. 

Fore legs stronger than hind. 

Croup sloped ofi^. 

Odorous. 

Nose moister, and nares short 1 
and wide. J 

Homs of medial size, keeled,! 
and turned upwards. J 

Eye darker and keener. 

Hair long and unequal. 

Back arched. 

Bears change of climate well. 

Is eminently curious, capricious, "1 
and confident. J 

Barks trees with its homs, feed- 
ing on the peel, and on aro- 
matic herbs. 

In fighting rears itself on its 
hind legs and lets the weight 
of its body fall on the adver- 
sary. 



Sheep. 
Lower and less so. 
Evanescent. 
Larger and heavier. 
Chafi^ron arched. 
Longer and pointed. 
Longer, less depressed, and half 

nude only. 
Croup higher. 
Fore and hind equal. 
Not so. 
Not so. 

Less moist, longer, and narrower. 

Horns very large, not keeled, and" 

turned to the sides. 
Paler and duller. 
Short and equal. 
Back straight. 
Bears it ill. 

Is incurious, staid, and timid. 

Does not bark trees, and is less 
addicted to aromatics. 

In fighting runs a-tilt, adding 
the force of impulse to that of 
weight. 



" The Goat and Sheep have in common, hair and wool; no beard; 
no suborbital sinuses ; evanescent muzzle ; no inguinal pores ; horns 
in contact at the top of the head ; knees and sternum callous ; an- 
gular and transversely wrinkled horns ; striated ears ; two teats 
only in the females ; horns in both sexes ; and, lastly, incisors of 
precisely the same form. 

" Of the various diagnostics, then, proposed by Col. Hamilton 
Smith, it would seem that the following only can be perfectly relied 
on to separate Ovis from Capra : slender limbs ; longer pointed ears ; 
chafFron arched ; nares long and oblique ; very voluminous horns, 
turned laterally with double flexures. I should add myself, the 
strong and invariable distinction, — males not odorous, — as opposed 
to the males odorous of the genus Capra. But, after all, there are 
no physical distinctions at all equivalent to the moral ones so finely 
and truly delineated by BuflFon, and which, notwithstanding what 
Col. H. Smith urges in favour of the courage and activity of Sheep, 
will, for ever, continue to be recognised as the only essential dia- 
gnostics of the two genera." 



110 



September 23, 1834. 

Dr. Marshall Hall, in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by John Hearne, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., and dated Port au Prince, July 16, 1834. 
It accompanied a present of " an Alligator from the river Artiboniti," 
which is referrible to the Crocodilus acutus, Cuv. ; and of some Doves. 
These are the little Ground Dove or Ortolan of the English residents 
in Hayti, Columba passerina, Linn.; and the red-legged Partridge, as 
it is called in that island. Col. mystacea, Temm. Mr. Hearne ad- 
verts to some other animals which he has observed in Hayti, and 
expresses his hopes of succeeding in bringing or sending them to 
England. 

The Secretary adverted to some other animals lately added to the 
Menagerie, and which he regarded as interesting either in a scien- 
tific point of view, or on account of their not having been previously 
contained in the collection. They included the silky Monkey, Midas 
Rosalia, Geoif., of which a specimen has recently been presented by 
T. Manton, Esq. ; the Javanese Ichneumon, Herpestes Javanicus, 
Geoff. ; the African Moufflon, Ovis Tragelaphus, GeolF., presented 
by Sir Thomas Reade, His Majesty's Consul- General at Tunis ; and 
a remarkably darkly coloured variety of the European Bear, Ursus 
Arctos, Linn., presented by R. H. Beaumont, Esq. 

Among the Birds there have been added a pair of the pied Pigeon 
of New Holland, Columba armillaris, Temm. ; a pair of the Caper- 
cailzie or Cock of the Woods, Tetrao Urogallus, Linn., obtained from 
Norway and presented to the Society by J. H. Pelly, jun., Esq. ; a 
pair of the Buffonian Touraco, Corythaix Buffonii, Le Vaill. ; and a 
specimen of the naked-legged Owl of the Indian Islands, Ketupa Ja- 
vanensis,hess., (Strix Ketupu, Horsf.,) presented by James Harby, 
Esq., and stated to have been brought from Manilla. 

Among the Reptiles there have recently been added an interesting 
collection of Tortoises from China, presented by John Russel Reeves, 
Esq., of Canton, and including specimens of the three-banded Box- 
Tortoise, Cistuda trifasciata. Gray ; of Spengler's Terrapin, Geoemyda 
Spengleri, Gray, (Tesfudo Spengleri, Wcdh.); of the Emys Sinen- 
sis, Em. Reevesii, and Em. Bealii, all lately described by Mr. Gray ; 
and also of the Platysternon megacephalum, Gray. A Crocodile ap- 
parently referrible to the Crocodilus cataphractus , Cuv., is eJso at 
present living in the Menagerie: its nuchal plates constitute a 
series continuous with those of the back, but consist of only four 
rows instead of five, the number existing in the individual on which 
the species was originally founded. The specimen is stated to have 
been brought from Fernando Po. 

Mr. Ogilby called the attention of the Meeting to a specimen of 



Ill 

an Irish Otter, which he at the same time presented to the Society 
in the name of Miss Anna Moody of the Roe Mills near Newtown 
Lemavaddy, by whom it was preserved and mounted. On ac- 
count of the intensity of its colouring, which approaches nearly 
to black both on the upper and under surface ; of the less extent of 
the pale colour beneath the throat as compared with the common 
Otter, Lutra vulgaris, Linn., as it exists in England ; and of some 
difference in the size of the ears and in the proportions of other 
parts ; Mr. Ogilby has long considered the Irish Otter as constitut- 
ing a distinct species ; and he feels strengthened in this view of the 
subject by the peculiarity of its habitation and manners. It is, in 
fact, to a considerable extent a marine animal, being found chiefly 
along the coast of the county of Antrim, living in hollows and caverns 
formed by the scattered masses of the basaltic columns of that coast, 
and constantly betaking itself to the sea when alarmed or hunted. 
It feeds chiefly on the salmon, and as it is consequently injurious to 
the fishery, a premium is paid for its destruction ; and there are 
many persons who make a profession of hunting it, earning a liveli- 
hood by the reward paid for it and by disposing of its skin. Mr. 
Ogilby stated his intention of comparing it minutely with the com- 
mon Otter as soon as he should be enabled to do so by the possession 
of entire subjects, and especially of attending to the comparison of 
the osteological structures. He added that he proposed to desig- 
nate it, provisionally, as the Lutra Roensis, in honour of the lady by 
whom it was presented. 

Mr. Owen read a " Description of a recent Clavagella," founded on 
the examination of an individual brought home by Mr. Cuming and 
imbedded in siliceous grit. The portion of rock contained the whole 
of the expanded cavity excavated for the abode of the animal, to- 
gether with the fixed valve of its shell and about an inch of its cal- 
careous tube : the loose smaller valve was detached from the soft 
parts. Mr. Owen describes in detail the fixed valve, which cor- 
responds to the left side of the animal's body ; the attachment to it 
of the adductor muscles, two in number ; its passage into the cal- 
careous tube by a continuance of the shelly substance ; the tube it- 
self, which communicates with the posterior part of the chamber 
next the side which corresponds with the ventral surface of the ani- 
mal ; and the free valve. He regards it as probable that the animal 
of this species, having penetrated into the rock for a certain distance, 
then becomes stationary, and limits its operations to enlarging its 
chamber to the extent required for the development of its ovary : 
this enlargement takes place in the dorsal, dextral, and anterior 
directions. 

The soft parts of Clavagella form an irregularly quadrate mass, 
convex anteriorly, rather flattened at the sides, and slightly naiTOW- 
ing towards the posterior end, from which the smooth rounded si- 
phon is continued. This contains the anal and branchial canals, 
which are separated by a strong muscular septum, but do not pro- 
ject as distinct tubes : in this respect Clavagella agrees with Gastro- 



112 

chana and Aspergillum. The mantle is a closed sac, having only an 
opening for the passage of the siphon and a small slit at the opposite 
end for the passage of a rudimentary foot : the use of this slit in 
Clavagella is obviously different from that assigned by M. Riippell 
to the corresponding structure in Aspergillum. 

Mr. Owen describes the mantle and its structure ; the siphon ; 
and the thick mass of muscular fibres at the anterior part of the 
mantle, which forms probably one of the principal instruments in the 
work of excavation : he also notices the great development, as com- 
pared with the size of the animal, of the adductor muscles. He 
then proceeds to the viscera, which generally agree with the t5rpical 
structure in other Bivalves. The digestive system, which accords 
with that which is usual in Acephalous Mollusca, is described; as 
are also the respiratory and circulating systems, the principeil ner- 
vous ganglia, and the ovary. 

The paper was accompanied by drawings illustrative of the several 
structures described in it. 

The specimen described belongs to the species termed by Mr. 
Broderip Clavagella lata. 



113 



October 14, 1834. 

William YarreU, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by Sir Robert Ker 
Porter, Corr. Merab. Z.S., dated Caraccas, July 24, 1834. In re- 
ference to the Tortoises {Testudo Carbonaria, Spix,) presented to the 
Society by the writer in the spring of the present year (see p. 41), 
it stated that they are regarded as a great delicacy at Caraccas, and 
sold as such in the market. It also stated that some eggs of Curas- 
sows, or Potvies, spoken of in a previous letter, had been placed under 
a hen, but had not produced young, having, as Sir Robert imagines, 
been by some accident injured in the shell. He had, however, a few 
days previously to the date of his letter, placed another, just laid by 
the bird, and hoped to be more successful, in which case he promises 
to give some particulars relative to the experiment. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by the Hon. Byron 
Gary, dated His Majesty's ship Dublin, Sept. 25, 1834, giving some 
particulars relative to a large specimen of the Tortoise from the Gal- 
lapagos Island, presented by the wTiter to the Society. The spe- 
cimen weighs 187 lbs. and measures in length, over the curve of the 
dorsal shell 3 feet 84- inches, and along the ventral shell 2 feet 3-j- 
inches, its girth round the middle being 6 feet 3^ inches. It is 
consequently much smedler than several specimens of the Indian Tor- 
toise from the Seychelles Islands which have at diiFerent times been 
exhibited in the Society's Garden; the weight and measurements of 
one of which are given in the Proceedings of the Society for 1833, 
p. 81. The lateral compression of the anterior part of the dorsal 
shell, and the elevation of its front margin, by which the Gallapagos 
Tortoise is distinguished from the Indian, are in this specimen strongly 
marked. 

The following notes by Mr. Martin of the dissection of a specimen 
of the Mangue (Crossarchus ohscurus, F. Cuv.) were read. 

" The dissection was strongly confirmatory of the justice of the 
position claimed for the animal, notwithstanding its plantigrade 
mode of progression, between the Ichneumons and the Suricates. To 
the latter indeed it bears in its general external aspect and charac- 
ters a marked affinity ; in both we find the ])upil circular, and the 
muzzle elongated, pointed, and moveable. Nor is there much less 
con'espondence in their general anatomy. Fortunately the notes of 
the dissection of two Suricates, which were living for a considerable 
period in the possession of the Society, have enabled me to make an 
accurate comparison. The notes to which I allude are by Mr. Owen, 
and will be found in the First Part of the ' Proceedings of the Com- 
mittee of Science and Correspondence' for 1830-1, pp. 39 and 51. 

" The Mangue which I had the opportunity of examining was a 
No. XXII. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



114. 

female, and measured in the length of its body 1 foot : the tail was 
imperfect. The animal was in good condition ; indeed it was rather too 
much loaded with fat to be perfectly active. On the abdomen being 
opened the liver and the small intestines presented themselves, the 
latter being covered by- an extensive omentum ; the stomach was 
concealed beneath the liver. The liver was tripartite, with a lohulus 
Spigelii, and consisted of one large right, and two left lobes ; the 
latter together not exceeding in size the single one on the right. 
On the under surface of the right lobe, near the edge, lay the gall- 
bladder, almost globular in shape, and measuring nearly ^ths of an 
inch from the fundus to the neck. It was full of dark greenish bile. 
At the distance of ^ths of an inch from the neck, the biliary duct 
was joined by the hepatic : the ductus choledochus communis then 
continued on for more than -^ an inch, and entered the duodenum 
about -i of an inch below the pylorus. The spleen, flat, elongated, 
and narrow, occupied the usual situation, and was enveloped in a 
fold of omentum, giving, when stretched out, a width of 1^ inch. 
On turning back the stomach, the pancreatic gland was seen, hav- 
ing a large process situated beneath the spleen and stomach; the 
portion immediately covered by the latter dilating and forming a 
ring, attached to the duodenum for the distance of 3 inches. In 
the Suricate, this viscus is very similar, both in figure and situation. 
Mr. Owen observes that "a transverse portion extends from the 
spleen behind the stomach to the pylorus ; it then divides and forms 
a circle, which lies in the concavity of the great curve of the duode- 
num ;" and subsequently notices its resemblance to " the neutral 
symbol of the entomologist p.' Such also is the figure of the 
pancreas of the Mangue. 

"The stomach was very muscular, with longitudinal stria along its 
larger curvature, and singularly contracted in the middle. It is to 
be observed, however, that it was perfectly empty : when distended 
with air, the stria and contraction disappeared. 

" The small intestines did not much exceed a common quill in cir- 
cumference; they decreased in size from the duodenum, which was 
very delicate. The small intestines measured 4 feet 2-i- inches, and 
the large 4-J- inches, without bands, or sacculi. The ceecum was 1 
inch in length and pointed. On each side of the anus were situated 
two follicles of the size of a small horsebean, containing a thick unc- 
tuous, but nearly inodorous matter. They opened externally on 
the verge of the anus. 

" The kidneys, of which the right was rather higher than the left, 
were of the usual shape, and 1 inch in length. Their cortical 
structure was very distinct ; the tubuli terminated in one large co- 
nical papilla. On the outer surface there ramified an arborescence 
of small veins, as in the Cat, but by no means so beautifully and re- 
gularly distributed. In this respect also the Mangue agrees with the 
Suricate, as well as with the Viverridce generally. The supra-renal 
glands were flat and oval; their external coat was grey; and beneath 
this was spread an inner layer, resembling liver in colour and 
texture. 



115 

"The bladder was small and contracted : the uterus measured ^ an 
inch, its cornua H inch, and the vagina li inch, its internal lining 
being puckered longitudinally. 

" The lungs consisted of three lobes on the right, and two on the 
left side : in the Suricate there are four on the right and three on the 
left. The heart is obtuse at its apex, and of a thick rounded figure, being 
4ths of an inch from the base to the apex and 14- in breadth across the 
base. The tongue was 2 inches long, smooth at the sides, but covered 
in the centre towards the tip with retroverted sharp bristly papilla: : 
at the base were three isolated /^fl/j«7/« forming a crescent, thus Oo°- 
The sublingual glandswere of the size of hazel-nuts. The epiglottis was 
pointed and curled forwards : the number of rings in t)ie trachea was 
thirty-eight. The thyroid glands were situated on each side of the 
twelve upper rings of the trachea ; they were of large size, measuring 
-l-ths of an inch in length. The oesop/taj'MS exhibited longitudinal ruga 
along its inner surface. 

" In the disproportion between the large and small intestines ; in 
their small circumference ; in the form of the ceecum ; in the venous 
ramifications on the surface of the kidneys ; as well as in other mi- 
nor points ; we cannot fail to observe the close similarity, not alone 
between the Mangue and the Suricate, but between both these ani- 
mals and the Viverridce in general." 

A collection was exhibited of skins of Birds, formed by B. H. 
Hodgson, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., in Nepsd, and presented by him 
to the Society. These birds were brought under the notice of the 
Meeting by Mr. Gould, who, at the request of the Chairman, pointed 
out the most interesting among them, both as regarded the Society's 
collection, and with reference to their novelty or the peculiarities of 
their form. As, however, Mr. Hodgson himself purposes to describe 
at length the characters and habits of the several species in his pro- 
posed ' Zoologjr of Nepal,' Mr. Gould abstained from entering more 
particularly into those topics. 

A paper was read " On Clavagella, by W. J. Broderip, Esq." It 
was accompanied by drawings illustrative of the new species de- 
scribed in it. 

The author commences by a history of the genus from the time 
when Lamarck established it for the reception of four fossil species, 
two of which he had previously referred to his genus Fistulana. A 
recent species was subsequently described and figured b)^ Mr. G. B. 
Sowerby,in his 'Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells,' under the name 
of Clav. aperta ; and a second recent species, Clav. Australis, has 
since been described and figured by the same conchologist ; M. 
Audouin has noticed another recent Shell which he refers to this 
genus ; and some details have been published by M. Rang of an ad- 
ditional recent species, his Clav. Rapa. The collection of Mr. Cum- 
ing furnishes another recent species, the anatomy of which formed 
the subject of a paper read by Mr. Owen at the last Meeting of the 
Society; there exists yet another in that of Mr. Isaac Lyon Gold- 
smid ; and another in those of Mr. Cuming and Mr. Miller. 



116 

A close examination of the recent species which he has observed 
has convinced Mr. Broderip that although one valve of the sheU is 
always fixed or imbedded in the chamber formed in the hard sur- 
rounding substance, the tube is not necessarily continued into a com- 
plete testaceous clavate shape, and that consequently the character 
assigned by Lamarck to the genus requires emendation. The fixed 
valve is in all these species continued on to the tube. In Mr. 
Cuming's the perforated shelly plates are situated not far from 
the throat of the tube, one on either side ; while in Mr. Gold- 
smid's the perforated plate is single, and seated at the anterior or 
greater end of the ovate chamber, being in the smaller individual 
joined laterally to the anterior ventral edge of the fixed valve, and 
in the larger one wholly isolated from it. In all the specimens the 
anterior edge of the fixed valve is surrounded by the naked wall of 
the chamber. 

After remarking on the difficulty of clearly defining species where 
the roughness or smoothness of the surface of the shell and even its 
shape may depend upon the greater or less degree of hardness of 
the material of which the chamber is formed ; where colour also is 
absent ; and from specimens of which the tubes are broken ; Mr. 
Broderip proceeds to suggest the following distinguishing characters. 
The first two may, he remarks, hereafter prove to be mere varieties, 
although he is strongly disposed to regard them as constituting 
distinct species : 

Clavagella elongata. Clav. camerd elongato-ovatd ; valvd liberd 
elongatd, subtrigond, convexd, externe concentrice valde rugosd, 
intus nitente ; umbone acuto. 
Hab. in Oceano Pacifico } 
Mus. Goldsmid. 

The wall of the coral chamber against which the free valve rested 
gives as exact an impression of the external rugosities of that valve 
as if the valve had been applied to a surface of wax. 

Clavagella lata. Clav. camera rotundato-ovatd ,• valvd liberd 
latiuscukl, subtrigond, subconvexd, externe concentrice rugosd, 
intus nitente ; umbone subrotundato. 

Hab. in Oceano Pacifico. 

Mus. Cuming. 

Both valves are nacreous internally ; and the muscular impres- 
sions, especially in the fixed valve, are very strong. 

Clavagella Melitensis. Clav. testd subrotundatd, rugosd, intHs 
subnitente ; tubo longitudinaliter corrugato. 

Hab. ad Melitam. 

Muss. Cuming, Miller. 

It is not impossible, from its locality, that this may turn out to 
be M. Audouin's species, if that should prove to be a true Clavagella. 
M. Sander Rang's remarks, however, go far to show that a Sicilian 
Shell referred to this genus, has been incorrectly so referred, in as 
much as it has no fixed valve. The one described above has the 
fixed valve continued on to the shelly tube as in the other recent 
species of the genus Clavagella. 



117 

Mr. Broderip conjectures that Clavagella may be in its very young 
state a free Bivalve, floating at large until it arrives at some vacant 
hole that suits it, when it attaches one valve to the wall of the hole, 
and proceeds to secrete the tube or siphonic sheath, to enlarge the 
chamber according to its necessities, and to secrete the shelly per- 
forated plate which is to give admission to the water at the prac- 
ticable part of the chamber. The excavation may probably be as- 
sisted by the secretion from the glands observed by Mr. Owen, and 
evidently cannot be effected in the greater end of the chamber by 
mere mechanical attrition ; but the solvent secretion must be one of 
extensive powers to act on such diflferent substances as siliceous 
grit, the coral of an Astraopora, calcareous grit, and argUlo-calca- 
reous tufa, in which respectively were found the Clav. Australis, 
Clav. elongata, Clav. lata, and Clav. Melitensis. 

Adverting to the different depths at which these several species 
were found, which varied from near low- water mark to sixty-six feet, 
Mr. Broderip remarks, that inferences as to the state of submersion 
of a rock during the lifetime of the fossil species which there occur, 
ought consequently to be made with caution by the geologist. 

In conclusion he observes, that though the genus Clavagella is in 
its recent state at present rare, it is in all probability widely dif- 
fused ; and suggests to collectors a careful examination of masses 
of coral and submerged perforated rocks with a view to the further 
elucidation of the habits and structure of these and other interest- 
ing animals. 



1*18 



October 28, 1834. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

Living specimens were exhibited of a species of Bee from South 
America, together with portions of its Comb, contained in the fissure 
of a log of wood. They were presented to the Society by Mr. Bigg, 
who stated, in a note accompanying the specimens, that they were 
found about three weeks since on splitting a log of peachwood from 
the Brazils for the use of a dye-house, on the premises of Mr. Apple- 
gath, a calico-printer at Crayford in Kent. The wood had been 
previously lying in the docks, and had been perhaps eighteen months 
from the Brazils. 

Mr. Curtis, to whom specimens were submitted for examination, 
states that they belong to the genus Trigona, Jur., and form a very 
pretty and apparently undescribed species. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited preparations of both sexes of Syngnathus 
Acus,\An\i., a.nd Syngn. Typhle, Ej., in illustration of the following 
extract from the manuscript notes of the late John Walcott, Esq., 
author of ' A Synopsis of British Birds,' ' History of Bath Fossils,' 
and ' Flora Britannica Indigena.' This manuscript, which is volu- 
minous, and relates wholly to British Fishes, was written during the 
author's residence at Teignmouth, in the years 1784 and 1785, and 
has been forwarded by his son William Walcott, Esq., of South- 
ampton, to Mr. Yarrell, for his use in a projected work on ' British 
Fishes.' 

" Syngnathus Acus and Typhle. — The male differs from the female 
in the belly from the vent to the tail fin being much broader, and in 
having for about two thirds of its length two soft flaps, which fold 
together and form a false belly. They breed in the summer, the fe- 
males casting their roe into the false belly of the male. This I have 
asserted from having examined many, and having constantl)^ found, 
early in the summer, roe in those without a false belly, but never any 
in those with ; and on opening them later in the summer there has 
been no roe in (what I have termed) the female, but only in the false 
belly of the male." 

The specimens exhibited of females of Syngn. Acus and Typhle had 
no anal pouch, and the opened abdomen exjDosed two lobes of ova 
of large size in each. The anal pouch is peculiar to the males, and 
is closed by two elongated flaps. On separating these flaps and ex- 
posing the inside, the ova, large and yellow, were seen lining the 
pouch in some specimens, while in others the hemispheric depres- 
sions from which the ova had been but lately removed were very 
obvious. In each of these the opened abdomen exhibited true testes. 

Mr. Walcott adds : " They begin to breed when only between 4 
and 5 inches long." AspecimenofS'ywp'w.^cM^, nearly 1 6 inches long, 
was exhibited, indicating, probably, its extreme growth. A female 



119 

of the same species, only 4 inches long, was also shown, the aido- 
men of which contained two lobes of enlarged ova, which, to all ap- 
pearance, would have been deposited in a few days. 

Specimens of males and females oiSyngn. Ophidian, Linn., were also 
exhibited. In this species neither male nor female possesses an anal 
pouch, but the ova are carried by the male in hemispheric depres- 
sions on the external surface of the abdomen, anterior to the anus. 
All the specimens examined having these external depressions proved 
to be males, with the testes in the abdomen very obvious : those 
without external depressions proved to be all females, internally 
provided with two lobes of enlarged ova. The males of this species, 
when taken by Mr. Yarrell from the sea, had one ovu7n of the size 
and colour of a mustard-seed fixed in each cup-shaped depression, 
but time and the eiFects of a long journey had removed them. Dr. 
Fleming in his 'History of British Animals,' page 176, states the 
length of Syngn. Ophidian at about 5 inches : some of Mr. YarreU's 
specimens measured 9 inches. 

Mr. Yarrell further stated that the males of Syngn. Acus carry 
their living j'oung in the anal pouch, even after they have been 
hatched there. He had been frequently told by fishermen that on 
opening them they had found the living young within the pouch, 
which they called the belly ; and that if these young were shaken out 
into the water over the side of the boat, they did not swim away, but 
when the parent fish was held in the water in a favourable position, 
the )fOung would again enter the pouch. 

It was observed by M. Agassiz, that the fact of the males of cer- 
tain species of the genus Syngnathus carrying the ova in a peculiar 
abdominal pouch, after their exclusion by the female, had been no- 
ticed on the Continent by Eckstrom, Retzius, and Marcklin ; and 
that he had himself made the same observation. 

M. Agassiz exhibited drawings of several species of Lepisosteus, 
together with some of the details of their internal organization ; and, 
at the request of the Chairman, explained his views with regard to 
their systematic arrangement and structure, as well as to their rela- 
tions with various genera of fossil fishes, and the coincidence of some 
parts of their internal anatomy with that of Reptiles. He described 
two new species observed by him in the British Museum, taking his 
characters principally from the form and sculpture of the scales, the 
presence or absence of the short rays at the base of the caudal and 
other fins, and the variations in the form and disposition of the teeth. 
In reference to their internal structure, he particularly called the at- 
tention of the Meeting to the large and regular sht by which the 
swimming-bladder communicates with the pharynx ; which he re- 
garded as bearing even a closer resemblance to the entrance of the 
trachea of the pulmoniferous Vertebrata in general, than the aperture 
by means of which the lungs communicate with the pharynx in the 
Perennibranchiate Amphibia. He conceived, therefore, that the ana- 
tomy of these fishes offers a conclusive argument in favour of the 
theory, long since proposed, that the swimming-bladder of Fishes is 



120 

analogous to the lungs of the other Vertebrata. He spoke of the num- 
ber of the csecal appendages as greater in Lepisosteus than in any 
other fish which he had dissected ; and referring to certain fossil bo- 
dies by which geologists have long been puzzled, and which have 
been regarded as fossil worms, he stated his opinion, from the close 
resemblance between the two, that they are in reality the csecal ap- 
pendages of the fossil fishes, in whose company they are generally 
found. 

Mr. Gray exhibited young shells of Argonauta Argo and Arg. hi- 
ans, with the view of calling the attention of the Society to a new 
argument in favour of the opinion that the animal (Ocythoe) found 
in the shells of this genus is parasitic. This argument is founded on 
the size of what Mr. Gray has termed the nucleus of the shell, viz. 
that original portion of it which covered the animal within the 
egg, and which is usually found to differ in surface and appearance 
from the remainder of the shell formed after its exclusion from the 
egg. In the specimens exhibited Mr. Gray described the nucleus as 
blunt, rounded, thin, slightly and irregularly concentrically wrinkled, 
and destitute of the radiating waves which are common to the adult 
shells of all the species of this genus. These waves he stated to 
commence immediately below the thin hemispherical tips, and he 
therefore entertained no doubt that those tips constituted the nucleus 
of the shell, and covered the embryo of the animal at the period of 
its exclusion from the egg. Judging from the size of this portion of 
the shell, which in one of the specimens measured nearly one third 
of an inch in diameter, and was consequently many times larger than 
the largest eggs of the Ocythoe found within the Argonaut shells, 
Mr. Gray inferred that it must have been produced by an animal 
whose eggs are of much greater magnitude. The Ocythoe cannot 
therefore, he conceived, be the constructor of the shell, and its true 
artificer still remains to be discovered. Mr. Gray further remarked, 
with reference to Poll's statement that he had observed the rudiment 
of a shell on the back of the embryo of Ocythoe examined by him, 
that he has himself uniformly found, in all the eggs of Mollusca which 
he has examined, the shell well developed, even before the develop- 
ment of the various organs of the embryo. With respect to the ar- 
gument derived from the want of muscular attachment, he observed 
that the animal of Carinaria (to which he considered it probable that 
that of Argonauta is most nearly related), although firmly attached 
to the shell while living, separates from it with the greatest ease 
when preserved in spirits, being from its gelatinous nature very rea- 
dily dissolved. . These circumstances, he conceived, might fairly ac- 
count for the animal of Carinaria having been, until very recently, 
unknown, and for that of Argonauta s,t\[\ remaining undiscovered. 



121 



November 11. 1834. 

Dr. Marshall Hall, in the Chair. 

A specimen was exhibited of a species of Monacanthus, Cuv., re- 
markable for having on each side of the body, about midway between 
the pectoral and caudal fins, a bundle of long and strong spines di- 
rected backwards. The species was figured in Willughby's ' Historia 
Piscium,' and a description of it by Lister is contained in the Appen- 
dix to that work ; but it appears not to have been noticed by subse- 
quent observers, and to have been altogether overlooked or rejected 
by systematic writers. Lister's specimen of the Fish was preserved 
in the collection of William Courten, the founder of the museum 
which became subsequently the property of Sir Hans Sloane, and 
eventually formed the basis of the British Museum : that brought 
under the notice of the Meeting belongs to the Museum of the Army 
Medical Department at Chatham, and was exhibited with the per- 
mission of Sir James Macgrigor. It was accompanied by a descrip- 
tion by Staff-Surgeon Burton, which was read. 

Monacanthus Htstrix. Mon. lateribus in medio 6 — 7-spinosis, 

spinis validis longioribus. 
Guaperva Hystrix, List., in Will. Hist. Pise, App.p. 21. Tab.S.2\. 

' ' Length 7 inches . Colour black . Skin crowded with rough grains ; 
a smooth spot behind the gills ; towards the tail assuming the charac- 
ter of rhomboid scales, but the granular form continued over the caudal 
fin. On the sides, about one third of its length from the tail, is fixed 
a cluster of six or seven strong free spines from 4- to 1 inch in length, 
capable of erection and depression. 

" Dorsal spine very strong, about H inch long, sub triangular, 
with serrated edges, and grained, except towards the point : when 
not erected it is lodged in a deep groove on the back. Extremity 
of the pelvis salient, and terminating in two sharp short spines. Se- 
cond dorsal fin broad and 2 inches long ; anal similar, but shorter. 

" In front of the eyes a small fossa covered with a membrane, ex- 
cept in its centre, where it is perforated by a minute olfactory fo- 
ramen. 

" Teeth in the upper jaw eight, the two middle incisors placed di- 
rectly in front of the second pair, in a groove of which they are 
lodged, so that no part of these last are visible externally, except a 
small process at the cutting edge ; the outer teeth trigonal. The 
teeth of the lower jaw differ materially from the generic character, 
their number being only four, of which the two middle ones are 
by far the largest in the mouth. On this account, and also on ac- 
count of the nature of its covering, — which partakes of the granular 
character of that oi Monacanthus and Aluterus, Cuv., and of the rhom- 

No. XXIII. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 



122 

boidal scales of Balis tes, Ej., — this fish might be regarded as the type 
of a distinct subgenus among the Balistida. 

" The strong dorsal spine, the spinous processes of the pelvic 
bones, and the cluster of lateral spines, added to the tough indu- 
lated epidermis of this fish, form an armour excellently adapted for 
its protection against its more powerful enemies. 

" It is an inhabitant of the Indian Ocean, frequenting the shores 
and coral reefs. The present specimen was brought from the Mau- 
ritius by Dr. Hibbert, Surgeon, 99th Regiment. This species is 
stated to be also found abundantly on the western coast of Australia, 
where it is known to the settlers by the name of " leather-jacket," 
— a denomination which is probably applied to it in common with 
other species of Balistidce." 

Mr. Gray exhibited a drawing of this specimen, and stated his 
intention of publishing a figure of it in the concluding Number of the 
' Illustrations of Indian Zoology,' which is about to appear. 

Mr. Gray called the attention of the Meeting to two new species 
of Sturgeon ; one from China, of which he exhibited a specimen, and 
the other from the Mississippi, of which he showed a drawing taken 
from a specimen in the British Museum. The former species belongs 
to the same section of the genus with the Acipenser glaber of Mar- 
sigli, characterized by its conical muzzle, and the smooth and silvery 
nature of the skin between its 5 rows of jilates. It was sent to En- 
gland by Mr. John Russell Reeves, and is distinguished by the fol- 
lowing characters : 

Acipenser Sinensis. Acip. lavis, superne hrunneus; rostro gra- 
ciliyConico, acuto, mutico ; fronte arcuato; scutis seriei dorsalis 
15 — 16, radiatim suJcatis, alte carinatis, carind posticl uniden- 
tatd, anteriorihus gradatim minoribiis, duohus ultimis ecarinatis ; 
serierum lateralium hrevioribus, carind postice bidentatd; caudd su- 
perne serie radiorum slmplicium, ad latera squamis angustis tcctd. 

Hub. in China. 

Scuta dorsalia 16 ; lateralia superiora 40 — 41, inferiora 13 — 14. 

The other species was stated by Mr. Gray to belong to a new sec- 
tion intermediate between the true Sturgeons and the Spatularia, 
having a broad expanded muzzle, flat above, shelving on the sides, 
and concave, and furnished with a central ridge beneath. 

Acipenser CATAFHRACTus. Acip. brunneus, squamis parvis rugo- 
sis caudam versus majoribus Icevioribusque ; rostro depresso apice 
spatulato, carind laterali occipiteque ad latera spinosis; scutis ru- 
gosis, acute carinatis, carind postice unidentatd ; vertcbralibus 
posterioribus muticis, lateralibus posterioribus multo majoribus. . 

Acipenser cataphi-actus. Rapp, MSS. 

Hab. in fluvio Mississippi. 

The beards are 4 in number ; and the hinder part of the body 
elongated, slender, and depressed. The snout is composed of a large 
number of small long bones, radiately grooved, owing perhaps to the 



123 

youth of the specimen. It has a group of six recurved spines just be- 
hind the apex, and a series of small spines on the ridge which runs 
on each side from the apex to the anterior angle of the eye. There 
is also a small blunt spine on each side of the middle of the frontal 
region ; and two others are placed on the bones over the hinder part 
of the gill-flap. The latter form the commencement of a series of 
carinated shields. The small scales are rough ; and the shields form- 
ing the lateral lines are radiately grooved, and furnished with a sharp 
continued keel, terminating posteriorly in a spine. The larger plates 
on the hinder part of the body are smooth, with a few longitudinal 
ridges, and emarginate at the apex. There are 1 7 plates on the dor- 
sal ridge, of which the third is the smallest; 47 or 49 in the upper 
lateral series, among which the anterior are much the smallest, their 
length increasing gradually as they approach the tail, and this in- 
crease being more marked after passing the ventral, and again after 
passing the anal, fins; and 15 or 16 in the lower lateral series. 

The exhibition was resumed of the Shells collected by Mr. Cuming 
on the Western Coast of South America, and among the Islands of 
the South Pacific Ocean. Those exhibited at the Meeting were ac- 
companied by characters bjj^ Mr. G. B. Sowerby, and comprehended 
the following apparently undescribed species of the 

Genus Fissurella. 

FissuRELLA MAXIMA. Fiss. testd ovato-oMongd, depressiusculd, 
crassd ; intiis albd, margine lato, imdiilato, pallescente fusco ar- 
iiculato; extus radiatim sulcatd, rugosd, albido-cinerascente fusco 
radiatd ; aperturd dorsali ovatd : long. 5, lat. Z A poll. 
Hub. ad Valparaiso. 

In the young shells the internal margin is proportionally broader 
than in those which are more fully grown : in some specimens this 
margin shows a very great development of crystalline structure. 
Found on exposed rocks and under stones at low water. — G.B. S. 

Fissurella grandis. Fiss. testd ovato-oblongd, elev alius culd, pos- 
tice latiore, crassd ; intiis albd, margine lafiusculo, subundulato, 
cinerascente ; extHs Icevigatd, piirpureo-nigrd, radiis numerosissi- 
mis saturatioribns ; aperturd dorsali majusculd, oblongd, extHs la- 
tiore, antice subdeclivi: long. 4, lat. 26 poll. 

Hab. ad Valparaiso et ad Insulam Chiloe sub lapidibus littorali- 
bus. — G. B. S. 

Fissurella limbata. Fiss. testd ovato-oblongd, depressiusculd, 
postice latiore, crassiusculd ; intiis albd, margine latiusculo, subun- 
dato, pallescente, lined internd purpureo-nigrd ; extixs Icevigatd, 
rosaceo-fuscescente, radiis rufescentibus ; aperturd dorsali elon- 
gatd, mediuni subcoarctatd : long. 3, lat. 1-9 poll. 
Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

In young shells the internal line of the margin is broader and more 
deeply coloured than in the more fully developed specimens. Nearly 
all the fully grown shells are so deeply eroded as to have lost almost 



124- 

all traces of coloured rays, llie younger shells, ■which retain the 
coloured rays, are found in exposed situations at low water. 

A representation of the inside of this sheU has been given in my 
' Genera of Recent and FossU Shells', under the name of Fiss.picta, 
Lam., from which it is nevertheless very distinct. 

Found on exposed rocks. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA BiRADiATA (Frcmbly MSS.). Fiss. testd ovatd, an- 
tice subacuminatd, elevatiusculd, crassiusculd ; int^s albd, mar- 
gine latiusculo, purpurasceiiti-fusco ; extiXs radiatim striatd, pur- 
purascenti-fuscd, plerumque radiis duobus (utroque latere unicd) 
pallescentibus ; aperturd dorsali oblongd : long. 3'8, lat.2'1 poll. 

Hab. ad Valparaiso sub lapidibus littoralibus. 

In this, as well as in several others, the margin varies somewhat in 
width ; it is, however, generally broader in the young shells. The 
fully grown specimens sometimes lose the two light-coloured rays. 

Found also at Iquiqui in Peru. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA LATA. F'lss. tcstd ovalt, elevutiusculd, crassiusculd; 
intus albd, margine latiusculo, pallescente, rosaceo-viaculato ; ex- 
tils cinerascente, radiatim costellatd, costellis subtuberculatis, ra- 
diis coloratis purpureo-rufis ; aperturd dorsali ovato-oblongd : 
long. 33, lat. 25 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam S. Marise, Chilensis. 

This species approaches, in form and colouring, very nearly to 
Fiss. picta. Lam. 

Found in exposed places. — G. B. S, 

FissuRELLA puLCHRA. Fiss. tcstd ovato-oblongd, depressd, antice 
angustiore, crassiusculd ; intus albd, margine latiusculo, subundu- 
lato, purpurascenti-fusco ; extiis purpureo-cinerascente, radiis 
rufo-purpureis maculisque albis et violaceis concinne pictd ; aper- 
turd dorsali centrali, postice inclinatd : long. 2'5, lat. I' 6 poll. 

Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

Obs. Testa junior radiatim subcostellata, 

Variat testa tota extus purpurascenti-fusca, unicolore. 

Found on the rocks. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA ORiENs. Fiss. tcstd ovato-oMongd, depressd, crassius- 
culd ; intus albd, margine angustiore, plerumque pallescente ; ex- 
tils pallidd fusco nigro vel roseo radiatd ,• aperturd dorsali ob- 
longd, medians latiore: long. 2-7, lat. I' 6 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Chiloe sub lapidibus littoralibus. 

Variat testa extus obsolete picta, margine intemo paull6 latiore. 
Hab. ad Valparaiso, rupibus adherens. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA Chilensis. Fiss. testd ellipticd, depressd, radiatim 
costellatd, costellis 7-ugosis ; intHs albd, margine lato, pallescente, 
nonnunquam fusco maculato; extiis cinerascente, radiis fuscis pal- 
lidis plerumque pictd; aperturd dorsali oblongd, subcentrali: long. 
2-4. lat. 1-8 poll. 

Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

Found on rocks in exposed situations at low water. — G. B, S. 



125 

FissuRKLLA OBSCURA. Fiss. testd ovuto-oblongd, radiatim costatd, 
costellis obtusis, latiusculis ; intiis virescente, margine undulato, 
crenulato, pallidiore ; extus coloribus variis radiatim pictd, punctis 
nigris nonnullis prope aperturam dorsalem radiantibus ; aperturd 
dorsali subelongatd, mediarie latiore, rimd internd rufo marginatd : 
long. 1*1, lat. 07 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos sub lapidibus littoralibus. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA viRESCENs. Fiss. tcstd ovatd, clevatiusculd, radiatim 
costatd et striatd; intiis virescente, margine pallidiore, undulato 
et crenulato ; extHs pallide virescente fusco-virescente obscure ra- 
diatd, margine costellis crenato; aperturd dorsali oblongd, exttis 
utrinque coarctatd : long. 1"8, lat. V A poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

Found in exposed situations at low water. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA NiGROPUNCTATA. Fiss. tcstd ovutd, elevtttiusculd, an- 
tice angustiore, costellato-radiatd ; intiis virescente, margine pal- 
lidiore, crenulato, nigro punctato ; extus pallide virescente, punc- 
tulis elongatis nigris confertim digestis radiatd ; aperturd dorsali 
oblongd, lateribus extus subconnatis : long. 1*6, lat. \-\ poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

Variat test^ intus alba ; rimS, aperturse dorsalis nigro marginata. 
Hab. ad Insulam Lobos sub lapidibus littoralibus. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA MACROTREMA. Fiss. tcstd ovato-oblongd, elevatius- 
culd, antice angustiore, radiatim striatd; intiis virescente, mar- 
gine nigro variegato; extus plerumque virescente rufo fusco vel 
nigrescente radiatd; aperturd dorsali elongatd, lateribus extus co- 
arctatis, utrinque unidentatis : long. 1'4, lat, O'd poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

Variat testa exttis purpurascenti-nigrti. 
Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

Variat etiam testei extus virescente, radiis rufescentibus obscuris, 
Hab. ad Lambeyeque. 

Variat iteriun testa extus rosaceo-virescente, radiis rufis ; aperturae 
dorsalis margine interno roseo. 
Hab. ad Insulam Lobos sub lapidibus littoralibus. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA AFFiNis, Gray. Fiss. testd ovato-oblongd, elevatiusculd, 
antici angustiore, radiatim pliis miniisve muricatim striatd, non- 
nunquam fere lavigato-striatd, plerumque purpurascenti-nigrd ; 
intiis albd, margine angusto, nigricante; aperturd dorsali parvd, 
ovali: long. 1'7, lat. \- 2 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Mexillones et Lobos, et ad Iquiqui. 

Variat testa rufescenti-nigi'a. 
Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

Obs. Testae juniores pallidae, radiatim pictae, — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA microtrema. Fiss. testd ovatd, depressiusculd, ra- 
diatim scabroso-striatd ; intus virescente, margine angustissimo, 
nigricante; extiis fused, obscure subradiatim coloribus variis pictd ; 



126 

aperturd dorsali minimd, margine limbi interni nigrkante : long. 
0-9, lat. 0-6 poll. 
Hab. ad Real Llejos, Americse Centralis. 

The dorsal perforation in this species is so small, and the colora- 
tion so dark, that it is difficult at first sight to perceive that it is really a 
Fissurella. 

Found under stones. — G. B. S, 

Fissurella injjqualis. Fiss. testd ohlongd, tenui, suhdepressd, la- 
tere antico brevi, postico longo; intus albicante, margine albo ni- 
groque vario, crenulato; exitts radiatim striatd, concinne decus- 
satd, olivaced albicante subradiatim variegatd; aperturd dorsali 
anticd, oblongd, utrinque bidentatd : long. I'l, lat. Q- 5 poll. 

Hab. ad Guacomayo et ad Insulas Gallapagos sub lapidibus litto- 
ralibus. — G. B. S. 

Fissurella Pica. Fiss. testd oblongd, tenui, suhdepressd, latere 
antico brevi, postico longo ; inths albicante, margine crenulato ,- ex- 
tits radiatim striatd, coticinni decussatd, albd olivaceo variegatd; 
aperturd dorsali anticd, ell ipticd, fere circulari, parvd : long, l", 
lat. 0-57 poll. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam et ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

Variat testa albicante, radiatim olivaceo fasciata. 

Found on dead shells in from six to eight fathoms water. — 
G.B. S. 

Fissurella Chemnitzii. Fiss. testd ovato-oblongd, depressius- 
culd, crassiitsculd, lateribus subcompressis , extremitatibus levatis; 
intiis albd, impressione musculari prope marginem conspicud; ex- 
tus radiatim subsulcatd, subdecussatd, pallescenie roseo subradiatd; 
aperturd dorsali magnd, ovali, rimd internd latd : long. 2 2, lat. 
1-4 poll. 
Hab.} 

The onlj' specimen I have ever seen of this species was in the 
Tankerville Collection, from which, after several vicissitudes, it has 
at length found its way to Mr. Cuming's. 

This remarkable shell is represented by Martini (I. t. xi. f. 100), 
whose figure is cited by Lamarck as a representation of Fiss. Grceca. 
— G.B.S. 

Fissurella latimarginata. Fiss. testd ovato-oblo7igd, depressd, 
crassiusculd, antici angustiore; intiis albd, margine lato rtifes- 
centi-nigro, crenulato; extils radiathn creberrime striatd, rufes- 
centi-nigrd; aperturd dorsali oblongd: long. 2'8, lat. ISpoll. 

Hab. ad Valparaiso et ad Iquiqui. 

Found on the rocks. — G. B. S. 

Fissurella trapezina. Fiss. testd subtrapeziformi, rotundato- 
angulatd, antice angustiore, depressd, extremitatibus levatis ; in- 
tiis albd, impressione musculari prope marginem retnotd, margine 
incrassato ; extiis concentric^ subsulcatd, pullidd. fusco radiatd ; 
aperturd dorsali magnd, laid, antici latiorc : long. 0-95, lat. 08 
poll. 



• 127 

Hab. ad Caput Bonse Spei. 

This exceedingly rare species has existed in our collections for 
many years. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA ^QUALis. Fiss. testd oblongd, depressd, extremitati- 
bus fere aqualibus ; intiis albd, margine incrassato, impressione 
musculari prope inarginem remold j extiis lavi, albicantefusco ra- 
diatd, vel fused albicante radiatd; aperturd dorsali magnd, ob- 
longd, latd : long. 085, lat. 0*5 poll. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

Found on dead shells in from six to ten fathoms. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA FULVESCENS. F'lss . testd oblongd, depressd, fulves- 
cente, extremitate anticd angustiore ; intiis lacted, margiiie sub- 
incrassato, subrefiexo ; exfils lavigatd, radiatim substriatd et rufo 
pictd ; aperturd oblongd, lateribus obsolete bidentatis : long. 1"6, 
lat. 0-9 poll. 

Hab. ad Valparaiso sub lapidibus littoralibus. — G. B. S. 

/J^issuRELLA NiGRiTA. Fiss. testd ovolt, depressd, lateribus sub- 
compressis, extremitatibus levatis ; intiis albd, marginibus postico 
lateralibusque incrassatis ; extiis nigra, radiatim striatd ; aper- 
turd dorsali magnd, ovali, margine IcEvi, albo : long T, lat. O'G 
poll. 
Hab. ?— G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA ASPERA. Fiss. testd ovali, altiusculd, asperd, postich 
longiore ; intiis cinerascente, margine albo, crenulato, extiis cos- 
tellis numerosis radiantibus decussatim muricatis ; aperturd. dor- 
sali circulari ante verticem elevatam positd : long. !•, lat. 0'8 
poll. 

Hab. ad Pacosmayo. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA ASPERELLA. Fiss. testd ovali, depressiusculd, asperelld; 
intiis virescente, margine crenulato; extiis cinerascente, striis nu- 
merosis radiantibus, radiisque coloratis rvfo-cinerascentibus; aper- 
turd dorsali oblongd, dente utrinque extiis elevato: long. 0'85, lat. 
0-5 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Lobos sub lapidibus littoralibus. — G.B.S. 

FissuRELLA MUTABiLis. Fiss. tcstd ovttto-oblongd, coloribus variis 
plerumque subradiatim pictd, altiusculd, postice longiore; intiis 
albd, margine Icevi ; extiis radiatim striatd; aperturd dorsali 
ovato-elongatd, medio plerumque latiore : long. I', lat. 0'55 
poll. 

Hab. ad Caput Bonse Spei. 

Many specimens of this species were among the late Mr. G. Hum- 
phreys' collections, labelled by him "Brazil? Thalacker." — G.B.S. 

FissuRELLA Panamensis. Fiss. tcstd clUpticd, elevatd, decussatd, 
postice longiore; intiis lactescente, margine crenulato; extiis cos- 
tellis radiantibus decussatis, plerumque muricatis, albicante cine- 
rascenti-fusco varie pictd ; aperturd dorsali minimd, subovali : 
long. 0"6, lat. 0-4 poll. 



128 

Hah. ad Panamam. 

Found on dead shells in from six to ten fathoms. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA RuppELLii. F'lss. testd ohiongo-ovatd, elevatd, decus- 
satd, lateraliter subdepressd, postici longiore ; intus albd, mar- 
gine crenulato ; extus albicante, radiis plerumque nigris, nonnun- 
quam viridescenti-nigris, concinni: pictd, costis costellisque alter- 
nantibus submuricatis radiantibus ornatd ; aperturd dorsali parvd, 
ovatd, postici subquadratd, antice infra verticem positd, intils po- 
stici depressione distinctd : long. 09, lat. 06 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Nevis, Capt. Powers : in Sinu Arabico, Ruppell. 

A specimen of this pretty species was lately obtained by Mr. Cuming 
from M. Ruppell. About twenty were in the collections of the late 
Mr. G. Humphreys.— G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA Cltpeus. Fiss. tefttd ovatd, depressd, crassiusculd, 
pallescente fuscescenti-nigro radiatd ; intiis albd, viargine subcre- 
nato, pallescente nigra articulato; extus radiatim subcorrugatd; 
aperturd dorsali ohlongd: long. \\b, lat. 075 poll. 

Hub. ad Sanctara Elenam. 

A single specimen is in Mr. Cuming's Collection. — G. B. S. 

FissuRELLA crenifera. Fiss. testd ovato-oblongd, subdepressd, 
postici: latiore, subquadratd ; intiis albd, margine incrassato, cre- 
nato ct crenulato ; extiis radiatim costatd et striata, radiatim va- 
rt^ pictd, costis muricatis ; aperturd dorsali oblong d, mediane sub - 
coarctatd, extiis dente duplicato laterali munitd : long. 0'6, lat. 03 
poll. 

Hab. ad Real Llejos sub lapidibus littoralibus. — G. B. S. 

A Letter was read, addressed by Capt. P. P. King, R.N., Corr. 
Memb. Z.S., to W. J. Broderip, Esq., and dated New South Wales, 
April 13, 1834. It gave some account of the Oceanic Birds ob- 
served during the late voyage of the -miter from Europe to New 
South Wales, and more particularly of those of the genus Diomedea, 
Linn. 

" From the meridian of the island of Tristan d'Acunha to that of 
the island of St. Paul's, on about the parallel of 40° of south lati- 
tude, we were daily surrounded by a multitude of oceanic birds. — Of 
the Petrel tribe the Cape Pigeon, Procellaria Capensis, Linn., was 
most abundant ; but the Proc. vittata (vel ccerulea) frequently was 
observed ; as was also a small black Petrel which I do not recollect 
to have before seen. 

" Of the genus Diomedea the species which I regarded as the spa- 
dicea, chlororhynchos and fuliginosa of Authors, were the most re- 
markable. Near Tristan d'Acunha the first (Diom. spadicea) most 
abounded : between the Cape and the longitude of 30° East the 
second {Diom. chlororhynchos) became more numerous : and in the 
neighbourhood of St. Paul's their place was supplied by the Diom. fu- 
liginosa. Where one species abounded, the others were only occa- 
sionally seen ; from which it may be inferred that each species breeds 
in distinct haunts. Occasionally two or three varieties of the Diom. 



129 

exulans, Linn., the large wandering Albatross, attended the ship, but 
they rarely remained beyond the day. Diom. exulans varies verj' 
much in plumage ; generally, however, the head, neck, back, and 
wings are more or less mottled grey, and the breast, abdomen, vent, 
and uropygium snowy white ; the bill is horn- coloured and the feet 
yellow. — We saw a bird that might be referred to M. Lesson's Diom. 
epomophora, if that is really a distinct species. — Another of very large 
size was near us for two days, which, with the exception of the back 
of the wings and tips of the under side of the pen feathers and ex- 
tremity of the tail being black, was of a snowy white colour." 

Capt. P. P. King transmitted with his Letter characters and de- 
scriptions of three of the species of Albatross observed by him, in- 
cluding those which he regarded as the Diomm. spadicea and chlo- 
rorhynchos ; together with drawings of these two species. The de- 
scriptions were read, and the drawings exhibited. The former agree 
essentially with the descriptions from the same specimens, recently 
published in his ' Wanderings in New South Wales,' &c., by Mr. 
George Bennett, who was a fellow voyager with Capt. King. The 
reference of these to the species quoted is, however, provisional only, 
as they differ in some important particulars from the original descrip- 
tions of those species : it is therefore probable that they are rather 
to be viewed as indicating races hitherto unnoticed by zoologists. 

Mr. George Daniell stated some facts that had fallen under his 
observation with reference to the habits and economy of two British 
species of Bats, the Pipistrelle, Vespertilio Pipistrellus, GeofFr., and the 
Noctule, Vespertilio Noctula, Schreb., dwelling more particularly on 
those connected with the feeding of the former, and with the period 
of gestation and mode of parturition of the latter. 

With regard to the former species, he stated that in July 1833 he 
received five specimens, all of pregnant females, from Elvetham, in 
Hampshire. Many more were congregated together with them in 
the ruins of the barn in which they were taken, but all the rest 
escaped. They had been kept in a tin powder canister for several 
days, and on being turned loose into a common packing-case, with 
a few strips of deal nailed over it to form a cage, they exhibited 
much activity, progressing rapidly along the bottom of the box, as- 
cending by the bars to the top, and then throwing themselves off as 
if endeavouring to fly. They ate flies when offered to them, seizing 
them with the greatest eagerness, and devouring them greedily, all 
of them congregating together at the end of the box at which they 
were fed, and crawling over, snapping at, and biting each other, 
at the same time uttering a grating kind of squeak. Cooked meat 
was next presented to them, and rejected ; but raw beef was eaten 
by them with avidity, and with an evident preference for such pieces 
as had been moistened with water. This answered a double pur- 
pose : the weather being warm, numbers of blue-bottle Flies, Musca 
vomitoria, Linn., were attracted by the meat ; and on approaching 
within range of the bat's wings were struck down by their action. 



130 

the animal itself falling at the same moment with all its membranes 
expanded, and cowering ovei" the prostrate fly, with its head thrust 
under in order to secure its prey. When the head was again drawn 
forth, the membranes were immediately closed, and the fly was ob- 
served to be almost invariably taken by the head. Mastication ap- 
peared to be a laboured operation, consisting of a succession of eager 
bites or snaps, and the sucking process (if it may be so termed) by 
which the insect was drawn into the mouth being much assisted by 
the looseness of the lips. Several minutes were employed in devour- 
ing a large fly. In the first instance the flies were eaten entire ; but 
Mr. Daniell afterwards observed detached wings in the bottom of the 
box. These, however, he never saw rejected, and he is inclined to 
think that they are generally swallowed. A slice of beef attached to 
the side of the box was found not only to save trouble in feeding, 
but also by attracting the flies to afi^ord good sport in observing the 
animals obtain their own food by this new kind of bat-fowling. Their 
olfactory nerves appear to be very acutely sensible. When hanging 
by their posterior extremities, and attached to one of the bars in 
front of the cage, a small piece of beef placed at a little distance from 
their noses would remain unnoticed ; but when a fly was placed in 
the same situation they would instantly begin snapping after it. The 
beef they would eat when hungry ; but they never refused a fly. In 
the day-time they sometimes clustered together in a corner ; but 
towards evening they became very lively, and gave rapid utterance 
to their harsh, grating notes. One of them died on the fifth day after 
they came into Mr. Daniell's possession ; two on the fourteenth : the 
fourth survived until the eighteenth ; and the fifth until the nineteenth 
day. Each was found to contain a single yb?i(«s. 

On the 1 6th of May, 1834, Mr. Daniell procured from Hertfordshire 
five specimens of the Vespertilio Noctula, four females and one male. 
The latter was exceedingly restless and savage, biting the females, 
and breaking his teeth against the wires of the cage, in his attempts 
to escape from his place of confinement. He rejected food and died 
on the 18th. Up to this time the remaining four continued sulky; 
but towards evening they ate a few small pieces of raw beef, in pre- 
ference to flies, beetles, or gentles, all of which were offered to 
them : only one of them, however, fed kindly. On the 20th one 
died, and on the 22nd two others, each of which was found to be 
pregnant with a single foetus . The survivor was tried with a variety 
of food, and evincing a decided preference for the hearts, livers, &c. 
of fowls, was fed constantly upon them for a month. In the course 
of this time large flies were frequently off'ered to her, but they were 
always rejected, although one or two May Chafers, Melolontha vul- 
garis. Fab., were partially eaten. In taking the food the wings were 
not thrown forward as in the Pipistrelle ; and the food was seized 
with an action similar to that of a dog. The water that drained from 
the food was lapped, but the head was not raised in drinking, as 
Mr. Daniell had observed it to be in the Pipistrelle. The animal 
took considerable pains in cleaning herself, using the posterior ex- 



161 

tremities as a comb, parting the hair on either side from head to tail, 
and forming a straight line along the middle of the back. The mem- 
brane of the wings was cleaned by forcing the nose through the folds 
and thereby expanding them. Up to the 20th of June the animal fed 
freely, and at times voraciously, remaining during the day suspended 
by the posterior extremities at the top of the cage, and coming down 
in the evening to its food : the quantity eaten sometimes exceeded 
half an ounce, although the weight of the animal itself was no more 
than ten drachms. On the '23rd, Mr. Daniell, observing her to be very 
restless, was induced to watch her proceedings. The uneasiness 
was continued for upwards of an hour, the animal remaining during 
all this time in her usual attitude suspended by the posterior extre- 
mities. On a sudden she reversed her position, and attached herself 
by her anterior limbs to a cross wire of the cage, stretching her hind 
legs to their utmost extent, curving the tail upwards, and expand- 
ing the membrane interposed between it and the posterior extremi- 
ties, so as to form a perfect nest-like cavity for the reception of the 
young. In a few moments the snout of the young one made its ap- 
pearance, and in about five minutes the whole of its head was pro- 
truded. The female then struggled considerably until the extremi- 
ties of the radii had passed, after which the young one by means of 
a lateral motion of its fore limbs relieved itself. It was born on its 
back, perfectly destitute of hair, and blind ; and was attached by an 
umbilical cord of about two inches in length. The female then licked 
it clean, turning it over in its nest, and afterwards resuming her 
usual position, and placing the young in the membrane of her wing, 
proceeded to gnaw off the umbilical cord and eat the placenta. She 
next cleaned herself, and wrapped up the young so closely as to pre- 
vent any observation of the process of suckling. The time occupied 
in the birth was 17 minutes. At the time of its birth the young 
was larger than a new-bom mouse, and its hind legs and claws were 
remarkably strong and serviceable, enabling it not only to cling to 
its dam, but also to the deal sides of the cage. On the 24th the 
animal took her food in the morning, and appeared very careful of 
her young, shifting it occasionally from side to side to suckle it, 
and folding it in the membranes of the tail and wings. On these oc- 
casions her usual position was reversed. In the evening she was 
found dead ; but the young was still alive, and attached to the nip- 
ple, from which it was with some difficulty removed. It took milk 
from a sponge, was kept carefully vsTapped up in flannel, and survived 
eight days, at the end of which period its eyes were not opened, and 
it had acquired very little hair. From these observations it is evi- 
dent that the period of gestation in the Noctule exceeds thirty-eight 
days. 

Mr. Daniell also exhibited skeletons of the male and female of the 
Pipistrelle and Noctule Bats, forming part of his own collection, for 
the purpose of pointing out a peculiarity in the female, connected, 
as he conceives, with the mode of parturition just described. This 
peculiarity consists of a prolongation of the os calcis along the mar- 



132 



gin of the membrane extended between the hinder extremities and 
the tail, of much greater length and strength in the female than in 
the male. By means of this process Mr. Daniell believes the female 
to be capable of giving greater tension to the pouch formed of that 
membrane for the reception of the young in the act of parturition. 



133 



November 25, 1834. 

William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair, 

A Letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by Keith E. Abbott, 
Esq., and dated Trebizond, June 20, 1834. It referred to a collec- 
tion of skins of Bii-ds made by the writer in his immediate neigh- 
bourhood, and presented by him to the Society. The number of 
species contained in the collection is twenty, one only of which was 
comprised among those previously transmitted by Mr. Keith Abbott, 
and exhibited to the Society at its Meeting on June 24, 1834. Mr. 
Abbott states that he proposes to continue the collection of such 
zoological subjects as he can procure in the neighbourhood of Trebi- 
zond, for the purpose of transmitting them to the Society. 

The Bird-skins presented by Mr. Keith Abbott were exhibited, 
and Mr. Gould, at the request of the Chairman, brought them seve- 
rally under the notice of the Meeting, observing on each of them as 
regarded its geographical, distribution. The exhibition was regarded 
as a continuation of that which took place on June 24, (page 50,) 
and comprised the following species not then enumerated, making 
in the whole fifty-three species observed in the vicinity of Trebi- 
zond. 

Falco Tinnunculus, Linn. Inhabiting Europe generally, and the 
adjacent continents of Asia and Africa, but not America. 

Otus vulgaris, Cuv. Inhabiting Europe generally, and found also 
in India and Africa. 

Sylvia Rubecula, Linn. Mr. Gould has no recollection of having 
seen this familiar bird before, either from Asia or Africa. 

Emberiza Cia, Linn. Inhabiting the southern provinces of Europe 
and the high lands of India. It does not visit England, nor has it 
been seen from Africa. 

Alauda arvensis, Linn. Inhabiting Europe generally. Mr. Gould 
has no recollection of having seen it in collections either from India 
or Africa, but it doubtless inhabits the border lands of the latter 
continent as well as of Asia. 

Corvus Monedula, Linn. This bird is principally confined to Eu- 
rope : it does not occur in America. A species nearly allied inhabits 
India. 

Picas medius, Linn. A common species in Norway, Sweden, and 
part of the central portions of Europe ; but not hitherto observed in 
collections from India or Africa. 

Ardea Garzetta, Linn. Inhabiting the southern portions of Eu- 
rope : it is also found in India and Africa, but not in America. It 
was once common in England. 

Scolopax major, Linn. Inhabiting Europe generally, but probably 
not America. Mr. Gould has not yet seen it from India. 

Tringa variabilis. This bird is very generally dispersed, being 



13* 

common both in America and Europe : Mr. Gould has also seen it 
from India and Africa. It breeds in England. 

Charadrius Pluvialis, Linn. Inhabiting Europe and the adjoining 
portions of Africa and Asia, but not America. 

Charadrius Himantopus, Linn. Inhabiting Europe, particularly the 
southern parts, and Asia and Africa, but not America ; its place in 
the latter continent being filled by a species nearly allied to it. It 
occasionaHy visits England. 

Anas Querquedula, Linn. Inhabiting India as well as Europe : 
common in the Himalayan range. 

Anas Fuligula, Linn. Found in all temperate countries of the old 
continent, but not hitherto in America. 

Clangula vulgaris, Flem. Though common in England during the 
■winter, the proper locality of this bird is in the high northern lati- 
tudes. Mr. Gould has not previously seen a specimen from so south- 
em a habitat as the present. 

Mergus Albellus, Linn. Similarly circumstanced with the last, 
although apparently still more arctic, as it visits England only in se- 
vere winters. 

Podiceps cristatus. Found in nearly all the temperate regions of 
the globe. 

Mr. Gray exhibited a specimen of a Reptile from New South 
Wales, which he regarded as constituting the type of a new genus 
nearly related to Bipes, Latr. He characterized it under the name of 

LlALIS. 

Caput elongatum, fronte piano, squamis parvis subimbricatis ves- 
titum : irides lineares, verticales : aures oblongae, conspicuae. 

Corpus subcylindricum, attenuatum : squamis dorsalibus ovatis, con- 
vexis, Isevibus; ventralium seriebus duabusintermediismajoribus. 

Pedes duo, postici, obsoleti, acuti, ad basin 2 — 3-squamati. 

Anus subposticus : squanuB prteanales parvse ; pari subanales utrin- 
que quatuor per paria dispositi. 

This genus is very nearly allied to Pygopus, Merr., but may be 
readily distinguished from it by the characters above given. In 
Pygopus the head is short, more rounded in front, and covered with 
regular shields : the pupil is subcircular : the feet are broad, ovate, 
blunt, and covered with three rows of scales : the vent has five large 
oblong scales in front of it : and the subanal pores form a continu- 
ous series. 

LiALis BuBTONis. Li. suprh pallid^ cinerascenti-brunnea, nigra 
minutissime punctata ; subtus pallide cacaotico-brunnea ; strigd 
albd utrinque a labio superiore supra oculos per nucham, alterdque 
latiore a labio superiore per latera ad cauda apicem ductis. 
Junior. Strigis colli lateralibus obsoletis. 

Obs. Epidermide remota subalbida est strigis lactescentibus. 

Hab. in " Nova Cambria Australi." Dr. Mair. — Muss. Chatham 
et Brit. 



135 

The dotting on the upper surface is produced by two or three 
black points on each of the scales. The upper streak passes along 
the keels on each side of the face and terminates on the back of the 
neck. The lower streak separates the dark colour of the under, from 
the pale of the upper, surface, and is edged beneath along its whole 
extent by a narrow brown line ; in its anterior portion it is brown 
above. 

The scales are smooth, and marked with four slight lines. The 
front lower labial plate is rather larger, with one pair of small men- 
tal plates and an odd one behind it : there are four pairs of long tri- 
gonal arched scales on each side of the lower jaw, of which the an- 
terior is small and the posterior the largest, each with a small linear 
scale at its outer tip, which is next the small, broad, low labial 
plates ; the hinder ones having two or three series of broad low 
plates under them. The dorsal scales are margined. The super- 
ciliary plates are triangular, and of moderate size. The scales of the 
front of the muzzle are very small, with two odd ones behind them, 
and one in the middle between the nostrils. The eyes are circular, 
and surrounded by a series of small scales. Eyelids none } 

Mr. Gray also exhibited a specimen of the New Holland Ibis of 
Dr. Latham, for the purpose of directing the attention of the Meet- 
ing to the spatulate form of the feathers of its neck ; a form of 
feather which he believes not to have been previously recorded as oc- 
curring in any Grallatorial Bird. In this instance they are elon- 
gated, lanceolate, and bear some resemblance to straws. The spe- 
cimen was obtained from the neighbourhood of Macquarrie River. 

Mr. Gray subsequently exhibited adult specimens of the Geoemyda 
spinosa and Emys platynota, two species of fresh-water Tortoise re- 
cently described by him from young individuals at the Meetings of the 
Society on June 24 and August 26 (pages 54 and 99). He pointed out 
in detail the peculiarities of the adult animals and shells, which he is 
about to describe in his ' Synopsis of Indian Animals' ; and demon- 
strated on the specimen of the former the existence of those characters 
on which he had founded the genus Geoemyda, and which he had pre- 
viously had occasion to observe in Ge. Spengleri alone, — his know- 
ledge of the animal of Ge. spinosa having at the time of his proposing 
the genus been limited to the figure published by Mr. Bell. 

In the adult individual exhibited the sternum was concave ; and 
Mr. Gray, in calling particular attention to this point, took occasion 
to remark on it as evidencing, in an additional character to those 
already adverted to by him, the affinity of Geoemyda to the Land 
Tortoises, that genus and the genus Cistuda, Say, being the only ge- 
nera among the Emydidcs that possess the concavity of sternum which 
is common to most of the species of Testudinidce. 

A Paper was read " On Nycteribia, a genus of wingless Insects, 
by J. O. Westwood. Esq., F.L.S., &c.' 

The author commences by remarking on the existence of certain 



136 

groups of animals, generally limited in extent, which exhibit in their 
organization, with reference to the groups to which they naturally 
belong, such anomalies as have constantly proved a source of per- 
plexity to the systematists who have endeavoured to assign to them 
their real place in the system of nature. In many instances the ano- 
maly involves the transition from the structure of one group to that 
of the adjoining ones; such instances constituting the osculant groups 
of Mr. W. S. ?.JacLeay in his ' Horae Entomologicae'. Of these os- 
culant groups some exist between the great divisions of the animal 
kingdom ; others among the classes of which each of these great 
divisions is composed ; others again between the -orders, the fami- 
lies, and the minor subdivisions. The genus Nycteribia is thus os- 
culant not between the families or even the orders of a class, but 
between two of the classes themselves of the Annulose Sub-kingdom 
— the Arachnida and the Haustellata. It is remarkable, moreover, for 
being exclusively confined to a parasitic existence on that equally 
anomalous group, the Chiroptera among the Mammalia. 

Notwithstanding the comparatively unattractive appearance of the 
insects of this genus, the singular peculiarities of their structure have 
drawn upon them the attention of LatreQle, Hermann, Dr. Leach, 
M. L^on Dufour, and Mr. Curtis, who have severally contributed 
much to the general stock of information respecting them. But the 
minuteness of the objects themselves, their unfitness for accurate ex- 
amination when dried and shrivelled as specimens usually are in cabi- 
nets, their comparative rarity, and other causes, have rendered the 
descriptions of those distinguished entomologists in some instances 
unsatisfactory ; and it is with the view of fully elucidating the or- 
ganization of the genus and of adding to its history such facts as he 
has been enabled to ascertain, that Mr. Westwood offers to the So- 
ciety his account of Nycteribia, to which he adds a Synopsis of the 
whole of the species that have hitherto been observed, including the 
characters of several not hitherto described. He enumerates the 
sources from whence his materials have been derived ; and then pro- 
ceeds to describe in great detail the structure of a new species brought 
from Dukhun by Col. Sykes, — a species peculiarly adapted for the 
purpose, both on account of its comparatively large size, 24- lines in 
length, and of the fitness of the individuals for minute examination 
owing to their having been preserved in spirit. Of this species he has 
examined three individuals, all of which are females in different stages 
of gestation. From the abdomen of the one which was most ad- 
vanced Mr. Westwood extracted without difficulty a hard organized 
white mass, nearly as large as the abdomen itself, of an oval form, 
with traces of five articulations on the sides of the body, and having 
at its broader end three small circular spots placed in a triangle, 
with two smaller ones seated at a greater distance from them. That 
this was the young of the Nycteribia in its pupa state cannot, he 
conceives, be doubted : and it may consequently be regarded as 
proved that these insects are pupiparous, as has indeed been conjec- 
tured from their evident connexion with the Hippoboscidee. 

The whole of the external organization of Col. Sykes's Nycteribia 



137 

is described by Mr. Westwood in the greatest detail, and with 
continual references to those portions of the descriptions published 
by his predecessors, which are either vague, or incorrect, or in which 
they are contradictory to each other. The principal points which he 
has endeavoured to elucidate, in addition to the transformations which 
these insects undergo, are the distinction of the sexes, and conse- 
quently the sexual characters and the diiFerent organization of the 
abdomen in the sexes ; the structure of the mouth, antenncs, and eyes ; 
the separation of the metasternum and the abdomen ; the situation and 
construction of the spiracles ; and the nature of the serrated organs 
between the base of the anterior and intermediate legs. The sexual 
distinctions appear especially to have been misunderstood, and the au- 
thor takes great pains to explain them in each of the species respec- 
tively which he has been enabled satisfactorily to examine. 

Mr. Westwood concludes his Paper by a Synopsis of the Species 
of the 

Genus Nycteribia. 

Nycteribia Sykesii. Nyct. rufo-picea, thoracis tegumento dor- 
sali abdomineque obscuri albicantibus ; hoc tuberculis minutissi- 
mis nigris undique tecto tuberculis quatuor majoribus in quadran- 
gulo centrali dispositis, segmentis (unico basali excepto) destituto, 
apiceque pilis rigidis ferrugineis elongatis obtecto ; pedibus elon- 
gatis subcompressis paullu dilatatis, breviter setosis ; femoribus 
magis ferrugineis, coxis anticis elongatis tibiisque apicem versus 
attenuatis ; pectinibus thoracis elongatis ; oculis e tuberculis qua- 
tuor compositis. (?) 
Long. Corp. lin. 2^. — Species maxima. 

Hab. in India, Orientali. — In Mus. D. Sykes. 

Nycteribia Hopei. Nyct. abdomine concolore nitido, in medio 
obsolete 5-articulato, ovato-conico-depresso, segmento ultimo co- 
nico-truncato, apice lateraliter setigero subtiis stylis duobus conico- 
elongatis inflexis armato. {^) 
Long. corp. lin. 2. — Prsecedenti valde affinis, at minor. An 

illius mas .' 

Hab. in IndiS Orientali, apud Bengaliam. — In Mus. D. Hope. 

Nycteribia dubia. Nyct. fusco-castanea, pedibus magis casta- 
neis ; coxis anticis elongato-conicis, femoribus tibiisque subcylin- 
dricis; thorace subttts irregulariter rugoso ; pectinibus thoracis 
lateralibus elongatis; abdomine (" $ " Latr. ^ ?) ovato, 6-annu- 
lato, segmento postico conico-elongato postice attenuato et truncato. 
Long. Corp. circiter lin. 2., Latr. 
Nycteribia Blainvillii, Latr., in Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., tom. xxiii. 
nee Leach. 

Hab. in Insula Isle de France dicta. Latr. — India ? — In Mus. olim 
Latreille. 

The alleged diversity of sex, the diflference of habitat, and the 
nearly cylindrical legs, induce the belief that this species is distinct 
from the last, with which however it offers a close resemblance both 
specifically and sexually. 



138 

Nycteribia Blainvillii, Leach. Nyct. " pedibus longis tennibus 
femoribus tibiisque apicem versus gradatini attenuatis" ; obscure 
ochraceo-livida ; abdomine {apice excepto) fusco, elongato-conico, 
depresso, segmentis sex apice setigeris, ultimo longiore subrotun- 
dato. (^) 
Long. Corp. lin. 1. (If secundum Leach.) " Minor Phihiridio 

Hermanni." — Leach. 

Hab. in Insult Isle de France dictS,. — In Mus. Brit. 

Nycteribia Roylii. Nyct. obscure nigra, pedibus fuscantibus elon- 
gatis vix compressis, coxis anticis brevibus ; abdomine ovato- 
conico, depresso, 5-articulato, apice subtruncato , stylis duobus in- 
curvis subtiis armato ; capite compresso. (^) 
Long. Corp. lin. ll. 

Hab. in India Orientali. — In Mus. D. Royle. 

Nycteribia Dufourii. Nyct. pedibus elongatis, coxis abbreviatis ; 
oculis rotundatis sessilibus simplicibus ; abdomine $ ovali, apice 
setigero, segmentis destituto, supra paribus tribus serierum seia- 
rum brevium rigidarum instructo ; J* ? oblongo, 6-articulato, apice 
subtiis stylis destituto ? 
Long. corp. lin. 1+ ? . lin. \. ^} 

Nyct. Vespertilionis, Dufour, in Ann. des Sci. Nat., Avril 1831, 
fl 13. Jig. 4. 

Hab. in Vespertilione murino Galliae. 

Nycteribia pedicularia, Latr. Nyct. fusca ; corpore supriipedi^ 
busqueflavo-rufescentibus; thorace subtiis fusco-rufescente, lined 
longitudinali mediand nigrd ; pedibus longis arcuatis, coxis anticis 
brevibus subcyli)idricis, femoribus tibiisque valde compressis fere 
ellipticis ; pectinibus lateralibus thoracis brevibus ; abdomine setis 
rigidis armato. 
Nyct. Vespertilionis, Latr., Gen. Crust., S^c, vol. ly. p. S64.pl. 15. 
fg. 11. Id., in Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., torn, xxiii. 

Latreille's original name is restored to this species, it being con- 
sidered as distinct from any of the others, with the exception per- 
haps of Hermann's Nyct. Vespertilionis. 

Nycteribia vexata. Nyct. pallide ferruginea ; pedibus elongatis, 
coxis anticis brevibus ; abdomine J* 8-articulato, testaceo, ovato- 
conico, apice subrotundato, subtiis stylis ad apicem duobus incurvis 
alteroque intermedia armato. 

Long. corp. lin. 1 — 14-. — Specimen aliud {^ } siccitate con- 
tractum ? vel •? } ?) abdomine ad apicem emarginato a cl. Her- 
manno descriptum est. 

Nyct. Vespertilionis, Herm., Mem. Apt., pi. 5./. 1. 
Hab. in Vespertilione murino Europae. 

The insect described by Hermann under the name of Nyct. VeS' 
pertilionis may be considered, without liesitation, as specifically di- 
stinct from our two British species, as well as from Nyct. Dvfourii, 
in the structure of the male. It may possibly, however, be identi- 
cal with Nyct. pedicularia. 



139 

Nycteribia JenYnsii. Nyct. pallid^ ochraceo-fiavescens, setis 
pectinibusque thoracis et abdominis basi nigris ; palpis longe se- 
tosis; octtlis sessilibus, rotundatis, simplicibus ; pedibus elongatis 
tenuibus, coxis anticis brevioribus, femoribus tibiisque paullh 
compressis ; abdomine ovato, seriebus sex transversis setarum rigi- 
darum (segmenta totidem indicantia) notato, segmento ultimo 
laminis duabus elongatis incurvis contiguis styloque carnoso in- 
termedia subtiis terminato. (J*) 
Long. Corp. lin. \\. 

Hab. in China. — In. mus. nostr. Amicissimfe communicavit 
Rev. Leonard Jenyns. 

Nycteribia Latreillii, Leach. Nyct. pallide ochracea ; pedibus 
perbrevibus, femoribus tibiisque valdi dilatatis setis obscuris elon- 
gatis, tarsorum articulo primo reliquis conjunctim vix longiore ; 
thoracis pectore latiore et breviore ; pectinibus thoracis unguibus- 
que nigris ; abdomine ^ 6-articnlato, segmento ultimo longiore, 
conico-truncato, subtiis laminis duabus distantioribus elongatis in- 
curvis et ad ventrem adpressis, styloque intermedio armato ; ? 
ovali absque appendiculis, apice inciso, subtiis articulo basali di- 
stincto, seriebusque sex transversis setarum rigidarum instructo, 
segmenta ? indicantibus. 
Long. Corp. lin. -J. (1^ secundum Leach.) 
Hab. in Vespertilione murino Anglise. — In Muss. Brit., DD. Ste- 
phens, Jenyns et Curtis. 

The references of this species to Linnaeus and Olfers, given by 
Dr. Leach, must be considered as dubious. Frisch (vol. ii. pt. 5. 
pi. 5.) has represented an insect, which, from the shortness of the 
legs, may possibly be intended for this species. That it is not the spe- 
cies figured by Latreille in the ' Histoire Naturelle' and the ' Genera 
Crustaceorum,' (with which it is doubtfully considered as synony- 
mous by Dr. Leach,) is evident from the length and slenderness of 
the legs in the figures contained in those works. 

Nycteribia biarticulata. Nyct. pallide ochracea, abdomine ob- 
scuriore ; pedibus elongatis dilatatis longe setosis, setd unicd ad 
basin tibiarum longissimd, coxis anticis brevibus ; abdomine ? 
quasi 2-articulato , segmento primo suprii longiUs producto, stylis 
duobus caudalibus elongatis cylindricis porrectis ad apicem longi 
setosis ; ^ 6 }-articulato subtiis ad apicem stylis duobus incurvis 
ad ventrem adpressis ; thorace subtiis concolore. 
Long. Corp. lin. l^^. (2 secundum Leach.) 

Phthiridium biarticulatum, Herm., Mem. Apt., pi. 6./. 1. ? 

Phthiridium Hermanni, Leach, Zool. Misc., vol. iii. pi. 144. c^. ? . 

Celeripes Vespertilionis, Mont., in Linn. Trans., vol. in. p. 166. 

Nycteribia Vespertilionis, Mont., in Linn. Trans., vol. ix. t. 3. 
/.5 ?. 

Hab. in Rhinolopho Ferro-eqiiino Angliae, Germanise, Italia;. — In 
Muss. Brit, et D. Stephens. 



140 ' 

Obs. Species distinctissima, sectionera peculiarem in genere con- 
stituens. 

Hermann's trivial name for this species has been restored, as well 
in justice to that author as with the view of obviating the confusion 
which has arisen from his chief description having been derived from 
a different species. 

Mr. Westwood's Memoir was illustrated by numerous magnified 
figures of the different species and of the details of their external 
structure. 



HI 



December 9, 1834. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of three species of the genus Bulinus, 
Lam., which were regarded by Mr. G. B. Sowerby as previously un- 
described. He characterizes them as follows : 

Bulinus leucostoma. Bui. testd ovatd, ventricosd, antice latiore, 
postice ohhisd ; anfractibus quatuor, prhnis longitudinaliter sub- 
sulcatis, ultimo maximo, Icevi, omnlbtts olivaceo-fuscis , suturd pal- 
lidiore, crenulatd ; aperturd oblongd, postice actiminatd, peritre- 
mate reflexo, albo : long. 2' 6, lat. 1'4 poll. 

Hab. in provincia Peruvise Xagua dicta. D. Matthews. — Mus. 
D. MDler. 

Mr. Gray is of opinion that this is Bui. granulosus of M. Rang. 

Bulinus badius. Bui. testa ovatd, ventricosd, postici subacumi- 
natd ; anfractibus quinque, rotundatis, longitudinaliter striatis, 
fulvescentibus fusco fusciatis, fasciis i7iterruptis ; umbilico mi- 
nimo ; aperturd ovatd, postice subacutninatd ; peritremate tenui, 
acuta: long. 1', lat. 0' 6 poll. 

Hab. in provincia Peruvi?e Xagua dicta. D. Mattheivs. — Muss. 
DD. Miller, Cuming, et Sowerby. 

Bulinus bicoloe. Bui. testd oblongd, postice subacuminatd, pal- 
lescente, fasciis interruptis fuscis ; anfractibus quinque, subventri- 
cosis, ultimo majore ; umbilico minimo ; aperturd subovatd, pos- 
tice acuminatd ; peritremate tenui, subacuto : long. 0'9, lat. 0'4 
poll. 
Hab. in provincia Peruvise Xagua dicta. D. Matthews. — Muss. 
DD. Miller, Cuming, et Sowerby. 

The specimens were brought to England by Mr. Miller, to whom 
the Society is indebted for their exhibition. 

The reading was concluded of a Paper entitled " Notes on the 
Natural History and Habits of the Ornithorhynchus paradoxus, 
Blum.," by Mr. George Bennett, Corr. Memb. Z. S. ; in which the 
author gives a detailed account of his inquiries and researches on 
the subject in question, made in the Colony of New South Wales, 
and in the interior of New Holland, at the end of 1832 and com- 
mencement of 1833. He commences by a description of the exter- 
nal character of the animal, as observed by him in the living and 
recent state ; from which it appears that the greater or less degree 
of nakedness of the uuder surface of the tail is dependent on age, 
and is probably a result of the mode in which that organ trails upon 

No. XXIV. PllOCEEDINGS OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SoCIETY. 



142 

the ground ; that the colour of the upper mandible above, in an 
animal recently taken out of the water, is of a dull dirty greyish 
black covered with innumerable minute dots, and the under surface 
of the lower white in the younger specimens, and mottled in the 
more aged, while the inner surface of both is of a pale pink or flesh 
colour ; that the eyes are brilliant, and light brovi'U ; and that the 
external orifices of the ears, which are with difficulty detected in 
dead specimens, are easily discoverable in the living, the animal ex- 
ercising the faculty of opening and closing them at will. When 
recent, and especially when wet, the Ornithorhynchvit has a peculiar 
fishy smell, proceeding probably from an oily secretion. It is used 
as food by the Natives, by whom it is called, at Bathurst and Goul- 
hurn Plains, and in the Yas, Murrumbidgee and Tumat countries, by 
the names of Mallangong or Tambreet. Mr. G. Bennett is inclined to 
regard the two species usually described in modern books as not 
differing sufficiently from each other to justify their separation, 
and he therefore retains the name of Orn. paradoxus given to the 
animal by Professor Blumenbach, the universal adoption of which 
renders it inexpedient in this instance to recur to the older name 
of Platypus imposed on it by Shaw. He remarks on the distor- 
tions to which the exceedingly loose integuments are liable in the 
hands of stuifers unacquainted with the characteristic features of 
the animal, and gives the general result of his measurements, In the 
recent state, of fifteen specimens shot and captured alive, as aver- 
aging in the males from 1 foot 7 to 1 foot 8 inches, and In the fe- 
males from 1 foot 6 to 1 foot 7 Inches, in total length. One male 
specimen, shot near the Murrumbidgee River, measured 1 foot 1 1+ 
inches ; and a female, shot In the afternoon of the same day in the 
same part of the river, measured only 1 foot 4 inches. In these spe- 
cimens the relative proportions of the beak and tail were subject to 
considerable variation. 

Mr. G. Bennett's observations were commenced on the 4th of 
October 1832, at Mundoona in the Murray County, on a part of the 
Yas River running through the estate of Mr. James Rose. The 
Water-Moles (as these animals are called by the Colonists,) chiefly 
frequent the open and tranquil parts of the stream, covered with 
aquatic plants, where the steep and shaded banks afford excellent 
situations for the excavation of their burrows. Such expanses of 
water are by the Colonists called " ponds." The animals may be 
readily recognised by their dark bodies just seen level with the sur- 
face, above which the head Is slightly raised, and by the circles made 
in the water around them by their paddling action. On the slight- 
est alarm they Instantly disappear ; and Indeed they seldom remain 
longer on the surface than one or two minutes, but dive head fore- 
most with an audible splash, reappearing, if not alarmed, a short 
distance from the spot at which they dived. Their action Is so rapid, 
and their sense of danger so lively, that the mere act of levelling the 
gun is sufficient to cause their Instant disappearance ; and It is con- 
sequently only by watching them when diving, and levelling the 
piece in a direction towards the .spot at which they seem likely to 



143 

reappear, that a fair shot at them can be obtained. A near shot is 
absolutely i-equisite ; and when wounded they usually sink immedi- 
ately, but quickly reappear on the surface. 

A male specimen was shot, and brought out by the dog, on the 
following morning. In a few minutes it revived, and ran along the 
ground, instinctively endeiavouring to regain the water, but did not 
survive more than twenty-five minutes. On this individual Mr. G. 
Bennett made various experiments, with the view of ascertaining 
the truth of the reports so extensively circulated of the injurious 
effects resulting from wounds iaflicted by the spur. In no way, 
however, could he induce the animal to make use of its spurs as 
weapons of offence ; although in its struggles to escape, his hands 
were slightly scratched by the hind claws, and even, in consequence 
of the position in which he held it, by the spur also. The result of 
several subsequent repetitions of the expei-iment Avith animals not 
in a wounded state was the same. The natives, too, never seem fear- 
ful of handling the male Oriiithorhynckiis alive. 

On the evening of the same day a female Avas shot, which died 
almost immediately on being taken out of the water. In this .speci- 
men the mammary glands were scarcely observable on dissection ; 
but the left uterus was found to contain three loose ova of the size 
of swan-shot. The right uterus was less enlarged, exhibited less 
vascularity, and contained no ova. Preparations of the generative 
organs of this individual, and of tvv^o other impregnated females 
which were subsequently obtained, were forwarded by the author to 
Mr. Owen, by whom they have been particularly described in the 
' Philosophical Transactions' for 1834, p. 555. 

The next day three other specimens were shot : a male and two 
females. In the former the testes were found not to be larger than 
very small peas, and the same fact was observed in a specimen after- 
wards shot in the Murrumbidgee ; whereas in that first obtained, 
they were nearly of the size of pigeons' eggs. For this difference 
at the same season it seems difficult to account. The left uterus 
of one of the females was found to contain two ova, and that of the 
other a single ovu7n, of the size of buck-shot. As before, no ova 
were found in the right uterus. 

On the morning of the 7th of October, Mr. G. Bennett pro- 
ceeded, in company with a native, to the banks of the river to see 
the burrow of an Ornithorhynchus, from which the natives had taken 
the young during the previous summer. The burrow was situated 
on a steep part of the bank ; and its entrance, concealed among, the 
long grass and other plants, was distant rather more than a foot 
from the water's edge. Its whole extent was not laid open, the 
natives contenting themselves with digging down upon it at stated 
distances, their operations being guided by the introduction into 
the burrow of a stick which indicated its direction. It took a 
serpentine course, and measured about twenty feet in length : the 
termination was broader than any other part, nearly oval in form, 
and strewed with dry river-weeds, &c. From this nest the native 
stated that he had taken in the previous season (December) three 



1 H. 

young ones, about six or eight inches in length, and covered with 
hair. In addition to the entrance above spoken of, the burrows have 
usually a second below the surface of the water, communicating 
■with the interior just within the upper aperture. After exhibiting 
this burrow, the native proceeded to explain the means employed in 
tracking the Mallamjongs. He pointed out on the moist clay of the 
banks foot-marks leading to a burrow, from the bottom of which, 
on inserting his arm, he drew forth some lumps of clay, which bore 
evident marks of the animal's recent passage. He declared, how- 
ever, that the inhabitant was absent, and Mr. G. Bennett was in- 
duced, by this information, to abstain from further investigation. A 
female specimen, shot in the evening of the same day, was found to 
have two ova, about the size of or rather smaller than buck-shot, in 
the left uterus ; and in this, as in all the other female specimens, 
much difficulty was experienced in finding the mammary glands. 
The contents of the cheek-pouches and stomachs always consisted 
of river insects, very small shell-fish, &c., comminuted and mingled 
with mud or gravel, which latter, Mr. G. Bennett suggests, may be 
required to aid digestion. River-weeds were never observed to form 
part of the food ; but Mr. George MacLeay informed the author 
that in a situation in which water-insects were very scarce he had 
shot Ornithorhynchi with river-Aveeds in their pouches. 

Similar excursions were made on the 8th and 9th of October ; 
and on the latter day one of the burrows was explored. The entrance 
of this burrow was situated on a moderately steep bank, abounding 
with long wiry grass and shrubs, at the distance of about five feet 
from the water's edge : its course lay in a serpentine direction up 
the bank, approaching nearer to the surface of the earth towards its 
termination. At this part it was expanded to form a chamber suf- 
ficiently capacious for the reception of the animal and her young, 
and measured one foot in length by six inches in breadth. Its 
whole length, from the entrance to the termination, was twenty 
feet ; narrowing as it receded from the entrance, where it measured 
one foot three inches in depth, and one foot one inch in breadth, and 
in the intermediate part becoming scarcely larger than the usual 
breadth of the animal when uncontracted. 

From this burrow a living female was taken, and placed in a cask, 
with grass, mud, water, &c. ; and in this situation it soon became 
tranquil, and apparently reconciled to its confinement. Hoping that 
he had now obtained the means, should his captive prove to have 
been impregnated, of determining the character of the excluded pro- 
duct, Mr. G. Bennett set out on his return for Sidney, on the 13th 
of October, carrying the living Ornithorhynchus with him in a small 
box, covered with battens, between which only very narrow intervals 
were left. 

The next morning, tying a long cord to its leg, he roused it and 
placed it on the bank of the river, in order to indulge it with a bathe ; 
and a similar indulgence was granted to it on the second day of its 
journey. On these occasions it soon found its way into the water, 
and travelled up the stream, apparently delighting in those places 



145 

which abounded most with aquatic weeds. When diving in deep 
and clear water, its motions were distinctly seen : it sank speedily 
to the bottom, swam there for a short distance, and then rose again 
to the surface. It appeared, however, to prefer keeping close to the 
bank, occasionally thrusting its beak into the mud, from whence it 
evidently procured food, as on raising the head, after withdrawing 
the beak, the mandibles were seen in lateral motion, as is usual when 
the animal masticates. The motions of the mandibles were similar 
to those of a duck under the same circumstances. After feeding, it 
would lie sometimes on the grassy bank, and at others partly in and 
partly out of the water, combing and cleaning its coat with the claws 
of the hind feet. This process occupied a considerable time, and 
greatly improved its sleek and glossy appearance. After its second 
excursion it was replaced in the box, which was not opened again 
until the following morning, when it was found to have made its 
escape. 

Although the summer season was now far advanced, Mr. G. 
Bennett detennined to return to the interior and renew his investi- 
gations. On the 15th of November he again arrived at Mundoona, 
where he found that the river had fallen greatly, and sought in vain 
for the Water-Moles in the spots in which they had a few weeks be- 
fore been so abundantly seen. Some burrows were also examined, 
but without success. On the 21st he proceeded to Gadarigby, on 
the Murrumbidgee, where his exertions were more successful, seve- 
ral specimens being obtained ; but the only female shot was young 
and unimpregnated. On the l'7th he returned to Mundoona, where 
a female had been shot the previous dajs the uterine organs of 
which afforded evidence that the j'oung had been just produced. 
The abdominal glands were large, but no milk could be expressed 
from them ; the fur still covered the portion of integument on which 
its ducts terminated ; and there was no appearance of projecting 
nipple. No such projection was observed in any of the specimens 
in which the secretion of milk was demonstrable. Two other females 
were procured at the same place ; but both proved to be unimpreg- 
nated. 

On the 8th of December Mr. G. Bennett quitted Mundoona for the 
banks of the Murrumbidgee, and near Jugiong, on the latter river, 
had an opportunity of inspecting the burrow of an Ornithorhynchus, 
containing three young ones, which appeared to have not long pre- 
viously been brought forth. They were only thinly covered with 
hair and measured in length about 1^ inch. No fragments of shells 
were observable in the burrow, nor anything that could lead to the 
supposition of the young having been excluded while yet in the egg. 
A want of spirit in which to preserve these interesting s])ecimens 
mifortunately prevented their conveyance to Sidney. 

On the 28th of December the author visited apart of the Wollon- 
dilly River, in the neighbourhood of Goulburn Plains, called by the 
Natives Koroa, in order to explore the burrow of an Ornithorhyn- 
chus which had there been discovered. The termination of this bur- 
row was thirty-five feet from the entrance ; and Mr. G. Bennett states 



146 

that burrows have been observed of even fifty feet in length. It was 
found to contain two young specimens, of the dimensions of 10 inches 
from the beak to the extremity of the tail. The nest consisted of dry 
river-weeds, the epidermis of reeds, and small dry fibrous roots, 
strewed over the floor of the terminal cavity. An old female was 
captured soon after on the banks of the river, in a ragged and 
wretched condition, which was conjectured to be the mother. But 
little milk could be pressed from her abdominal glands, as might have 
been expected in the parent of such well-grown young ones. She 
died at Mittagong, on the 1st of January, but the young ones sur- 
vived until some time after their arrival in Sidney. 

Mr. G. Bennett proceeds to describe in detail their habits in a 
state of captivity. Their various attitudes, when in a state of re- 
pose, are strikingly curious, and were illustrated by the exhibition 
of sketches made from the life. The young were allowed to run 
about the room ; but the old one was so restless, and damaged the 
walls of the room so much by her attempts at buiTowing, that it was 
found necessary to confine her to the box. During the day she would 
remain quiet, huddled up with her young ones ; but at night she 
became very restless, and eager to escape. The little ones were 
as frolicsome as puppies, and apparently as fond of play : and many 
of their actions were not a little ludicrous. During the day they 
seemed to prefer a dark corner for repose, and generally resorted to 
the spot to which they had been accustomed, although they would 
change it on a sudden apparently from mere caprice. They did not 
appear to like deep water, but enjoyed exceedingly a bathe in shal- 
low water, with a tvirf of grass placed in one corner of the ])an : 
they seldom remained longer than ten or fifteen minutes in the water 
at one time. Though apparently nocturnal, or at least preferring 
the cool and dusky evening to the glare and heat of noon, their 
movements in this respect were so irregular as to furnish no grounds 
for a definite conclusion. They slept much, and it frequently hap- 
pened that one slept while the other was running about, and this 
occurred at almost all periods of the day. They climbed with great 
readiness to the summit of a bookcase, placing their backs against 
the wall and their feet against the bookcase ; and thus, by means of 
their strong cutaneous muscles and of their claws, mounting with 
much expedition to the top. Their food consisted of bread soaked 
in water, chopped egg, and meat minced very small ; and they did 
not seem to prefer milk to water. One of the young ones died on 
the 29th of January 1.S33, and the other on the 2nd of February, 
having been kept alive in captivity for nearly five weeks. 



147 



December 23, 1834. 

Lieut. -Col. Sykes in the Chair. 

Drawings were exhibited of four Fishes of the River Quorra, made 
by Lieut. Allen, Corr. Memb. Z. S., from specimens obtained by 
him during his late voyage up that river into the interior of Africa. 
They exhibit the forms of Lutes, Cuv. ; Mormyrus, Ej. ; Sudis, La 
C<^p; and Notopterus, Ej. ; and thus tend, in common with the spe- 
cimens from the same expedition exhibited at the Meeting of the 
Society on June 10 (page 45), to illustrate the analogy borne by the 
Fishes of the rivers of Western Africa to those of the Nile. 

A specimen was placed on the table of a Toucan, apparently 
hitherto undescribed, and forming part of the collection of N. C. 
Strickland, Esq., by whom it was communicated for exhibition. 

Mr. Gould, at the request of the Chairman, pointed out its distin- 
guishing characteristics. By its comparatively short bill, which is 
furrowed on the sides, and broad and flattened on the cuhnen, with 
the base of the under mandible extending obliquely beyond the line 
of the eye ; by the shortness and roundness of its wings, of which the 
fourth quill-feather is the longest, the fifth, sixth, and seventh being 
nearly of the same length; and by the comparative shortness of the tail, 
which is less decidedly graduated than in the typical P^erof/Zo.^fs? ; this 
bird agrees with the species described in Mr. Gould's ' Monograph 
of the Ramphastidte,' as the Pter. prasrnus, Licht., and Pter. sulcatus. 
Swains. With those species Mr. Gould proposes to associate it in 
a group, to be designated, on account of the grooved bills of the Birds 
comprised in it, Aulacorhynchus . From the other two species it is 
readily distinguishable by the white band nearly surrounding the 
base of its bill, and by the blood-red spot on the rump. The Jatter 
character affords the trivial name of the species, which may, for the 
present, be inserted in the account of the Toucans given by Mr. 
Gould at the Meeting of July 8, 1834, (page 78,) immediately before 
the Pter.prasinus, Licht. 

Pter. h^ematopygus. Pter. svpra subolivaceus, infra ccerulescenti- 
viridis, pectore saturatiore ; uropygio coccineo ; rectricibus qua- 
tuor infermediis brunneo apiculatis. 
Long. tot. 14 poll. ; rostri, 2-| ; alee, 44 ; cauda, 5\ ; tarsi, l-J-. 
Desce. Rostrum saturate castaneum albo ad basin subcinctum, 
Orbitse rubrae. Pedes olivaceo-brunnei. Sexus uterque, sicut in 
Pter. prasino et Pter. sulcato, similis. 

The precise part of South America in which this bird was cap- 
tured has not been ascertained. 



us 

Col. Sykes, when reading to the Society, in 1S32, his Cata- 
logue of the Birds of Dukhun, not having exliibited the nest and 
eggs of the Lonchura Cheet, and of that species of Tailor-bird which 
he denominated Orthotomus Bennetfii, brought them under the notice 
of the Society on the present occasion. 

The nest of the Lonchura Cheet. is a perfect hollow ball, made of 
a delicate Agrostis, with a lateral hole for the entrance of the birds. 
It contained ten oblong minute white eggs, -J-oths of an inch long 
by VVths in diameter. It was found in the fork of a branch of the 
Mimosa Arabica. 

The nest of the Orthotomus Bennettii was lodged in the cavity 
formed by sewing the edges of two leaves together : the nest itself 
also was attached to the leaves by threads passing through the leaf 
and the bottom of the nest, and there were appearances of the end 
of the thread being knotted outside. The nest-is composed of very 
delicate fibres of Indian Hemp and grass. It contained two minute 
oblong crimson eggs, -^Vths of an inch long by -jVths wide. 

Col. Sykes also exhibited an egg of the fuviatile Tortoise of Duk- 
hun, Trionyx Indicus, Gray. It is a perfect sphere, IvV inch in dia- 
meter : the calcareous shell is of a peculiar alabaster-like white- 
ness. He found seven eggs with shells in the oviducts, and twenty- 
seven without shells, nearly of the size of the preceding, in one 
specimen. He took occasion to mention that in the stomach and 
intestines of another specimen of Trionyx, he found not only the 
animals, but also angular fragments of considerable size of the shells 
of some scores of large Uniones. 

A paper was read, entitled, " Description of some Species of 
Chuma : by W. J. Broderip, Esq., Vice-President of the Geological 
and Zoological Societies, F.R.S., L.S., &c." 

The author commences by remarking that the shells of the genus 
Chama appear to be subject to every change of shape and often of 
colour which the accidents of their locality may bring upon them, 
and that the distinction of the species must consequently be diffi- 
cult, on account of their infinite variety. He then proceeds to de- 
scribe those brought home by Mr. Cuming, and now in that gentle- 
man's cabinet. The Shells referred to were exhibited in illustra- 
tion of the characters and descriptions. 

Chama frondosa. Chama testa sublobatd, lamellosd, lamellis 
sinuosis frondosis, longitudinaliter plicatis et in utrdque valvd 
cardinem veisus biseriatis, maximis ; intus albidd, Umbo purpu- 
rascente, crenulato. 
Hab. ad Insulam Platam Columbise Occidentalis. 
The ground colour of this beautiful Chama is a light pinkish 
purple, and the luxuriant and spreading longitudinally plaited folia- 
tions are yellow tinged and streaked with the ground colour. At 
the root of each foliation, on its lower side, there is generally a 
purplish transverse stripe. 

It was dredged up from a rock of coral, to which it was adhering, 
at a depth of seventeen fathoms. 



H-9 

Var. a. Testd lameUis crebrioribus , frondibus brevioribus. 

Hab. cum prsecedente. 

Var. b. Testd toid purpured, lamcllis creberrimis, frondibus brevis- 
simis. 

Hab. ad Mexico. (Gulf of Tehuantepec.) 

Dredged up from sandy mud attached to Aviculce (Meleagrince, 
Lam., Margaritae, Leach,) at a depth of ten fathoms. 

Chama pellucida. Chama testd albd rosea seu ruh-o fucatd vel 
strigatd, lamelUs frequentibus, frondibus elongatis pellucidis; in- 
tits albd, limbo crenulato. 

Hab. ad Peruviam. (Iquiqul.) 

Dredged up attached to stones, Mytili, and turbinated shells, at a 
depth varying from nine to eleven fathoms, from a bottom of coarse 
sand, and also found under stones at lov/ water mark. 

In old specimens the foliations and lamellce are completely worn 
down, and the shell has somewhat of a crystalline appearance ; — 
indeed it is always semitransparent. 

Chama lobata. Chama testd albd, lobatd, subrhomboided, radi- 
atim striata, lamellis creberrimis, fimbriatis, foliaceis, striatis >• 
Umbo interna crenato. 
Hab. ad Insulam Nevis. 

Found attached to small stones and shells, at Nevis in the West 
Indies, in sandy mud, and at a depth ranging from four to ten fa- 
thoms. 

Chama Pacifica. Chama testd 7'ubrd purpured vel luted, lamellis 
creberrimis, foliis seu squamuUs brevioribus interdum albidis ; 
Umbo interna crenato. 

Hab. in Oceano Pacifico. (Lord Hood's Island. — Pearl Islands.) 

The infinite variety of this species in shape and colour defies de- 
scription. In many points it agrees with Lamarck's Chama forida, 
but he describes the margin of that shell as entire, whereas the mar- 
gin of Chama Pacifica is strongly crenated. 

Mr. Cuming's specimens were obtained by diving. They were 
attached to Avicula, at a depth ranging from three to seven fathoms. 
Many shells of this species were brought to this country some yeare 
ago, from the Pearl Islands, by Mr. Samuel Stutchbury. 

Chama imbkicata. Chama testd lamellosd, squamis imbricatd, ul- 
bidd purpureo-fusca varid ; valvd superiore subdejjrcssd, sublo- 
batd, sinu ab umbone usque ad limbum currente ; inttts ulbidd, 
limbo Integra, scepissime nigra-purpurea. 
Hab. in Oceano Pacifico. (Lord Hood's Island. — Pearl Islands.) 
This grows to a large size, and was obtained by diving, attached 
to Aviculce, at a depth ranging from three to seven fathoms. I'lu-re 
is generally a purple spot at the tip of the umbo of the upper 
valve. 

This species was also brought home in considerable numbers by 
Mr. Samuel Stutchbury from the Pccul Islands, 



150 

Var. a. Teatd nand, castaned albo strigatd, intits albd. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

The examination of an extensive series has led Mr. Broderip to 
the conclusion that this dwarf, and at first sight widely differing, 
shell, is only a variety of Chama imbricata. The purple-brown is 
changed into chestnut striped with white, and hardly any scales are 
to be found on its wrinkled surface, except the double series which 
crown the ridge on each side of the depressed line, and sometimes a 
series or two on the affixed valve. This depressed line is not nearly 
so well marked as it is in the large variety, but it is to be observed 
on most of the specimens : some are absolutely without imbrications. 

This variety was found attached to rocks and stones at low water. 

Chama producta. Chama testd subpurpured, crebei'rirn^ lamel- 
losu, lamellis foUaceis, integris ; valvd inferiore enormiter pro- 
ductd ; limbo integro, purpurea. 

Hab. ad Mexico. (Gulf of Tehuantepec.) 

The interior of the shell, which has something of the aspect of 
that of a Gryphaa, is white tinged with yellowish, and striped in the 
direction of the lamella with purple. The purple border on the 
smooth internal edge of the upper valve is of some width. 

Dredged up from sandy mud at a depth of ten fathoms, attached 
to stones. 

Chama cobrugata. Chama testd eorrugatd, ruhro-purpured albo 

vurid ; intiis atro-purpured, limbo integro. 
Hab. in America Centrali. (Real Llejos.) 

Found attached to stones at low water. All the specimens which 
Mr. Broderip had seen turn from right to left. 

Chama echinata. Chama testd albidd purpurea varid, spinis 
fornicatis echinatd ; intiis atro-purpured vel sub-rubrd, limbo 
integro ; dente cardinali rubro. 

Hab. in Americfi Centrali. (Puerto Portrero.) 

The spines of this species, which are close set and well developed 
in youth, are entirely abraded in age, till nothing but corrugation is 
left externally. But as the animal advances in life the interior of 
the shell is richly painted, till in old age it arrives to an intensity of 
dark purple that it is hard to imitate with colours however rich. 
At this period the cardinal tooth becomes of the hue of the bone of 
the red Coral (Isis nobilis) used for ornamental purposes. 

Found at low water attached to rocks. 

Chama spinosa. Chama testd albd interdum roseo vel purpurea 
umbonem versus valva super ioris pictd, spinis fornicatis creberri- 
mis horridd ; intiis albd. Umbo integro. 
Hab. in Oceano Pacifico. (Lord Hood's Island.) 
This pretty species was di'edged up, attached to corals and Avicula, 
at a depth ranging from three to seven fathoms. The younger spe- 
cimens are tinged towards the umbo of the upper valve with a deli- 
cate rose-colour. The umbo of the lower valve is often produced 
after the manner of that of Chama unicornis. Lam. 



151 

Chama sordida. Chama testd albidd subroseo varid vel totd sub' 
rosed, creberrime striatd, hinc et hinc foUaced; intiis albd. 
Umbo crenulato. 
Hab. in America Centrali. (Isle of Cuiia.) 

This species, which varies much according to its age, but never 
appears to grovir to a large size, was dredged up from a depth of 
eighteen fathoms, attached to rocks. Old specimens have the lower 
valve often very much produced. 

A Note by Mr. George Bennett on the Nasal Gland of the ican- 
dering Albatross, Diomedea exulans, Linn., was read. It described in 
detail the gland situated in that bird above the orbit, as observed by 
the writer in 1832, and accorded with the account of it published by 
him in the Appendix to his ' Wanderings in New South Wales,' &c. 
It was illustrated by a drawing of his dissection of the head of an 
Albatross, made specially with the view of tracing the excretory duct 
of the gland, which he succeeded in doing for nearly two inches 
under the external plate of the upper mandible, in a direction towards 
the nostrils, but inclining slightly upwards, until he lost sight of it 
among the cellular substance of the bone. The writer notices the 
occurrence of a corresponding structure in other Birds, particularly 
among the Natatores, and refers to Miiller for an account of the 
gland as it exists, in or near the orbit, in species of every order of 
Aves. 

A specimen was exhibited of a Kangaroo, recently brought from 
New Holland, by Capt. Sir W. Edward Parry, R.N., and presented 
by him to the Society. 

Mr. Bennett called the attention of the Meeting to it as repre- 
senting a species not hitherto described, and distinguishable by its 
paler colour, which is generally of a slaty grey ; by the whiteness of 
its tail throughout the greater part of the length of that organ ; by 
the comparative length of the tail, which is here longer than the 
body, whereas in the ordinary greater Kangaroo, Macropus major, 
Shaw, it is shorter ; by the comparative nakedness of the ears ; by 
the great extent of the naked muzzle; and by a broad white strijie 
alone each cheek. He stated it to be his intention to describe it in 
detail under the name of 

Macropus Parryi. Macr. rhinario lato ; auriculis elongatis nu- 

diusciilis ; caudd corpore siiblongiore, pilis rigidis brevibus inaim - 

bentibus vestitd : notceo griseo ; gastreeo pallida ; fascidgenarum, 

cauduque pro maximd parte, ulbis, hdc ad apicem nigrd. 

Long. tot. a rostro ad caudse apicem 5 ped. 4 poll. ; capitis, 6 poll. ; 

auricula, 4; tarsi postici, ad unguis longioris apicem, lOj-; caudce, 

2 ped. 6 poll. 

In a Note from Sir Edward Parry, which was read, it is stated 
that the animal in question is known to the natives in the neighbour- 
hood of Port Stephens (lat. 32° S.) by the name of Wullaroo. This 
individual had been in his possession in New South Wales for two 
years previously to his embarkation for England, and was allowed to 



152 

range about at perfect liberty. It set out every night after dusk 
into the bush to feed, returning generally about two o'clock in the 
morning. In addition to what it obtained on these excursions, it 
ate^ meat, bread, vegetables, &c. Occasionally, but rarely, it ven- 
tured out in the daytime to a considerable distance, in which case 
it would sometimes be chased back by strange dogs : these, how- 
ever, it always outstripped by its superior swiftness, until it placed 
itself under the protection of the dogs of the house. It died, from 
the effects of an accident, almost immediately after its arrival in 
England. 

Detailed Notes of its dissection by Mr. Owen were read. The 
structure of its principal viscera corresponds in general with that of 
the same organs in the greater Kangaroo, but there are some dif- 
ferences observable in the anatomy of the two species. The pucker- 
ing of the stomach, which is occasioned in Macr. major by three 
longitudinal bands, one extending on each side from the oesophagus 
along the lesser curvature, and the third passing along the line from 
which the great epiploon is continued to the spleen and transverse 
colon, depends in Macr. Parryi on the lateral bands alone, there 
being no mesial one. The different segments of the intestinal cansd 
bear the same relative proportion to each other in both species ; but 
the length of the several segments, and consequently of the whole 
canal, is less as compared with that of the body in Parry's than in 
the greater Kangaroo, — a fact which is in direct accordance with the 
more mixed nature of the food in the former. The spleen in Macr. 
Parryi was deeply notched at its free trenchant margin ; in Macr. ma- 
jor it appears to be always entire. The mesial cm/- rfe-sac of the vagina 
did not extend quite so far down in Macr. Parryi, as it does in the 
better-known species. 

In the stomach were found two hair-balls of an oval shape, not 
rounded as they generally are in the Ruminants, which are most 
obnoxious to these formations. One of them was 3, and the 
other 2 inches in the long diameter. They were entirely com- 
posed of the hairs of the animal, matted together and agglutinated 
by the mucus of the stomach. Mr. Owen remarks on the interest 
which attaches to this resemblance to the Ruminating tribes, to 
which the Kangaroos make so near an approach in the complexity 
and magnitude of the stomach, and the simplicity of the cacum and 
colon. He states that he has " more than once observed the act of 
rumination in the Kangaroos preserved in the Vivarium of the So- 
ciety. It does not take place while they are recumbent, but when 
they are erect upon the tripod of the hinder legs and tail. The ab- 
dominal muscles are in violent action for a few minutes ; the head is 
a little depressed ; and then the cud is chewed by a quick rotatory 
motion of the jaws. This act was more commonly noticed after 
physic had been given to the animals, Avhich we may suppose to have 
interrupted the healthy digestive processes : it by no means takes 
place with the same frequency and regularity as in the true Rumi- 
nants." 



INDEX. 



The names of New Species and of Species newly characterized are printed 
in Roman Characters : those of Species previously known, but respecting which 
novel information is given, in Italics : those of Species respecting which 
Anatomical Observations are made, in Capitals. 



Page. 

Acipenser catapliractus, Rapp — 122 

Sinensis, Gray 122 

Ailurus fulgens, F. Cuv 9Q 

Alauda arvensis, Linn 133 

Anas Boschas, Linn 51 

FuUgula, Linn 134 

Querquedula, Linn 134 

ruttla, Pall 52 

Anatina costata, Sow , 87 

prismatica, (S'ow 87 

Anodon Parishii, Gray 57 

penicillatus. Gray 57 

porcifer. Gray 58 

Anthus aquaticus, Bechst 30 

Antilope Cervicapra, Pall 99 

CMckara, Hardw 99 

Duvaucelii, Ham. Sm... 85 

Goral, Hardw 85,99 

Hodgsonii, Abel 80 

Sumatrensis, Shaw 85 

TAar, Hodgs 85,99 

Aptenodytes Patachonica, Gmel. . 34 

Aqu'da pennata 50 

Ardea Egretta, Temm 15 

Garxetta, hmn 133 

ptirpurea, hinn 30 

Argonauta Argo, Linn 120 

Mans 120 

Assiminia, n. sp., Bens 90 

Aulacorhynchus, n.g., Gould 147 

haematopygus, Gould. 147 

prasinus, Gould 147 

sulcatus, Gould 147 

Bernicla Sandvicensis, Vig 43, 81 

Bos Buhalus, Briss 99 

grunniens, Pall 99 

Taurus, y&x. Indicus 99 

Botaurus minutus 30 



Page. 

Botaurus stellaris 51 

Bulinus apiculatus. Gray 66 

atomatus, Gray 64 

badius. Sow 141 

hicolor, Sotv 141 

Burchellii, Gray 66 

crassilabris, Gray 66 

granulosus, Rang 141 

leucostoma, .S'ow 141 

Pullus, Gray 66 

rhodostomus, Gray 65 

Buteo vulgaris, Bechst 50 

Calidris arenaria, Temm 15 

Calyptraea arenata, Brod 40 

cepacea, Brod 35 

conica, Brod 38 

cornea, Brod 35 

corrugata, Brod 35 

HAataia, Brod S8 

dorsata, Brod. 38 

Echinus, Brod. 39 

excavata, Brod 40 

foliacea, Brod 38 

hispida, .Brorf. 37 

Hystrix, Brod 39 

imbricata, Brod, 36 

incurva, Brod. 40 

Lessonii, Brod. 39 

Lichen, Brod. 37 

lignaria, Brod. 36 

maculata, Brod 37 

ma.vm\\a.ris, Brod. 38 

vaa.rg\na\h, Brod 40 

pallida, Brod 39 

radiata, Brod 36 

rudis, jBrorf 35 

serrata, Brod 37 

sordida, Brod 37 



154 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Calyptrsea Squama, Brod 40 

striata, Brod 38 

strigata, Brod. 39 

tenuis, Brod. 36 

unguiformis, Brod 39 

Unguis, Brod 37 

varia, Brod 35 

Canis aureus Indicus 97 

Betigaletisis, Shaw 97 

familiaris, Linn., varr 97 

Lupus, Linn 97 

primcRvus, Hodgs 97 

n. sp., Hodgs 97 

Capra Jharal, Hodgs 99, 1 06 

Carduelis communis, Cuv 51 

CarocoUa Novae Hollandiae, Gray 67 

Stoddartii, Grai/ 65 

Caryophyllia Smithii, Brod 28 

Casu ARius Emeu, Lath 9 

Cerithium armatum 22 

Telescopium,^rvig. ...22,91 

Cerviis Aristotelis, Cuv 98 

Axis, Erxl 98 

Bahrainja, Hodgs 99 

Elaphus, Linn 98 

equinus, Cuv 98 

2ior<:inus, Linn 98 

iZa/wo, Hodgs 99 

n. sp., Hodgs 99 

Chama corrugata, jBrotf. 150 

echinata, Brod ,.... 150 

Irondosa, Brod 148 

imbricata, Brod 1 49 

lobata, Brod 149 

Pacifica, JSrorf 149 

pellucida, ^ro</ 149 

producta, Brod 150 

sordida, Brod 161 

spinosa, 5rorf 150 

Chameeleo Oweni, Gray 45 

C/iaradrius Hiaticula, Linn 15 

Himantopus, Linn.... 134 
Morinellus, Linn. ... 30 

Pluvialis, Linn 134 

Chauliodus sirepera. Swains 30 

Chelonia Mydas, Schw 92 

Chrysochloris, n. sp., A. Smith ... 25 

Cicada clarisona 20 

Cinclus aquaticus, Bechst 51 

Circus eeruginosus 50 

cineraceus 51 

cyanetis 50 

Cistuda Bealii, Gray 54 

Amboinensis, vav., Gray. 54 
. trifasciata. Gray 110 



Page. 

Clangula vulgaris, Fleni 134 

Clavagella a/ier/a, Sow 115 

Australis, Sow 115 

elongata, Brod. 116 

lata, ^rorf 116 

Melitensis, Brod 116 

Rapa, Rang 115 

Clavagella LATA, Brod Ill 

Columha annularis, Temm 110 

inystacea, Temxn 110 

passerina, Linn 110 

spiloptera, Vig 52 

Conus Algoensis, Sow 18 

aulicus, var. Sow 18 

brunneus. Wood 18 

Diadema, Sow 19 

ferrugatus. Sow 19 

Luzonicus, var. Sow 18 

Nussatella, var. Sow 18 

pulchellus, 5ow 19 

Regalitatis, Sow 19 

tendinous, var. Sow 18 

Coracias Garrula, Linn 51 

Corvus Corone, Linn 15 

Monedula, Linn 133 

Corythaix Buffonii, Le Vaill 110 

CoRYTHAIXPORPHYREOLOPHAjVig. 3 

Coturnix Sinensis, Cuv 34 

Crocodilus acutus, Cuv 110 

cataphractus, Cuv 110 

Crossarchus obscurus, F. Cuv... 113 

Cryptoprocta ferox, Benn 13 

Cuculus catiorus, Linn 29 

Curruca atricapilla, Bechst 31 

Cyclemys, n.g.. Bell 17 

orbiculata. Bell 17 

Cyprtsa Arctica 28 

bullata 28 

Pediculus 28 

Cypselus alpinus, Temm 29 

Cypselus Apus, 111 92 

Dasyprocta Aguti, 111 82 

Dendromys, n. sp., A. Smith 25 

DiDELPHis AzARyE, Temm 101 

Diomedea chlororhynchos 128 

fitliyinosa 128 

spadicea 128 

Diomedea exulans, Linn 151 

Echidna Hystrix, F. Cuv 23 

Elephas Indicus, Cuv 98 

Ember iza Cia, Linn 133 

erytkrophthalma,Gme\. 81 

Miliaria, Linn 51 

Emys Bealii, Gray 54, 110 

Dkor, Gray 17 



INDKX. 



155 



Page. 

Emys nigricans, Gmy 53 

orbiculata, Bell 17 

platynota, Gray 54, 135 

Reevesii, Gray 110 

Sinensis, Gray 53, 110 

Spengkri, Schweig 100 

spinosa, Bell 100 

tentoria. Gray 54 

Eulima acuta, Sow 8 

Anglica, Sow 8 

articulata. Sow 8 

brevis, 5'ow 7 

brunnea, Sow 7 

hastata. Sow 7 

imbricata, Soiv 7 

interrupta, 5ow 7 

labiosa, Sow 7 

lineata, 5'o?o 8 

raa]oic,Sotv 7 

marmorata, 5'oK' 7 

pusilla. Sow 8 

splendidula, Sow 6 

siibangulata, Sow 8 

varians, Soiv 8 

Falco rufpes, Bechst 51 

TlnnitnculuSflAxin 133 

Felis juhata, Schreb 97 

Zeo, Linn 1 

Leopardus, Linn 97 

Moormensis, Hodgs 97 

Nepalensis, Vig. and Horsf. 97 

Pardus, Linn 97 

Tigris, Linn 1, 96 

viverrinus, Benn 97 

Felis Tigris, Linn 54 

Fissurella aequalis. Sow 127 

affinis, Gray 125 

aspera, 5'o!<' 127 

asperella, 6'oM' 127 

biradiata,/'re»26 124 

Chemnitzii, 6'o«<' 126 

Chilensis, Sow 124 

Clypeus, i'ow 128 

crenifera, Sotv 128 

fulvescens. Sow 127 

grandis, 5'ozo 123' 

inaequalis, 5'o?« 126 

lata. Sow 124 

latimarginata, ".Vow 126 

limbata. Sow 123 

macrotrema. Sow 125 

maxima, .^ow 123 

microtrema. Sow 125 

mutabilis, 5'o/A' 127 

iiigrita, Sow 127 



Page. 

Fissurella nigropunctata. Sow. ... 125 

obscura. Sow 125 

oriens, iSom; 124 

Panamensis, Sow 127 

Pica, Sow 126 

pulclira, Sow 124 

Riippellii, ^■ow 128 

trapezina, Sow 126 

virescens, Soiv 125 

Fringilla tristis, Linn 81 

Fulgora lanternaria, Linn 19 

Galago Senegalensis, GeofFr 45 

Ganymeda, n. g., Gray 15 

pulchella, Gray 16 

Garruhis cristatus, Cuv 41 

Gastrochaena brevis. Sow 21 

hyalina, Sow 22 

ovata, Sow 21 

rugulosa, Sow 22 

truncata, 6'oz<J 21 

Gehyra, n. g.. Gray 100 

Pacifica, Gray 100 

Geoemyda, n. g., Gi-ay 100 

Spengleri, Gray. ..100, 110 

spinosa. Gray 100, 135 

Gulo orientalis, Horsf 96 

Helarctos Malayanus, Horsf. 96 

Helicophanta Falconeri, Reeve ... 63 

magnijica, Fer 63 

Helix Campbellii, Gray 65 

cicatricosa, Chemn 67 

Codringtoaii, Gi-ay 67 

Cracherodii, Gray 67 

crispata 64 

Cunningliami, Gray 64 

fidelis, Gray 67 

Fraseri, Gray 64 

granifera. Gray 68 

Himalayana, Lea 67, 91 

interrupta, Bens 90 

Jacksoniensis, Gray 65 

ligulata, Fer 67 

Maderaspatana, GVay 67 

nitida 65 

pacbygastra. Gray 68 

Phillipii, Gray 65 

Radama, Less 64 

sepulchralis 64 

Hemipodius Dussumieri, Temm ... 34 

Herpestes griseus, F. Cuv 96 

Javanicus, Geo^ 110 

Himantopus melanoptertis. May... 30 

Hydrobates lobaius, Temm 19 

HYDRocHffiRi's Capybaka, Erxl... 9 

Ilystrlv kuctirus, Sykes 97 



15G 



INDEX. 



Page. 

/elides alhifrons, Valenc 96 

Ketupa Javanensis, hess 110 

Lacerta agilis, Linn 101 

oedura, Shepp 101 

vivipara 101 

Lanius Collurio, Linn 51 

Lepisosfetts, n. spp., Agass 119 

Leptoconchus, n. g., Biipp 105 

Leptcs nigricoUis, F. Cu v. ? 97 

n. sp., Hodgs 97 

Lestris parasiticus, Temm 31 

Lialis, n. g., Gray 134 

Burtonis, Gray 134 

Lignus tenuis, Gray 66 

Lonchura Cheet, Sykes 148 

Loxia Cardinalis, Linn 81 

cucullata 81 

curvirostra, Linn 15 

Lutra Roensis, Ogilh Ill 

n. s-p-p., Hodgs 97 

Lyonsia brevifrons, Sow 88 

■picta., Sow 88 

Macacus cynomolgus, Lac^p 9 

radiatus, Geoffr 96 

Macropus Parry i,^enw 151 

Macropus Parryi, Benn 152 

Manis tetradactyla, Linn 28 

Temminckii, 6'»j?<fo 81 

n. sp., Hodgs 98 

Martes laniger, Hodgs 97 

Mergulus melanoleucos, Ray 30 

Mergus alhellus, Linn 30, 134 

Midas Rosalia, Geoffr 110 

Monacanthus Hystvix, Burt 121 

Mus decumanus, Linn 98 

Musculus, Linn 98 

Rattiis, Linn 98 

Mustela flavigula, Bodd 97 

putorius, lAvm.'i 97 

Mygale avicidaria, Walck 11 

Myletes Allenii, Benn 45 

Hasselquistii, Cuv 45 

Nanina, n. g., Gray 58, 89 

citrina, Gray 58 

ClairvilUa, Gray 58 

exilis, Gray 58 

Javanensis, Gray 58 

Juliana, Gray 58 

moiiozo7ialis. Gray 58 

Nemorensis, Gray 58 

striata. Gray 59 

Vitrinoides, Gray 58 

Nasuafusca, F. Cuv 9 

Nepkila clavipes, Leach 12 

NovacuUna Gangelica, Bens 91 



Page. 

Numetiius phaopus, Temm 15 

Numida viilturina, Hardw 52 

Nycteribia biarticulata, Westw. ... 139 

Blainvillii, Leach 138 

dubia, Westiv 137 

Dufourii, Westw 138 

Hopei, Westw 137 

Jenynsii, Westw 139 

Latreillii, ZeacA 139 

pedicularia, Za^r 138 

Roylii, Westw 138 

Sykesii, Westw 137 

xexaia, Westw 138 

Nycticehus Bengalensis, Geoffr.... 96 

Nycticorax Europeeus, Steph 30 

Octopus octopodia 31 

(Edicnemus crepitans, Cuv 51 

Oriolus Galhula, Linn 51 

Ornithorhynchus paradoxus, BL 22,141 
Ornithorhynchus paradoxus,B1. 43 

Orthotomus Bennettii, Sykes 148 

Otis Tetrax, Linn 51 

Otus vulgaris, Cuv 133 

O vis Ammon, var. , Hodgs 99 

Musmon, var., Hodgs 99 

Nahoor, Hodgs 107 

Tragelaphits, Geoffr 110 

Paradoxurus Bondar, Gray? 96 

prehensilis, Gray... 33 

n. sp., Hodgs 96 

Parus biarmicus, Linn 30, 51 

major, hmn 51 

Pastor roseus, Temm 51 

Pelecanus Onocrotalus, Linn 49 

Perdix sphenura, Gray 34 

Periploma lenticularis, Sotv 87 

planiuscula, Sotv 87 

Petricola amygdalina, i'oM' 47 

concinna, Soic 46 

denticulata. Sow 46 

discors, -Soit' 46 

elliptica, Sow 46 

oblonga. Sow 46 

robusta. Sow 47 

rugosa, 6'oM' 47 

solida, Sow 46 

tenuis, 6'ow 47 

Phasianus Colchicus, Linn 52 

veneraius, Temm 34 

Phccnicura Ruticilla, Swains 30 

Pholas acuminata, Sow 70 

calva. Gray 69 

Chiloensis, var. i'oer 69 

cornea, Sotv 72 

cruciger, Sow 69 



INDEX. 



157 



Page. 

Pliolas curta, 5'o^i; 71 

lamellosa, Turt 69 

melanura, Sow 70 

papyracea 69 

Quadra, 5ow 71 

subtruncata, 6'(w 69 

hibifera, .Jow 71 

Picus medius, Linn 1 33 

Pithecia Chiropotes 41 

sagulata 41 

Placunanomia echinata, Brod. ... 2 

foliata, Brod 2 

rwiWs, Brod 2 

Platalea leucorodia, Linn 30 

Platysternonmegacephalum, Gray 110 

Plyctolophns cristatus, Vieill 41 

Podiceps cristatus, Linn 1 34 

Polypterus Senegalns, Cnv 45 

Procellaria Capensis, Linn 128 

ccerulea 128 

vittata 128 

Prochilus luhiatus, 111 96 

Pterocles arenarius, Temm 51 

Pteroglossus, III 75 

Aracari, III. 75 

Azarse, Wagl 76 

Bailloni, Wagl 77 

bitorquatus, Fig 76 

castanotis, Gould... 75 

Culik, TVagl 78 

hsematopygns, Gotddl4:7 

hypoglaucus, Gould . 77 

inscriptus, Swains. . 77 

niaculirostris,Zic/j<. 78 
prasinus, Licht. . 78, 147 

regalis, Licht 75 

sulcatus, Swains.79, 147 

ulocomns, Gould... 76 

viridis. III 77 

Pleropus medius, Temm 96 

n.sp., Hodg8 96 

Pyrgila domestica, Cuv 51 

Pyrgoma Anglicum, Leach 28 

Ramphastos, III 72 

Ariel, Vig 74 

carinatus, Swains. ... 73 

culminatus, Gould. . 73 

Cuvieri, Wagl 73 

dicolorus, Litin 74 

erythrorhynchus, Gou. 72 

Swainsouii, Gould... 73 

Toco, Gmel 74 

vitellinus, III 74 

Ratelus mellivorui, Storr 96 

Rhea Americana, Vieill 9 



Page. 

Rhinoceros unicornis, Cuv 41, 98 

Rhinolophus megaphyllus, Gray . 52 

Saxicava pm-purascens, Sow 88 

solida, Sow 88 

tenuis, iSnzt? 88 

Saxicola (Enanthe, Bechst 51 

Scaphula, n. g., Bens 91 

Sciuropterus albidus, F. Cuv 98 

Sciurus Palmarum, Linn 98 

n.sp., Hodgs 98 

Scolopax major, Linn 133 

Scutella, n. g., -Brot^ 47 

crenulata, Brod 48 

iridescens, Brod 48 

rosea, Brod 48 

Semnopithecus Entellus, F. Cuv.., 95 
Semnopithecus Maurus, F. Cuv. 6 

Simia sagulata, Traill 41 

Siren lacertina, Linn 31 

Sorex Indicus, GeofFr 96 

Sphaeriodactylus cinereus, MacL. 12 
elegans, MacL. . 12 

Sterna Hirundo, Linn 15, 51 

leucoptera, Temm 51 

nigra, Linn 31 

Strepsilas collaris, Temm 15 

Strix Kelupu, Horsf. 110 

Sturnus vulgaris, Linn 51 

SusScrofa, Liim., var 98 

Sylvia Ruhecula, Linn 133 

Syngnathus Acus, Linn 118 

Ophidion, Linn 119 

Typhle, Linn 118 

Tadorna Vulpanser 51 

Texehra. aciculata, Gray 63 

affinis, Gray 60 

alba, Gray 60 

albida, Gray 63 

anomala, Gray 62 

cancellata. Gray 62 

Cerithina, Lam 62 

corrugata, Lam 59 

crenulata, Lam 59 

dimidiata. Lam 59 

duplicata. Lam 59 

flammea. Lam 59 

flava. Gray 60 

gracilis, Gray 61 

hastata, Lam 63 

Knovrii, Gray 59 

Iffivigata, Gra^ 01 

ItEvis, Gray 01 

lanceolata, Lam 63 

lineolafa. Sow 63 

maciUata, Lam 59 



158 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Terebra muscaria, Lam 59 

myuros. Lam 59 

nuheculata, Sow 59 

oculata, Lam 59 

omata, Gray 62 

pertusa, Sow 59 

plicata, Gray 61 

polita, Gray 63 

punctata, Gray 61 

punctatostriata, Gray .. 61 

rudis, Gray 60 

straminea, Gray 62 

striata, Gray 60 

striatula, Lam 59 

strigillata, Lam 63 

suhulata, Lam 59 

taniolata, Quoy 62 

Tahitensis, Gray 63 

tessellata, Gray 61 

tigrina, Gray 59 

tricolor, Sow 62 

triseriata, Gray 62 

midulata. Gray 60 

variegata, Gray 61 

Testudo Indica 113 

Tetrao Tetrix, lAnn 52 

UrogaUus, h'lnn 110 

Tetraogallus NigelUi, Gray 52 

Tetrodon Physa, GeofFr 46 

strigosxis, Benn 46 



Page. 

Tickodrojiiamuraria,!]] 51 

Totanns Calidris, Bechst 51 

Glottis, Bechst 51 

Ochropus, Temm 30, 52 

Tragopan Temminckii, Gray 33 

Tringa Canutus,lATm 15 

pugn ax, Bechst 51 

Temminckii 15 

variabilis, May 51, 133 

Troglodytes communis, Cnv 51 

Trogon elegans, Gould 26 

erythrocephalus, Gould... 25 

Malabaricus, Gould 26 

Unio Novae Hollandiffi, Gray ... 57 

Urania Fernandinse, il/acZ 10 

Leiltis, Fabr H 

Vrsus Arctos, var. niger 110 

isahellinus, Horsf. 96 

Thibetanus,F. Cuv 96 

Vanellus albiceps, GomW 45 

n. sp.? 51 

Vespertilio Noctula, Schreb 129 

Pipistrellus, Geoffr.... 129 

Vipera Berus,Ii&\iA 101 

Viverra Indica, Geoffr 96 

Basse, Horsf. 96 

undnlata, Gray 2 96 

Zonites fuliginosus 63 

Walkeri, Gray 63 



PBtNTED BY RIGHAR]} TAYUtlt 
RUD LION COURT, FI,I!ET STREET. 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 



PART III. 
1835. 







PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 

BY RICHARD TAYLOR, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



LIST 



OP 



CONTRIBUTORS. 

With References to the several Articles contributed by each. 



Abbot, Keith E., Esq. page 

Letter accompanying a Collection from Trebizond and 
Erzeroun, presented by 89 

Agassiz, Professor. 

Views of the Affinities and Disposition of the Cyprinidee. . 149 

Allis, Mr. 

On the mode of attachment of the osfurcatum to the sternum 
in various Grallatorial and Natatorial Birds 154 

Bell, T.. Esq. 

Observations on the Genus Cancer of Dr. Leach {Platy- 
carcinos, Latr.), with Descriptions of three New Species ... 86 
On Microrhynchus, a New Genus of Triangular Crabs ... 88 
Account of the Crustacea of the Coasts of South America 169 

Bennett, E. T., Esq. 

Observations on the brush-tailed Kangaroo {Macropus peni- 
cillatus, Gray.) 1 

Remarks on some Mammalia from Travancore, including 

a New Species of Herpestes {Herp. vitticollis) 66 

On a second Species of Lagotis {Lag. pallipes) 67 

Observations on several Mammalia from Trebizond and 
Erzeroun, including a New Species of Rat {Mus latipes) and 

of Marmot {Citillus Xanthoprymna) 89 

Characters of several previously undescribed Fishes from 

Trebizond 91 

Character of a Species of Paradoxurus 118 

Character of a Species of Acanthurus 119 

Character of a New Species of Crocodile (Crocodilus lepto- 

rhynchus) 128 

On a remarkable Pteropine Bat from the Gambia 149 

On a New Species of Ctenomys, Blainv., and on other Ro- 
dents collected near the Straits of Magellan by Capt. P. P. 

King, R.N 189 

Characters of several Fishes from the Isle of France .... 206 



IV 



Bennett, G., Esq. pa^e 

Notice of an Animal called Gunar by the Australians, ... 2 

Broderip, W. J., Esq. 

Characters of New Genera and Species of MoUusca and 
Conchifera, collected by Mr. Cuming 41, 192 

Observations on the Habits, &c. of a Male Chimpanzee, 
Troglodytes niger, Geoff., living in the Society's Menagerie 160 

Burton, E., Esq. 

Descrii^tion of a Ratelus from India 113 

Description of a Species of Agriopus, Cuv 116 

Characters of several Birds from the Himalayan Mountains 152 

Campbell, H. Bruce, Esq. 

Note on a white Variety of the Blackbird {Turdus Merula, 
Linn.), presented by him 105 

Christy, W., Jun. Esq. 

Note on the position of the mammcB in the Coypus (Myo- 
potamus Coypus, Comm.) 182 

Cox, J. C, Esq. 

Notice of a white Variety of the common Sparrow {Passer 
domesticus, Briss.) 106 

Cuming, H., Esq. 

Characters of New Genera and Species of MoUusca and 
Conchifera, collected by 4, 21, 41, 49, 84, 93, 109, 192 

Characters of New Genera and Species of Crustacea, col- 
lected by 86, 88, 169 

Curtis, J., Esq. 

Characters and Description of a New Genus of Melolonthida 
(Ancistrosojua) 18 

On a Species of Moth found inhabiting the GaUs of a 
Plant, near Monte Video 19 

CUVIER, M. F. 

Notice on Ctenomys, Octodon, and Poepliagomys 128 

Desjardins, M. J. 

Zoological Labours of the Natural History Society of Mau- 
ritius, 4th and 5th Years 204, 205 

Elliott, W., Esq. 

Notice of eight Species of Mice and Rats, collected by him 
in India 108 

Eyton, T. C, Esq. 

Some Account of a Hybrid Bird, between the Cock Phea- 
sant {Phasianus Colchicus, Linn.) and the Grey Hen (Tetrao 
Tetrix, Ej.) 62 

Gaskoin, J. E., Esq. 

Descriptions of New Species of Cyprcza 198 



V 



Gould, Mr. J. page 

Exhibition of a living red-billed Toucan {Ramphastos ery- 

throrhynchus, Gmel.) 21 

Characters of several New Species of Trogon 29 

Characters of a New Genus of Merulidce {lanthocincla) . . 47 

On New Species of Toucans (Ramphastidce, Vig.) 49 

Catalogue, with Remarks, of some Birds from Trebizond 90 

Notice of a Collection of Birds from Travancore 92 

Characters of New Toucans and Ara^aris (Ramphastidee) , 

with a Synoptic Table of the Species of the Family 156 

Characters of several New Species of Insessorial Birds, in- 
cluding a New Genus {Stenorhynchus) 185 

Gray, J. E., Esq. 

Characters of an Australian Toad (Bombinator Australis^ 57 

On the Genera distinguishable in Echinus, Lam 57 

Characters of a New Genus of Corals (Nidalia) 59 

On the Coral known as the Glass Plant (Hyalonema Sie- 

boldi. Gray) 63 

Characters of two New Genera of Corals {Errina and An- 

thopora) 85 

Notice of a Collection of Mice and Rats, formed in India 

by Mr. Elliott ; of two new Species of Partridge ; of several 

undescribed Shells ; and of a Coral incrusting Shells 108 

Harvey, J. B., Esq. 

Notes on the Habits of Caryophyllia Smithii, Brod 4, 113 

Letters accompanying Collections of Corallines, Fishes, &c., 

from the south coast of Devon 1 13, 154 

On the opercula of Serpula tubularia and Vermilia triquetra, 
regarded by Turton as Species of Patella 128 

Hearne, J., Esq. 

Notice of a Collection of Bird-skins, formed by him in 
Hayti 105 

Notice of a Specimen of Solenodonta, obtained by him in 
Hayti 105 

Heron, Sir R., Bart., M.P. 

Notes on the Habits of the Pea-fowl ; on a Change of Co- 
lour in the Plumage of a Black Poland Cock ; and on the 

Longevity of two Water Tortoises 54 

Note on the History of a Black Swan , 107 

Note on the Habits of the Kangaroos 187 

Extraordinary instance of want of Sagacity in a Dog. ... 188 

King, Capt. P. P., R.N. 

Note on some Fishes captured at Port Praya 119 

Notes on several Rodents collected during a Survey of the 
Straits of Magalhaens 189 

Hodgson, B. H., Esq. 

Further Account of the Chiru Antelope (Antilope Hodg- 
sonii, Abel) 3 



VI 

Lesson, M. R. P. page 

Table of a Distribution of the Families of the Acalepha, 
Cuv 2 

Lowe, Rev. R. T. 

Additional Obsen'ations on Alepisaurus 93 

MacLeay, a., Esq. 

Letter from, on the Habits of the Apteryx Australis, Shaw 61 

Manby, Capt., R.N. 

Letter announcing the stranding in Suffolk of an enormous 
Whale (Balana Physalus, Linn.) 119 

Martin, Mr. "W. 

Notes of a Dissection of the Cape Hyrax {Hyrax Capensis, 
PaU.) 14 

Notes of the Dissection of a red-backed Pelican (Pelecanus 
rufescens, Gmel.) 16 

Notes of the Dissection of a small Nocturnal Lemur {Micro- 
cebus murinus, Geoff.) 125 

Notes of the Dissection of Crocodilus leptorhynckus, Benn. 129 

Note on the mode of attachment of the os furcatmn to the 
sternum in the Pelican, Adjutant, Crane, and Heron 155 

Visceral and osteological Anatomy of the Coypus (Myopo- 
tamus Coypus, Comm.) 173 

Moore, Mrs. 

Note accompanying a Li\ang I acchus Monkey (lacchus peni- 
cillatus, Geoff.) 125 

Ogilby, W., Esq. 

Descriptions of Mammalia and Birds from the Gambia . . 97 
Remarks on some Marsupials from the interior of New 
South Wales 191 

Owen, R., Esq. 

Notes of a Dissection of a long -tailed Dasyurus (Dasyums 
macrourus, Geoff.) 7 

Notes on the Anatomy of the red-backed Pelican (Pelecanus 
rufescens, Gmel.) 9 

Description of a Microscopic Entozoon infesting the Mus- 
cles of the Human Body {Trichina spiralis) 23 

On the Anatomy of Linguatula Tcenioides, Cuv 27 

On the Comparative Osteology of the Orang and Chim- 
panzee 30 

On the Anatomy of Distoma clavatum, Rud 72 

Remarks on the Entozoa, and on the Structural Differences 
existing among them ; including Suggestions for their Distri- 
bution into other Classes ; and a Catalogue of the Entozoa 
Hominis 73 

Note descriptive of a Species of Tape-worm (Ttenia lamel- 
ligera, Owen) 86 



VM 

OwBN, R., Esq. (continued). page 

Notes on the Anatomy of the Kinkajou (Cercoleptes caudi- 
volvulus, 111.) 119 

Parry, Capt. Sir E. W., R.N. 

Note on the Habits of the brush-tailed Kangaroo {Macro- 
pus penicillatus. Gray) 1 

Poole, P., Esq. 

Letter accompanying a Collection of Mammalia, Birds, and 
Reptiles, obtained in the Travancore country 66, 92 

Powis, W. L., Esq. 

Characters of New Species of Shells collected by Mr. 
Cuming 94 

Read, W. H. Rudston, Esq. 

Note on the Habits of the Cape Hyrax {Hyrax Capensis, 
Pall.) 13 

Reeve, Mr. L. A. 

Characters of two Species of Shells {Cyprcea suhviridis and 
Lucina rugifera) 68 

Reid, Mr. 

Anatomical Description of the Patagonian Penguin (Apteno- 
dytes Patachonica, Forst.) 132 

Rendall, Mr. 

Account of some Mammalia and Birds brought from the 
Gambia by him 97 

Rolle, Lady. 

Note on the Rearing of a Jacchus Monkey (Jacchus penicil- 
latus, GeofF.) 21 

RiippELL, Dr. E. 

Memoir on a New Species of Sword-fish (Histiophorus im- 
maculatus) 187 

Smith, Mr. W. 

Note on the Animal of the Argonauta Argo, Linn 125 

SowERBY, Mr. G. B. 

Characters of and Observations on New Genera and Spe- 
cies of Mollusca and Conchifera collected by Mr. Cuming . . 

4, 21, 41, 49, 84, 93, 109 

Strachan, p. L., Esq. 

Letter from, respecting some Reptiles sent by him from 
Sierra Leone 61 

Swainson, W., Esq. 

Observations on the Analogies of the Mitranm 197 



vm 

Sykes, Lieut. -Col. W. H. 

On the Quails and Hemipodii of India 55 

On some Birds of the Cape of Good Hope, identical with 
those of India 62 

Templeton, R., Esq. 

Descriptions of a few Invertebrated Animals obtained at 
the Isle of France Ill 

Thompson, W., Esq. 

Notices of some Additions to the British Fauna 77 

On some Vertebrata new to the Irish Fauna 78 

On some rare Irish Birds 82 

On the Herring Gull of the North of Ireland 83 

United Service Museum. 

Note from the Secretary accompanying several Birds, ... 4 

Westwood, J. O., Esq. ' 

Characters of New Genera and Species of Hymenopterous 
Insects 51, 68 

Willshire, W., Esq. 

Letter accompanying an Aoudad {Ovis Tragelaphus, GeoiF.) 41 

Yarrell, W., Esq. 

Explanation of the mode of union after fracture of the 
processes of the vertebrae of a Sole (Solea vulgaris, Cuv.) . . 57 

Note on the trachea of the Stanley Crane {Anthropoides 
paradisaus, Bechst.) 132 

Note on the foetal pouch of the male needle Pipe-fish {Syn- 
gnathus Acus, Linn.) 183 

Notes on the Economy of an Insect destructive to Turnips 
{Athalia Centifolia, Leach) 183 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 13, 1835. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A specimen was exhibited of the brush-tailed Kangaroo, Macropiig 
penicillatus. Gray, which had recently been presented to the Society 
by Captain Sir Edwai'd W. Pany. Mr. Bennett called the attention 
of the Meeting to its peculiarities, and remarked on the great hairi- 
ness of the tail, and especially on its want of robustness at the base, 
as indicating probably the tj^pe of a new genus, to be removed from 
among the Macropi on account of the diminished power of an organ 
which is so exceedingly strong among the typical Kangaroos as to exe- 
cute, during the act of slow progression and while resting, the office of 
a third leg. In connexion with this peculiarity of tail, Mr. Bennett 
pointed out also a difference in the form of the third, or extreme la- 
teral, incisor, as compared with the corresponding tooth in Macr. 
major, Shaw ; crania of the two animals Ijeing exhibited for that 
purpose. The third incisor in Macr. penicillatus is bilobed, and ap- 
proaches somewhat to the character of the corresponding tooth in 
Macr. Parryi, Benn. 

A note by Sir Edward Parry, which accompanied the specimen, 
was read. The animal appears to be procurable with difficulty, as 
this individual was " the only one of the kind ever seen by Sir E. 
Parry. It was shot among rocks near Liverpool Plains, New South 
Wales. As several of the same kind were seen together on more 
than oiie occasion, they appear to be gregarious. They seemed to 
prefer the neighbourhood of rocky ground, in which they had holes, 
to which, when hunted, they retreated. The first intimation re- 
ceived of these animals by Mr. Hall was, that monkeys were to be 
seen in a particular situation : and the manner in which they jumped 
about, when he first approached a number of them, left the same im- 
pression on his mind. They were so wild that he found it impossi- 
ble, on his first attempt,' to obtain a specimen ; and one which he 
had wounded escaped into its hole. Some months afterwards, how- 
ever, after remaining on the spot a whole night for the purpose, he 

No. XXV. Pkoceedings of the Zoological Society. 

r 



succeeded in killing one towards daylight, -which is the specimen now 
presented to the Society." 

Mr. George Bennett stated that wliile in New South Wales he had 
heard of an animal called Gunar by the natives, and found about the 
Beran Plains, which was described to him as in some degree resem- 
bling a Kangaroo, but differing from it in having a bushy tail, and 
in the form of the head, which was stated to resemble that of the 
Hare. He suggested the probability that the Gunar and the brush- 
tailed Kangaroo might be specifically identical. 

Extracts were read from a Letter addressed to the Secretary by 
M. Lesson, For. Memb. Z.S., and dated Rochefort, December 29, 
18.34. It was accompanied by the subjoined table of a distribution 
of the families of the Acalepha, Cuv., proposed by the writer. 



ACALEPHA. 



L Without a central solid axis. 

A. Body simple, entire. 

1. Symmetrical, terminated at 

each pole by an opening. 1. Beroide.c 

2. Non- symmetrical: the upper 
pole disciform or umbrella- 
shaped, imperforate. 2. Medus.b. 

B. Body multiple or aggregated. 

a. Homogeneous. 

3. Composed of two pieces ad- 
hering together, and capable 

of separation from each other. 3. Diphydes. 

4 . Composed of numerous pieces 
aggregated together. 4. Polytoma. 

h. Heterogeneous. 

5. Animal furnished with ap- 
pendages of different kinds. 

. * Vesicle small, regular, placed at 
the summit of a kind of stalk fur- 
nished with lateral ampulla and 
terminal suckers. 
** Vesicle large, irregular, with- 
out stalk or ampulla, but having 
terminal suckers and cirriferous 
processes. 
II. With a central cartilaginous axis. 

6. Body simple, with suckers 
and lateral tentacula. 

a. Body irregultirly oblong, with a 
vertical lamina on its upper sur- 
face. 7. Velell^. 

b. Body discoid, flat above. 8. PoRPiTJi:. 



5. Physsophor^. 



6. Physalia. 



A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by B. H. Hodgson, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., and dated Nepal, February 25, 1834. It 
gave a systematic and technical account of the Chiru Antelope, Antu 
lope Hodgsonii, Abel, in conformity with the latest and most complete 
information possessed by the writer, and communicated by him to 
the Society at its Meeting on July 22, 1834. (' Proceedings', Part II. 
p. 80.) 



b2 



January 27, 1835. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes in the Chair. 

Extracts were read from a Letter addressed to the Secretary by 
J. B. Han^ey, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., and dated Teignmouth, Ja- 
nuary 22, 1835. It was accompanied by a large collection of SheUs 
from the south coast of Devonshire, and bj' specimens of Echinoder- 
mata and Crustacea from the same coast, which the WTiter presented 
to the Society. It was also accompanied by drawings of a large 
specimen of Carijophyllia Smithii, now living in Mr. Harvey's pos- 
session : the drawings represent the animal shortly after feeding, 
■when it is expanded sufficiently to contain the food, extending rather 
above the level of the coral and raised in the middle ; and also as it 
appears three or four hours after having been fed, when it expands 
itself to the fullest extent, and ejects, in the form oi flocculi, the crude 
undigested matter. 

A Note was read from the Secretary of the United Service Mu- 
seum, accompanying several skins of Birds transmitted for exhibi- 
bition by direction of the Ornithological Sub- Committee of that 
Museum. 'I'he sj)ecimens were brouglit under the notice of the 
Meeting. 

The exhibition was resumed of the Shells collected by Mr. Cuming 
on the western coast of South America and among the Islands of the 
South Pacific Ocean. Those brought before the present Meeting 
were accompanied by characters by Mr. G. B. Sowerby, and com- 
prised the following species : 

Genus HippoNYx. 

" Of this remarkable genus Mr. Cuming brought home three spe- 
cies in such perfect condition, as respects the shell, as to possess 
both valves in situ. The two specimens which exhibit these three 
species appear to me so interesting that I shall venture upon a par- 
ticular description of them. The first, of the species which I have 
named Hipp. Mitrula, is a group of about twenty individuals, of va- 
rious sizes, from Vtt to 4- an inch in diameter, adhering by their lower 
or flat valves to an irregular piece of stone ; the attached valves as 
usual, are conformed to the irregularities of the surface of the stone, 
and when they have been at first attached to a cavity, they are hol- 
low : the upper valves are also somewhat modified in form by the 
same cause, so as to be more or less regular according as the lower 
valve has adhered to a more or less smooth and even part of the 



I 



stone. The attached valves have not attained a great degree of 
thickness, consequently I do not suppose any one of the individuals 
to be of advanced age ; there are, however, several vi'hich can only 
just have occupied their positions on the stone : these are not above 
Vt part of an inch in diameter, and they show the perfect point of 
the upper valve, somewhat convoluted and inclined toward the ante- 
rior edge. Other individuals, which are placed in a cavity of the 
stone, are very regular in shape, but have their ridges slightly curved 
upwards in conformity with the nearly regular vesicular shape of the 
cavity. The edges of the lamellce near the outer margin in most of 
the specimens are furnished with a thin fringe of epidermis, but the 
very young shells are destitute of this. An individual of Hipp. 
"subriifa is observable among the group of Hipp. Mitrula: its apex is 
distinctly spiral and its epidermis haiiy. 

" The second specimen belongs to the species which I have named 
Hipp, bcirhata. This is a very complete specimen, and reminds me 
of the beautiful fossil species Hipp. Cornucopia ; it is a small indivi- 
dual, having its attached valve very much thickened and adhering to 
a much larger one of the same species ; its edge is much elevated 
and it is deeply concave ; the free valve is rather smaller, and coni- 
cal, and its edge is surrounded by the elevated edge of the attached 
valve."-G.B. S. 

~ HippONYx Mitrula. (Pileopsis Mitrula, Lam. Patella Mitrula, 
Auct.) Hipp, testd alba, subconicd, concentric^e lamellosd, la- 
mellis suhconfertis, radiatim striatis, epidermide pilosis. 
Hab. ad Insulam Peruvianam Lobos dictam. 
Found upon stones, in seventeen fathoms' water, among coarse 
sand.— G. B. S. 

'^ HippONYX suBRUFA. (PUcopsis subrufus, Lam. Patella subrufa, 
Dillw.) Hipp, testd aurantiaco-rufescente, subconicd, concen- 
trice sulcatd, radiatim striatd, striis profundis, marginibus sulco- 
rum crenulatis ; vertice postici inclinato. 
Hab. cum praecedente. — G. B. S. 

^ HiPPONYx RADiATA, Gray. Hipp, testd subdepresso-conicd, ful- 
vescente, radiatim costatd, costis crebris, imbricato-squamosis ; 
vertice postico. 
Hab. ad Panamam et ad Insulas Gallapagos. 
Found attached to rocks alive, and the upper valves loose on the 
sands.— G. B. S. 

HippONYx BARBATA. Hipp, tcstd palHde fulvd, subelevato-conicd, 
radiatim confertim striatd ; margine ventrali prodvcto ; epider- 
mide piloso-barbatd ; margine interna crenulato. 

Hab. ad Insulas Maris Pacifici. 

Found on the coral reefs around Toobouai, one of the Society 
Islands.— G. B. S. 



/>- 



Genus Mouretia. 

MouRETiA Peruviana. Mour. testd subdepresso-conicd, albd, ra- 

diatim striatd ; vertice centrali ; epidermide corned, tenui. 
Hah. ad oras Peruvise. (Cobija.) 
Found on rocks at low water. — G. B. S. 

Mouretia stellata. Mour. testd depressd, squamiformi, albd, 

radiatim costatd ; margine dentato. 
Hab. ad oras Americse Centralis. (Real Llejos.) 
Found on rocks at low water. — G. B. S. 

Mouretia reticulata. Mour. testd subdepresso-conicd, subro- 

tundatd, sitperne reticulatd, albd. 
Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

Found attached to shells in deep water, from forty-five to ninety 
fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Genus Siphonaria. 

SiPHONARiA cosTATA. Siph. tcstd depressd, fusco-nigricante, co- 
stis albicantibus, radiantibus, superne obtusis ; margine sinuoso . 
long. I So, lat. 1'05 poll. 
Hab. ad oras Americse Centralis. (Guacomayo.) 
On rocks in exposed situations at low water. — G. B. S. 

Siphonaria radiata. Siph. testd subdepresso-conicd, fusco-nigri- 
cante, costis albicantibus, radiantibus ; margine crenato : long. 0'9, 
lat. 075 poll. 
Hab. ad littora Occidentalia Africae. (Gambia.) 
This differs from Siph. costatd rather by its form than by anj"^ 
other character ; this being only a slightly depressed cone, while the 
last is altogether very flat. — G. B. S. 

Siphonaria lineolata. Siph. testd oblique conicd, fused, lineo- 
lis numerosis, albidis, radiantibus : long. 065, lat. 45 poll. 

Hab. ad Paytam Peruviac. 

Variat testd majore, lineis albidis minits conspicuis : long. 105, lat. 
0-8 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Chiloe Chilensium. 

On rocks in exposed situations. — G. B. S. 

Siphonaria Pica. Siph. testd suboblique conicd, nigricante, radia- 
tim costatd et striatd, costis albidis; margine crenato, interne albo 
maculato : long. 0'8, lat. 01 poll. 

Hab. ad Acapulco. 

On rocks in exposed situations. — G. B. S. 

V Siphonaria subrugosa. Siph. testd subdepresso-conicd, fusce- 
scente, extiis albicante, radiatim costato-striatd, rugulosd ; vertice 
subcentrali, nigro : long. 0"8, lat. 0*6 poll. 



Hab. ad oras Brasiliae. 

Found on rocks in exposed situations. — G. B. S. 

SiPHONARiA L^viuscuLA. Sipk. testd subdepresso-comcd, sub' 
obliqud, extiis pallidd, radiatim albido-lineatd ; inids fuscescente ; 
margine albicante : long. 0"9, lat. 0'75 poll. 

Hab. ad Ydparaiso. 

On rocks in sheltered places. — G. B. S. 

SiPHONARiA MAURA. SipJi. testd purvd, dcpressd, subovali, intHs 
nigrd, margine albido articulato ; extiis fuscescente, albido-ra- 
diatd : long. 05.5, lat. 045 poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

Found on rocks. — G. B. S. 

Mr. Owen read some Notes of a Dissection of a long-tailed Da- 
syurus, Dasyurus macrourus, Geoff., which recently died at the So- 
ciety's Gardens. 

The subject was a female, adult, weighing 3lbs. 84- oz., and mea- 
suring from the extremity of the jaws to the root of the tail 1 foot 
4 inches, the length of the tail being I foot 24- inches, and that of 
the head 4 inches. The vaginal orifice and the anus were situated 
within a common outlet, just below the root of the tail. There were 
six nipples, arranged three on either side, describing three quarters 
of a circle, and seated within a slight fold of integument, of a corre- 
sponding shape, 3 inches anterior to the cloacal outlet. 

The external oblique abdominal muscle terminated below in a 
strong tendon, which was folded inwards, like Poupart's ligament. 
The abdominal ring consisted of a slit, bounded externally by Pou- 
part's ligament, and internally by the marsupial bone: and Mr. 
Owen stated it to be his opinion that the marsupial bones are essen- 
tially ossifications of the tendons of the external abdominal muscle 
which constitute the internal or mesial pillars or boundaries of the 
abdominal rings. The transversalis abdominis and internal oblique 
muscle were distinct. 

The stomach was simple, 4-f inches in length and 8 inches in its 
greatest circumference. It was shaped as in the genus Didelphis, 
and had the cardia a little nearer to the pylorus than to the left ex- 
tremity. It was principally nourished by the coronary arteries ; the 
gastro-epiploics being very small and running along the posterior 
side of the stomach, and not along the greater curvature. The ter- 
minal part of the (esophagus was furnished with longitudinal rug<e. 
The commencement of the duodenum, to the extent of half an inch, 
was occupied by a zone of glands. 

The omentum was of small size, extending from the stomach to 
the spleen, but not covering the intestines : it is possible that as 
these are short and wide, they do not require such a covering to fa- 
cilitate their motion. It contained a little fat. 

The mesentery was one continuous duplicature of the per iton<Eum, 
extending from the pylorus to the end of the colon, as in the Rep- 



8 

tilia. The vessels anastomose to form but one series of arches, llie 
mesenteric glands were oblong, situated close to the pancreas, and 
exhibited, on being cut into, a dark colour. 

The length of the intestines was 5 feet ; their greatest circumfe- 
rence 2-^ inches. They were destitute of ccecum and of any corre- 
sponding valve. Their diameter was nearly uniform throughout their 
whole length. 

The anal glands, two in number, were of a spherical form, and half 
iin inch in diameter. Their secretion was dark-coloured. A minute 
duct conveys it from each gland to the verge of the cloacal opening, 
which is a little prominent, and is surrounded by a strong sphincter. 

The liver occupied the situation usual in the Mammalia. Its 
weight was 3 ounces S-i- drachms. It was tripartite, if the cystic 
lobe (which is deeply cleft) be considered as one division. The 
right division was partially cleft into three lobes : the cystic di- 
vision was deeply cleft, with the gall-bladder loosely attached at 
the bottom of the fissure, not perforating the substance of the lobes 
as in Didelphis. The left di'v'ision gave oiF the Spigelian appendix. 
All the lobes are irregularly notched. The abdominal vena cava per- 
forated the liver. The gall-bladder was of a pyriform figure, pendent 
at its apex to two small folds oiperitonmtm which attach it to the liver. 
The ductus communis entered the duodenum 1 inch from the pylorus. 

The pancreas was a broad, flattened, branched gland, with a pro- 
cess given off at the splenic end from the main body, so as to pro- 
duce, in a transverse section, the figure of the letter T. The pan- 
creatic duct joined the biliary just at its termination. The spleen 
was situated sinistrad and dorsad of the stomach : its weight was 64- 
drachms. Its form was compressed, trihedral and T-shaped, as in the 
Kangaroo, but its lesser process was not so long as in that animal. 
Mr. Owen considers this form as indicative of a relation, hitherto un- 
suspected, between the spleen and the pancreas, the small process of 
the former coiTesponding to that of the latter. 

The lungs were 34- inches in length ; the right measured I4 and 
the left H in breadth : their weight was 84 drachms. The right 
consisted of four lobes ; the left but of one lobe. The azygos lobe 
was connected to the right lung by the large branches of blood- and 
air-vessels only, and not by continuity of substance. 

The heart, measuring 1 inch and 10 lines in length and 1 inch 
and 3 lines in breadth, and weighing 94- drachms, was situated near 
the middle of the chest. Its form was oblong, pointed at the apex. 
The right auricle rose high above the left. Both auricles had smooth 
short appendices. The vena cava: were two superior and one infe- 
rior. I'he primary branches of the aorta were two, the arteria inno- 
minata dividing into the right subclavian and the common trunk of 
the carotids. 

The rings of the trachea were twenty-three in number and incom- 
plete behind. The first of them rose convexly into the space below 
the cricoid cartilage. The larynx was protected by a large semicy- 
lindrical epiglottis, slighty emarginate at its apex, which extended 



9 

into the posterior nares above the soft i)alate, as in other Marsupiata. 
'I'hcre were two large cuneiform cartilages. There was also a small 
sacatlus beneath the epiglottis. 

The soft palate terminated in a thin arched margin. The tonsils 
were oblong. The parotid glands were of moderate size and 
branched, and there was on each of them a small conglobated gland. 
The submaxillary glands were flattened, of the size of nutme"-s, and 
situated in front of the neck. There was no sublingual gland. A 
thick row of labial glands extended along the lower lip. The tongue 
measured 3 inches in length, and had, at the distance of 1 inch from 
the epiglottis, three iossnlate papilla. The thyroid glands were se- 
parate, each of them being of the size of a horse-bean. 

The supra-renal glands were oblong, of the size of horse-beans, 
and placed anterior to the kidneys : on a section they exliibited a 
light-coloured exterior layer, then a very dark-coloured substance, 
and internally became again light-coloured. The kidneys were 
seated high in the lumbar region, the right being half an inch higher 
than the left. Each had one pointed papilla. The weight of both 
was 13 drachms. 

The ovaries, 3 lines in length and half a line in breadth, were of a 
flattened oval shape. In the right there w^as an ovisac coming for- 
ward. 

There were two masseter muscles. The flexor longus digit arum 
pedis, or its analogue, was inserted into the fibula, and sent no ten- 
don to the toes, the tendons to them being derived from the muscle 
analogous to the flexor longus pollicis pedis : it is consequently a ro- 
tator of the fibula, and is described by Home as a peculiar muscle in 
the Koala. 

The morbid appearances observed consisted of su" all tubercles in 
the lungs and small cysts in the liver. There was a general increased 
vascularity over the alimentary canal ; and the intestines contained 
bits of straw and bloody mucus. 

Mr. Owen also read his Notes on the Anatomy of the red-backed 
Pelican of Dr. Latham, Pelecanus rufescens, Gmel. 

" The following notes were made on the dissection of one of the 
smaller-sized grey Pelicans, which died at the Society's Gardens in 
April 1832. They are now brought forward in order that they may 
be compared with the results of the dissection of the one wliich took 
place at its Museum a few days ago. 

" The Pelican which I dissected measured 3 feet 7 inches from the 
extremity of the beak to the vent, and 10-i- inches from the extre- 
mity of the upper mandible to the nostrils. These are almost con- 
cealed slits in the lateral grooves of the upper mandible, just anterior 
to the skin of the head. They will barely admit the flat end of a 
probe ; and lead almost vertically to the internal apertures of the 
nasal cavity. The air-cells in the Pelican, as in the nearly allied 
^?Vrfthe Gannet, Sula Bassana, Temm., are remarkably extended and 
diffused over the body : the whole cellular tissue, even to the tips of 



10 

the wings and the end of the fleshy part of the legs, can be blown 
up from the trachea. 

" The extent to which the skeleton of the Pelican is permeated by 
air has been particularly noted by Mr. Hunter in his celebrated 
Paper on the air-cells of Birds, in which he throws out a suggestion 
that it may assist the birds of this species in carrying heavy loads 
in their large yawces. This supposed relation of extended air-cells 
to a largely developed beak is borne out in the case of the HornbiU, 
in which every bone of the skeleton is permeated by air, but is ap- 
parently contradicted by the Gannet : I say apparently, because, al- 
though the rami of the lower jaw do not, in this species, afford sus- 
pension to a capacious reservoir as in the Pelican, yet the bird may 
occasionally have to bear away a considerable load as, for instance, 
in a large fish seized by its mandibles, and a previous accumulation 
in its dilatable asophagus. 

" Mr. Hunter, it may be remembered, was doubtful on the first pub- 
lication of his Paper as to the source from which the mandibles de- 
rived their gaseous contents : not that he was ignorant of the air- 
holes in the bones, as he is careful to tell us in the reprint of the 
Memoir in the ' Animal (Economy', where he states that the lower 
jaw of the " Pelican is furnished with air, which is supplied by means 
of the Eustachian tube." 

" To ascertain the correctness of this description I sawed across 
the left ramus of the lower jaw ; but on blowing into the end of the 
part attached to the head, I found that the air did not escape as I 
had expected by the Eustachian tube, (the orifice of which is a slit, 
situated on the roof of the mouth, one inch behind the posterior or in- 
ternal nares,) but filled, first the air-cells under the throat, and tlien, 
passing down the neck, raised the large air-cell above the furailum. 
On dissection I found that the air passed into the lower mandible 
immediately from an air-cell surrounding the articulation between 
the jaw and os quadratinn ; which received its air from the lungs by 
means of the cells passing along the neck and throat, &c. The au- 
thority of Mr. Hunter ought not to be set aside by the result of a 
single experiment ; and the possibility of accidental rupture may be 
urged against the above observation ; but it is at all events worthy 
of being recorded, and should be repeated when opportunity occurs, 
with the addition of blowing into the Eustachian tube, which I 
omitted to do. 

" There is little to be added to the accounts already given in the 
works of Cuvier, and of Professor Tiedemann and Carus, of the di- 
gestive organs of the Pelican. The weak or thin-coated stomach, 
small cceca, and short intestines bespeak its animal diet, and the uni- 
formly capacious cesophagus, as well as the superadded faucial bag, 
may be regarded as pointing to the piscivorous habits of this singu- 
lar species. It is more difficult to assign the use of the globular 
cavity interposed between the gizzard and the duodenum, which the 
Pelican has in common with some of the piscivorous Grallfe, viz. those 
of the genus Ardca. In them the pyloric cavity is very small, but 



II 

in the Pelican it is fully as large in proportion as in the Crocodiles, 
which alone possess it among Reptiles. In the Pelican here described 
the pyloric cavity measured 1^ inch in diameter, communicated by 
a small transverse aperture with the gizzard, and by an opposite one, 
of smaller size and obliquely placed, with the duodenum. Its lining 
membrane is villous and vascular, and was in this instance tinged 
with bile, which must have entered by regurgitation, as none of the 
bihary ducts enter here. 

" The oesophagus is continued into the proventri cuius without any 
marked constriction, and the latter passes insensibly into the part 
analogous to the gizzard, which is comparatively of small size. The 
gastric glands are simple elongated follicles, closely compacted to- 
gether, and extended over nearly the whole proventriculus. 

" The duodenum, after making the usual fold, ascends on the right 
of the stomach ; the intestine is then disposed in three or four coils 
upon a central mesentery, and then is strung on the edge of the me- 
sentery in long and deep folds, from the last of which the ileum passes 
upwards behind the stomach, and then descends to join the rectum. 
At the point of junction were placed the c<eca, each 1-f inch in 
length. The rectum is very short, and opens obliquely into a large 
urinary receptacle ; as large, proportionately, as in the Ostrich. 
Before commencing the dissection, a quantity of very fluid urine, of 
a whitish colour and containing whitish flakes, escaped on pressure 
being made upon the sides of the cloaca. 

" The liver is bilobed, the right lobe much larger than the left, in 
which the edges were rounded off. There is a gall-bladder, which 
contained bile of a yellow colour, not green as in Birds generally. 
The cystic, biliary, and hepatic ducts terminated in the end of the 
duodenum, close to which opened the duct of the pancreas. The lat- 
ter gland was of a less elongated form than usual, being of a rounded 
figure, and not descending far into the fold of the duodenum. The 
spleen was placed behind the stomach, in length 1 inch, in breadth 
half an inch. 

" The kidneys were of large size, being 4 inches long, 2 deep, and 
1-i- wide, and, which is very unusual in Birds, the right kidney was half 
an inch higher than the left. Many of the small superficial branches 
of the ramified ureter which characterizes the kidneys of the ovipa- 
rous animals were beautifully conspicuous from their white opake 
contents. The supra-renal glands were of alight yellow colour, and 
of a rough or granular pulpy texture ; the right adhered closely to 
the vena cava, the left as closely to the ovary, which seemed to be 
developed partly from the gland and partly from the coats of the left 
femoral vein. Tlie largest ova were nearly of the size of peppercorns 
and about twenty in number : there were innumerable smaller ones. 
The oviduct was narrow at its commencement, but gradually attained 
a diameter of about 4 lines ; it passed along the anterior part of the 
left kidney, adhering thereto by its peritoneal ligament. 

" As the Pelican belongs to that group of Natatores, the Toti- 
palmes of Cuvier, which contains species approximating most closely 



to the Raptorial Birds, and which are almost tlie only Birds of this 
order, as Cuvier observes, (Rdgne An., nouv.ed., i. p.561,) that perch, 
I did not fail to try the common experiment suggested by Borelli's 
observations on the effect which bending the leg- and ancle-joints 
might have upon the toes : the latter, however, exhibited no corre- 
sponding inflection. In perfect agreement with this is the obser- 
vation that the Pelicans do not perch when they go to rest." 



13 



February 10, 1835. 
The Rev. John Barlow in the Chan-. 

A Letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by W. H. Rudston 
Read, Esq., giving an account of the habits of the Hyrax Capensis, 
Pall., as observed at the Cape of Good Hope, and also during a 
voyage thence to England in a specimen brought home by the Rev. 
Mr. Hennah of H. M. S. Isis, which was presented to the Society 
after its death by Mr. Read. 

" The Hyrax Capensis," Mr. Read states, " is found at the Cape 
of Good Hope inhabiting the hollows and crevices of rocks, both on 
the summits and sides of hills, as well as near the sea-shore, even 
a little above high-water mark. It appears to live in families, and 
in its wild state is remarkably shy. In winter it is fond of coming 
out of its hole and sunning itself on the lee side of a rock, and in 
summer of enjoying the breeze on the top ; but in both instances, as 
well as when it feeds, a sentinel is on the look-out (generally an old 
male) , which gives notice, usually by a shrill prolonged cry, of the ap- 
proach of danger, or even the least movement of any suspicious ob- 
ject. It lives on the young shoots of shrubs, the tops of flowers, 
herbs and grass, particularly of all those which are aromatic ; which 
occasions the necessity of paunching the animal as soon as killed, in 
order to make it fit for eating. The stomachs of those shot by Mr. 
Hennah were always much distended with food scarcely masticated. 
In the flavour of its flesh it is very like a rabbit. A friend of mine 
kept two young ones alive for some time, which became very tame : 
they would find him out when lying on the sofa or in bed (for they 
were suflfered to run about the house), and climbing up, shelter them- 
selves on his breast within his waistcoat, or creep under the bed- 
clothes at his back, and lying quiet enjoy the warmth. The one 
brought home by Mr. Hennah, when allowed to run unconfined about 
the room, was inclined to be sociable ; but was restless and inquisi- 
tive, climbing up and examining every person or thing in the cabin, 
and starthng at any noise, which caused it instantly to run and hide 
itself. But from confinement it became savage and snarling, and 
tried to bite when anything was put near its cage. Both wild and 
in restraint it is remarkably clean in its habits, always frequenting 
and depositing its dung in one place. From its faintly crying in its 
sleep we may conclude that it dreams. I have also heard it chewing 
its food by night, when everything has been quiet, and after going 
into its sleeping apartment. In its food it was pleased with variety, 
eating first a few leaves of one plant and then of another, and greedily 
licking salt when given to it. In its passage home its food was In- 

No. XXVI. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 



14 

dian corn bruised, bread, raw potato, and onion, with a small quan- 
tity of water, which in drinking it partly lapped and partly sucked 
up. It was very sensible of cold ; for when a candle was placed near 
the bars of its cage, it readily acknowledged the little warmth given 
out by turning its side and sitting still to receive the full benefit of 
the rays of heat. I am inclined to think that the female does not 
produce more than two young ones at a time, from having observed 
in several instances but two following the old ones. Its name at the 
Cape is the Dasse, which is, I believe, the Dutch for a badger." 

Mr. Martin's Notes of the dissection of the specimen of Hyrax 
Capensis, presented to the Society by Mr. Rudston Read, were then 
read. 

" The dissection of the Hyrax by Mr. Owen (' Proceedings of the 
Committee of Science, &c.'. Part II. p. 202.) is to be regarded as a 
confirmation of the anatomical details of this animal as given by 
Pallas, while at the same time it communicates several additional 
facts of great value. The present notes give nothing absolutely 
new; but may be of use as substantiating previous observations 
■with regard to some very remarkable points of structure. 

" The animal in question was young and of the male sex : its total 
length was 1 foot 4 inches, that of the head being 3-J- inches. On 
removing the skin, the panniculus carnosus was observed to be very 
strong, especially about the shoulders ; and on opening the body, the 
smaUness of the volume of the chest compared with that of the ab- 
domen was very strildng. The abdominal viscera presented them- 
selves in the following order. The liver barely advanced from the 
right hypochondriac region as far as the epigastric, its left portion 
covering the cardiac portion of the stomach. Below the liver and 
to its left the stomach was seated, and below this were the caca, of 
large dimensions, covering the small intestines, over the whole of 
which was spread an extensive omentum, arising from the great cur- 
vature of the stomach. 

" The stomach measured in length about 4 inches, and was con- 
tracted in the middle : a fleshy sphincter of great thickness closed 
the pyloric orifice, and was distinctly to be felt. On inverting the 
stomach, with a view to preserve it thus in spirits, the extent of the 
cuticular lining of the cardiac portion was found to be 2^- inches : 
it was irregularly corrugated, and terminated abruptly. Near its 
edge, towards the great curiae of the stomach, were three or four 
open glands with orifices capable of admitting the tip of a quill. The 
pyloric portion was lined with the usual aoUous membrane. 

" The liver consisted of four lobes and a lobulus Spigelii : it was 
healthy. There was no gall-bladder ; but a biliary duct of H inch 
in length was found to enter the duodenum half an inch below the 
pylorus : the origin of this duct is on the inner aspect of the liver 
at its base, a separate duct emerging from each lobe to form it by 
their mutual union. 



15 

" The small intestines were not much thicker than a quill for a 
considerable distance, but gradually increased in circumference : 
their length was 5 feet 7 inches, and consequently more than a foot 
greater than the measurement given by Mr. Owen. On their inner 
coat were obser\^ed the little sacculi noticed by Mr. Owen, as well as 
the remarkable villi, which are thickly set. The breadth of the me- 
sentery was about 1 J- inch. The first or true cacum was contracted 
into folds by three longitudinal bands, and so made trifid at the ex- 
tremity : its length was about 24- inches, its circiunference 9. The 
entrance of the small intestine was succeeded by a sacculated portion 
(the bands of which were continued from the cacum) contorted spi- 
rally, beyond which the intestine, abruptly turning and becoming at 
once smaller, assumed a sigmoid flexure, gradually enlarging as it 
proceeded till it merged into two csecal appendages, of a conical 
figure with an enlarged base and a vermiform termination. The 
distance between the first ccecum and the base of these appendages 
was found to be 1 foot 7 inches. Below these csecal appendages the 
large intestine measured 5^ inches in circumference ; it, however, 
gradually but rapidly diminished in size. From this part to its ter- 
mination the large intestine measured 2 feet 7 inches. 

" The pancreas was small, irregular, and entirely embraced by the 
first fold of the duodenum : its secretion enters the intestine by two 
ducts, one terminating along with the biliary duct, the other 4ths of 
an inch lower down. 

" The spleen was broad and somewhat hatchet-shaped, having a 
projecting narrow slip from a semilunar base : its length was 2 inches, 
its breadth 1 inch. 

" The heart was bifid at the apex ; its length l4- inch, and its 
bregidth 1 4^. The larynx was small ; and the trachea consisted of 36 
rings. The oesophagus was smooth. The thyroid glands were small 
and oval, and 4- inch long. The tongue was 2+ inches in length, 
smooth, with an elevated projection in the middle, and an obscure 
furrow running down it, from which diverged transversely several 
arched depressions. The palate was deeply furrowed with alternate 
transverse ridges and depressions on each side of a middle line, the 
ridges on one side corresponding to the depressions on the other. 

"The kidneys were flattened; in length they measured I4 inch, 
in breadth \ : the tubuli uriniferi converged into one large conical 
papilla. The ureters entered the fundus of the bladder, not on its 
dorsal side, (for it lay flat and empty,) but laterally on the edge, 
piercing the bladder obliquely, as described by Mr. Owen. 'I'he 
supra-renal glands were small greyish bodies, about the size of a 
pea. The testes, the vesiculce seminales, the double prostate gland, 
and the penis were as described by Mr. Owen. 

" The sternum consisted of six distinct osseous pieces, indejien- 
dent of the xiphoid cartilage, which was shaped like a spade : its 
length was 2^ inches exclusive of the cartilage. The true ribs were 
seven in number on each side, and the false ribs fourteen. The cer- 



16 

vical vertebree were seven, the dorsal twenty, the lumbar nine, the 
sacral vertebra (immediately united to the iliac bones) two, and the 
coccygeal ten, making the total number of vertebree forty-eight. The 
measurement from the end of the sternum to the ossa pubis, the animal 
lying stretched in an easy posture, was 7 inches : the length of the 
portion of the vertebral column occupied by the heads of the true 
ribs, I4- inch ; and that of the portion of the vertebral column occu- 
pied by false ribs, 34 inches." 

Preparations were exhibited of the ceecum, of the urinary bladder, 
and of other viscera, in illustration of the foregoing notes. 

The following Notes by Mr. Martin, of the dissection of a red-backed 
Pelican, Pelecanus rufescens, Gmel., which recently died at the So- 
ciety's Gardens, were also read. Tliey refer to the male bird of a 
pair, the female of which was examined in 1832 by Mr. Owen, whose 
notes of the dissection were read at the last Meeting. 

" The bird was a male, and had been for many years in the Me- 
nagerie. 

" On removing the skin, a wide space occupied by cellular tissue 
distended with air, was found to intervene between it and the mus- 
cles. This tissue was thin, and subdivided irregularly into numerous 
cells communicating with each other. Beneath the great pectoral 
muscle, which was very extensive, there was also a large air-cell, 
but undivided. 

" The osseous structure was light and thin, and the bones of the 
extremities were remarkable for the extent of their internal cavities 
and the thinness of their external walls. The os furcatum was largely 
spread, and firmly soldered to the keel of the sternum, keeping the 
shoulders widely apart. The clavicles, or what are regarded as the 
analogues of the coracoid processes in Mammalia, were large, and 
broadly expanded at their point of union with the sternum. The 
sternum was short in proportion to its breadth, measuring 44- inches 
longitudinally, and the same across, in a straight line, that is, not 
following the concavity of its inner surface : its keel was compara- 
tively but little developed ; it is thrown forwards, however, as far as 
possible, and projects in a point where it is ossified to the os fur- 
catum. Its greatest depth is 1 inch 2 lines. 

" On exposing the viscera they were found to occupy a truly ab- 
dominal situation, being placed in a small compass and as far back- 
wards as possible. The (esophagus passed on for a considerable 
distance internally, before entering the proventricithis . 

" The inferior larynx was destitute of muscles : the bone of diva- 
rication was strong and well defined. 

" The liver consisted of two lobes, a large and a small one, united 
by a broad flat process 4ths of an inch in length. The large lobe 
measured 24 inches in length and 2 in breadth ; the thickness of its 
substance being 1 inch. The small lobe was I4 inch long and 4 
broad. 



17 

" The pancreas consisted of two lobes united by an intervening 
slip or narrow portion, through which passed an hepatic duct running 
from the liver to the intestine. 

" The biliary and hepatic ducts entered the intestine a foot below 
the stomach (gizzard) as follows : 

1st, Hepatic duct; 
2nd, Pancreatic duct; 
3rd, Cystic duct. 

" The intestines were thin and worm-like, their mean diameter 
being -J-th of an inch. Their total length was 8 feet. 

" The vena porta ran close to the pancreas, and was dilated into 
a large sinus before entering the liver. 

" The lining membrane of the gullet was thrown into longitudinal 
plicee throughout its whole length, but they became larger and less 
numerous towards the lower part, and the membrane itself increased 
in toughness and density as it approached the proventriculus . The 
muscular tunics consisted of an internal longitudinal and external 
circular layer of fibres ; these fibres on the pouch were very fine and 
delicate, but became stronger and more distinct as the gullet pro- 
ceeded from this extensible portion. 

" The appearance and shape of the proventriculus were very re- 
markable ; instead of its being a gradual dilatation of the gullet, it 
commenced abruptly, and its parietes were firm and muscular, inso- 
much that it might readily have been mistaken at first for a gizzard. 
Its length, including that of the gizzard (which forms with it a com- 
mon cavity), was 5 inches, and its circumference 4. The internal mem- 
brane was puckered into longitudinal ruga, and was studded with 
closely set glands of the size of large pin-heads. The longitudinal 
muscular fibres were remarkably strong, and a muscular slip pro- 
ceeding obliquely from the side of the gizzard attached the pyloric 
enlargement to it. 

" The pyloric enlargement was about the size of a common gar- 
den-bean. A passage 4ths of an inch in circumference and 4ths long, 
turning up abruptly, led to it from the stomach. The lining mem- 
brane of this passage was thrown into longitudinal folds. The lining 
membrane of the pyloric cavity itself was thin, and not at all coria- 
ceous, and the muscular tunic fine. A valvular fold encircled the 
opening into the succeeding portion of the pylorus. 

" The testes were as large as peas, or rather larger, white and 
oval. 

" The cervical vertebra were 15 in number. 

With reference to the bony union of the os furcatum to the sternum 
observed in this Pelican, Mr. Martin remarks that " in the Adjutant, 
Ciconia Argala, Vig., though the keel of the sternum is much more 
extensive, deep, and strong, the os furcatum much resembles that of 
the Pelican, and is in like manner ossified to its anterior apex. In 
the common Heron, Ardea cinerea, Linn., the os furcatum is feeble, 
but is also united by bone to the apex of the keel of the sternum : at 



18 ■ 

its point of union a projection or short process is directed upwards ; 
the keel of the sternum is here very ample. These are hirds not so 
much of rapid as of untiring powers of flight, which, unlike that of 
the impetuous Falcon, is sweeping and majestic. In the Falconidee 
the OS furcatum, though very strong, does not at all approach to the 
form of a triangle, as in the birds alkided to, but describes a figure 
not unlike that of a horse-shoe, and a considerable space intervenes 
between it and the keel of the stermnn." 

A Paper was read, entitled, " Characters and Descriptions of a 
new Genus of the Family Melolonthida : by John Curtis, Esq., 
F.L.S., &c." 

In a collection of Insects recently received by the author from 
Lima is contained a beautiful series of the one constituting the type 
of his proposed new genus 

Ancistrosoma. 

AntenncE capite breviores. 

Clypeus, in mare prsesertim, emarginatus. 

Thorax acutfe marginatus, hexagonus ; dente brevi in baseos medio 
armatus. 

Pedes longissimi, robusti. 

The stoutness of its legs and the sharp lateral edges of its thorax 
distinguish Ancistrosoma from all the neighbouring genera : the male 
is further cliaracterized by an acute, rather long, and slightly curved 
spine near the baseof theafirfomen beneath. Its natural situation is pro- 
bably between Diphucephala, Dej., the males of which have abilobed 
clypeus, and Macrodactylus, Latr., which is very similar to it in habit, 
and has also very long legs ; but these in Macrodactylus are slender, 
while in Ancistrosoma they are robust. Neither Diphucephala nor 
Macrodactylus possesses the little tooth at the base of the thorax lap- 
ping over the scutellum, a structure which is, how'ever, met with in 
Ceraspis as well as in Ancistrosoma ; but in Ceraspis, independently 
of the other differential characters, the antenna and club are long. 

Ancistrosoma Klugii. Anc. ferrugineum, supra piceo-nigrum; 

thoracis margine elytrorumque strigis sex albidis. 
Long, maris 12 lin. ; fceminse plerumque minor. 
Hab. in Mimosa floribus apud Huanuco prope Lima, Peruviae. 

Of the three streaks on each of the elytra, the sutural one does not 
reach so far as the base, the second extends neither to the base nor 
to the tip, and the outer one is still shorter : they consist of broad 
punctured furrows, white with short hairs. 

The cocoon of the pupa is ovate, hard, and in texture somewhat 
like that of Trichiosoma Lucorum, Leach ; its operculum is semiorbi- 
cular, with a broad hinge and narrow rim : the shell of the pupa is 
similar to that of other Melolonthida. 

Mr. Curtis describes in great detail the several parts of this In- 



19 

sect, and illustrates them by an extensive scries of drawings, which 
were exhibited ; as were also siiecimens of the Insect itself. 

Mr. Curtis also communicated a Paper " On a species of Moth 
found inhabiting the Galls of a Plant, near Monte Video." The galls 
in question were collected by Mr. Earle (who accompanied Captain 
Fitzroy in H. M. S. Beagle,) in the month of December, about fif- 
teen miles westward of the town, on a sort of underwood shrub, 
which Mr. David Don, on the examination of the small branches, 
and of a single leaf, thinks may probably be a species of Celastrus. 
Of the figures in illustration of the paper exhibited to the Meeting, 
one represents a branch supporting two of the galls, which are some- 
times clustered five or six together. They arise where the attach- 
ment of leaves or flowers is indicated, and are therefore most proba- 
bly produced by the transformation of the buds themselves, acted 6n 
by the stimulus of the insect secretions. On the side of each gall is 
a round aperture, with an operculum accuratelj^ fitted to it, which may 
easily be picked out with the point of a penknife. This operculum 
is equally convex on its outer surface with the rest of the gall, and 
is of the same thickness ; but its internal diameter is less than that of 
its external surface, which forms a broader rim. Around the orifice 
the margin of the gall is thickened and a little raised. Within each 
of the entire galls was found a pupa attached to the base by its tail, 
with its head close to the operculum ; which, it should seem, gives 
way by a slight expansion or elongation of tXiepupa when just ready 
to hatch, and the cast skin is left sticking in the passage. 

Mr. Curtis observes that he was very much surprised to find on exa- 
mination that the pupce contained in these galls belonged not to the 
Hymenoptera but to the Lepidopterous order ; an occurrence hitherto 
almost unprecedented. The characters of the Insect, as far as could 
be detected from the imperfect state in which it was found, are as 
follows : 

Cecidoses. 

Caput parvum. 

Antenna corpus longitudine sequantes, graciles, ciliatse, articulis 
elongatis numerosis : in capitis vertice prope oculos insertae. 

Thorax squamulis depressis vestitus. 

Abdomen subrobustum, ovato-conicum. 

Pedes longi ; tihiis anticis spina prope apicem munitis, intermediis 
posticisque ad apicem calcaratis, his dense squamulatis et in medio 
praeterea bi-spinosis ; tarsis 5-articulatis, articulo basali longissimo ; 
unguibus pulvillisque minutis. 

Ala sublanceolatse. 

Cecidoses Eremita. Cec. cinereus ; alls anticis saturate brunneo 

maculatis, dense ciliatis; posticis albidis. 
Hab. prope Monte Video. Pupa in gallis Celastri ? abscondita. 

From the stoutness of the body Mr. Curtis is inclined to refer the 



20 

Moth to the Tortricidee ; if belonging to Pyralida or Crambida, its 
palpi should be more strongly developed, but neither thej' nor the 
maxilla were discoverable. 

Figures of the imperfectly developed moth and of several of its 
parts, as well as of the galls and their opercula, together with spe- 
cimens of the latter, were exhibited in illustration of the paper. 



21 



February 24, 1835. 
Willianj Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A Letter was read from Lady RoUe, addressed to the Secretary, 
giving an account of the birth of two young Monkeys, the produce of 
a pair of Ouistitis {Jacchus penicillatus, Geoff.) in her Ladyship's 
possession. The parents were obtained in London during the last 
summer, and the young were produced on the 1 st of January : one 
was bom dead, but the other still survives, being about six weeks 
old. It appears likely to live, and is every day put on the table 
at the dessert, and fed upon sweet cake. Lady Rolle states that the 
mother takes great care of it, exactly in the manner described by 
Edwards in his ' Gleanings,' p. 151, pi. 218; where the animal is 
figured and described under the name of the Sanglin. 

It was observed that young of the same species had been born at 
the Society's Gardens, but not living ; and that a female in the 
collection of the President, the Earl of Derby, at Knowsley, had pro- 
duced, about the same time as Lady Rolle's, two living and healthy 
young ones, which are still thriving. 

Mr. Gould exhibited a living specimen of the red-billed Toucan, 
Ramphastos erythrorhynchus, Gmel., which had recently come into 
his possession. 

The exhibition was resumed of the new species of Shells contained 
in the collection of Mr. Cuming. Those brought at the present Meet- 
ing under the notice of the Society were accompanied by characters 
by Mr. G. B. Sowerby. 

Genus Venus. 

Venus Columbiensis. Ven. testd rotundato-ellipticd, crassd, ci- 
nereo albidoque variegatd, radiatim costatd, costis plurimis, pla- 
nulato-rotundatis, quam interstitia duplb latioribus ; latere antico 
breviore, costis decussatim squamosis, squamulis brevibus, obtusis ; 
lateris postici costis rugosis ; partis intermedicB costis sublcevibus ; 
intus albicante : long. 22, lat. 13, alt. 19 poll. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam Columbiae Occidentalis. 

Found in coarse sand at low water. — G. B. S. 

Venus subimbricata. Ven. testd cordato-subtrigond, crassd, fusco 
albidoque radiatim lineatd vel variegatd, costellis radiantibus con- 
fertis, costis subimbricatis decussantibus , prope umbonem lamelli- 
feris ; latere antico breviore, impressione cordatd anticd magna ; 
latere postico longiore, declivi, planato, depresso; margine ventrali 
rotundato, intus denticulate: long. 1*6, Int. 1", alt. 1'6 poll. 

Hab. ad Portam Portreram Americae Centralis. 

Found in fine sand in thirteen fathoms. 



22 

Variat tesld parvd longiore, costis decussantibus omnibus lamellife- 

ris : long. 08, lat. 04, alt. 07 poll. 
Hub. ad Acapulco. — G. B. S. 

Venus undatella. Ven. testd rotundato-ellipticd, crassd, albidd 
fusco maculatd punctatd et undatim pictd, costellis radiantibus 
confertis, aliisque decussantibus undulatis sublamellosis ; latere 
nntico breviore, postico subdeclivi, marginibus depressis ; margins 
ventrali rotutidato, inttis crenulato : long. \Q, lat. 1', alt. l"5 
poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Califomiensi. (Island of Tres Marias.) 

Found on the shore. — G. B. S. 

Venus discrepans. Ven. testa elUpticd, crassd, albicante, fusco 
subradiatim pictd ; latere antico breviore, siibproducto ; postico 
subdeclivi ; marginibus depressis ; costis concentricis postice lamel- 
losis, medio obtusis, latiusculis, antici sublamellosis ; umbonibus 
subprominentibus ; margine ventrali rotundato, intus denticulato : 
long. 1-4. lat. 0-8, alt. 1-25 poll. 

Hab. ad eras Peruviae. (Islay.) 

The blunt, rather broad, concentric ribs of the middle part of each 
valve are speckled with brown on their upper surfaces, and delicately 
crenulated on their ventral margins. 

Found in muddy sand at a depth of sixteen fathoms. — G.B.S. 

Venus multicostata. Ven. testd elUpticd, ventricosd, crassd, con- 
centrice multicostatd, costis reflexis, crassis, antice undulatis, me- 
dio crenatis, postici alternatim interruptis, subirregularibus, sub- 
iindulatis; marginibus dorsali rectiusculb, ventrali rotundato ; im- 
pressione cordiformi anticd distinctd : long. 4'3, lat. 2'7, alt. 3'7 
poll. 
Hab. in Sinu Panamse. 

This is perhaps the largest species known. It is a very handsome 
shell, of a pale fawn colour, with several darker rays, somewhat 
divided into spots. 

Found in coarse sand at low water. — G. B. S. 

Venus Peruviana. Ven. testd obovatd, crassd, concentrice costatd, 
costis crassiusculis, subla7nellosis, antice reflexis, medio reflexis, 
fulvo articulatis, postice deflexis, tenuioribus ; latere postico quam 
anticum duplb longiore, marginibus depressis, planatis ; margine 
ventrali rotundato, inttis Icevi : long. 23, lat. 1'2, alt. 19 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Peruviae. (Ancon.) 

Found in soft mud at a depth of five fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Venus Australis. Ven. testd ovato-subtrigond, crassiusculd, ful- 
vcscente maculis angulosis subtrigonis subradiatim pictd, concen- 
trice lamellosd, lamellis concinnis confertis, tenuibus, obtusis, pul- 
cherrime radiatim decussatis, prope latera elevatioribus ; margi- 
nibus dorsali subelevato, ventrali rotundato, intus denticulato : 
long. 1-1, lat. 0-55, alt. 0-9 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Australiae. (Swan River.) — G. B. S. 



23 

Venus spurca. Ven. tesld ovatd, crassd, sordide fulvd fusco ra- 
diatim 7naculosd, concentrice subobsolete costellatd, costettis obtu- 
sis,prope latera subinterruptis ; margine ventrali inttis denticulato: 
long. 1-1, lat. 0-6, alt. 0-9 poll. 
Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

Found in coarse sand at a depth of from thirty to fifty fathoms. 
— G. B. S. 

Genus Cytherea. 

Cytherea radiata. Cyth. testa, subtrigond, subcequilaterd, gibbosd, 
pallescente brunneo radiatd et undulatim pictd, lavi, epidermide 
corned crassiusculd plus minusve indutd ; lateribus antico postico- 
que ventrem versus rotundatis ; margine venti-ali rectiusculo, inttis 
lavi : long. 2*5, lat. \b, alt. 2" poll. 

Hab. ad oras Columbise Occidentalis. (Salango and Xipixapi.) — 
G. B. S. 

This species belongs to that division of the genus which has four 
cardinal teeth, and is destitute of the cordiform anterior impression. 

Found in sandy mud at a depth of nine fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Cytherea unicolor. Cijth. testd ovato-subcordiformi, crassius- 
culd, brunnescente, lavi, politd ; lateribus antico posticoque con- 
centrice sulcatis, sulcis medio obsoletis ; latere postico longiore, 
versus partem ventralem subacuminato ; margine ventrali Itevi, 
intits purpurascente : long. \'6, lat. 0'75, alt. 1'3 poll. 

Hab. ad Real Llejos Americae Centralis. 

Variat testd majore, albicante. 

Found in coarse sand at a depth of six fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Cytherea concinna. Cyth. testd ovato-subcordatd, crassiusculd, 
rubente albicante radiatd ; latere postico longiore, subacuminato ; 
costellis numerosis, concentricis, obtusis, concinnis, confertis : 
long. 1'6, lat. 0'8, alt. 1'2 poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

Found at a depth of ten fathoms in fine sand. — G. B. S. 

Cytherea squaliua. Cyth. testd ovato-subcordatd, crassiusculd, 
leevi, pallide fused , nonnunquam maculis irregularibus saturatiori- 
bus ; epidermide fused ; latere postico longiore, prope partem ven- 
tralem subacuminato : long. 2'7, lat. 1"3, alt. 2* poll. 
Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

This shell bears some resemblance to Cyth. maculosa. It has ge- 
nerally a very dull and dirty aspect. One of the several varieties in 
Mr. Cuming's collection is rather agreeably ornamented with con- 
centric purple bands. 

Found in sandy mud at a depth of six fathoms. — G. B. S. 

A paper was read by Mr. Owen, entitled, " Description of a Micro- 
scopic Entozoon infesting the Muscles of the Human Body." The 
author observes, that upwards of fifteen different kinds of internal 
parasites are already known to infest the human body, but none have 
been found of so minute a size, or existing in such astonishing num- 



24! 

bers, as the species about to be described. The muscles of bodies 
dissected at Saint Bartholomew's Hospital had been more than once 
noticed by Mr. Wormald, the Demonstrator of Anatomy at that esta- 
blishment, to be beset with minute whitish specks ; and this appear- 
ance having been again remarked in that of an Italian, aged 45, by 
Mr. Paget, a student of the hospital, who suspected it to be produced 
by minute Entozoa, the suspicion was found to be correct, and 
Mr. Owen was furnished with portions of the muscles, on which he 
made the following obseirations. 

With a lens of an inch, focus the white specks are at once seen to 
be cysts of an elliptical figure, with the extremities in general atte- 
nuated, elongated, and more opake than the body (or intermediate 
part) of the cyst, which is sufficiently transparent to show that it con- 
tains a. minute coiled-up worm. On separating the muscular fasci- 
culi, the cysts are found to adhere to the surrounding cellular sub- 
stance by the whole of their external surface, somewhat laxly at the 
middle dilated part, but more strongly by means of their elongated 
extremities. When placed on a micrometer, they measure -rVth of an 
inch in their longitudinal and -r-o-Tyth of an inch in their transverse di- 
ameter, a few being somewhat larger, and others diminishing in size 
to about one half of the above dimensions. They are generally placed 
in single rows, parallel to the muscular fibres, at distances varying 
from 4- a line to a line apart ; but sometimes a larger and a smaller 
cyst are seen attached together by one of their extremities, and they 
are occasionally observed slightly overlapping each other. 

If a thin portion of muscle be dried and placed in Canada balsam, 
between a plate of glass and a plate of talc, the cysts become more 
transparent, and allow of the contained worm being more plainly seen. 
Under a lens of the focus of + an inch, the worm appears to occupy 
a circumscribed space of a less elongated and more regularly elhpti- 
cal form than the external cyst, as if within a smaller cyst contained 
in the larger : it does not occupy more than a third part of the inner 
space. A few of the cysts have been seen to contain two distinct 
worms ; and Mr. Farr, who has paid much attention to the subject, 
exhibited a drawing of one of the cysts from this subject, containing 
three distinct worms, all of nearly equal size. Occasionally the tip 
of one of the extremities of the cyst is observed to be dilated and 
transparent, as though a portion of the larger cyst were about to be 
separated by a process of gemmation ; and these small attached cysts 
are seen of different sizes, and, as it were, in different stages of growth. 
This appearance, however, Mr. Owen conceives to be explicable with- 
out a reference of a power of independent vitality to either of the 
adherent cysts. The cysts are composed of condensed and compacted 
lamella of cellular tissue ; but a few are hardened by the deposition 
of some earthy salt, so as to resist the knife and to produce a gritty 
sensation when broken under pressure. 

When removed from the interior of the cyst, which, on account of 
the minuteness of the object, is a matter of some difficulty, the worm 
is usually found to be disposed in two or two and a half spiral coils. 
When straightened it measures from -rVth to :j'o th of an inch in length. 



25 

and from yh^-syth to -B^J^th of an inch in diameter : a high magnifying 
power is consequently required for its examination. It is round and 
filiform, terminating obtusely at both extremities, which are of un- 
equal sizes, and tapering towards one end for about a fifth part of its 
length, but continuing of uniform diameter from that point to the 
opposite extremity. As it is only at the larger extremity that he has 
been enabled to distinguish an indication of an orifice, Mr. Owen 
regards that as the head. He states that this indication has been so 
constant in a number of individuals examined under every variety of 
circumstance, that he has no hesitation in ascribing a large transverse 
linear orifice or mouth to the greater extremity. 

The recently extracted worm, observed by means of a Wollaston's 
doublet, before any evaporation of the surrounding moisture has af- 
fected its integument, presents a smooth transparent external skin, 
inclosing a fine granular and flaky substance or parenchyma. It is 
obvious that the test of coloured food cannot here be applied to elu- 
cidate the form of the digestive organs, but there is no appearance 
of the parietes of an alimentary canal floating in a visceral cavity and 
distinct from the integument of the body, nor was any trace of an 
orifice observed at the smaller extremity. Mr. Owen was also un- 
able to detect in any instance a projecting spiculum or hook at 
either extremity, or any appearance of the worm having been torn 
from an attached cyst. Its transparency is such as not to admit of 
a doubt as to its wanting the ovarian and seminal tubes, and the 
other characteristics of the complicated structure of Filaria, Ascaris, 
and the Nematoid Entozoa generally. It is not of a rigid texture, but 
is extremely fragile, and exhibits when uncoiled a tendency to return 
in some degree to its former state. 

Mr. Owen refers to the genus Capsularia as established by Zeder, 
and rejected by Rudolphi, (who considers its species as belonging 
either to Filaria or Ascaris,) for the purpose of contrasting the 
complicated organization of the worms composing it with the ex- 
tremely simple structure of the encysted worm under considera- 
tion. The circumstance of being inclosed in cysts he stated to be 
common to many very diff^erently organized genera of Entozoa. 
There are few, indeed, with the exception of those which live upon 
the mucous surfaces of the body, that do not, by exciting the adhe- 
sive inflammation, become inclosed within an adventitious cyst of 
condensed cellular substance. He regards the simple type of struc- 
ture exhibited by the minute animal now for the first time described 
as approximating it to the lower organized groups of the Vers Pa- 
renchymateux of Cuvier ; and both from its locality and from the 
constancy of its cysts, he regards it as manifesting a relation of 
analogy to the order Cystica of Rudolphi. From all the genera of 
that order, however, it differs in the want of the complex armature 
of the head, and of the dilated vesicle of the tail. At first sight it 
seems indicative of an annectant group which would complete the 
circular arrangement of the Entozoa by combining the form of the 
FilaricE of the first, with some of the characteristics of the Cysticerci 
of the last, of Rudolphi's orders. Unfortunately the class Entozoa, 



2G 

as it now stands, is so constituted that an animal may be referred to 
it without much real or available knowledge of its organization being 
thereby afforded : it embraces animals with the molecular, and others 
with the filiform, condition of the nervous system ; conditions wlrich are 
accomjjanied by different types of the digestive system, and which in- 
dicate not merely differences of class, but even of primary division, in 
the animal kingdom. Mr. Owen considers the animal under consider- 
ation as being most nearly allied to that form of the Polygastric In- 
fusoria which is exhibited by the lower organized Vibriones of Miiller, 
and of which Ehrenberg has composed his genera Vibrio, Spirillum, 
and Bacterium ; and that, like the seminal Cercarite, it may be regarded 
as an example from the lowest class of the animal kingdom having its 
habitat in the interior of living animal bodies. Referring it, however, 
provisionally, to the class Entozoa, in which it would indicate a new 
order, its generic character may be thus given: 

Trichina. 
Animal pellucidum, filiforme, teres, posticl- attenuatum : ore lineari. 
ana discreto mtllo, tuba intestinali genitalibusque inconspicuis. (In vesic^ 
externa, cellulosa, elastica, plerumque solitarium.) 

Trichina spiralis. Trick, minutissima, spiraliter, rarb flexuose, 
incurva; capite obtuso, collo nullo, caudd attenuatdobtusd. {Vested 
externd ellipticd, extremitatibus plerumque attenuatis elongatis.) 
Hab. in hominis musculis (praeter involuntarios) per totum corpus 
diffusa, creberrima. 

Mr. Owen further states that within about a fortnight of the former 
case, a second body similarly affected had been brought into the dis- 
secting-room of Saint Bartholomew's Hospital ; and some notes were 
furnished l)y Mr. Paget, who first observed the worms in tlie Italian, 
with regard to the cases of the two patients while living in the Ho- 
spital. From these it appeared that both had died after long and de- 
bilitating illness, producing great emaciation, unaccompanied, how- 
ever, with any eruption on the skin, or any greater loss of muscular 
power than would probably have arisen from the diseases of which 
they died. The occurrence of two cases in the same dissecting- 
room within so sln)rt a period of each other, and the recollection of 
similar appearances being not unfrequently present in other bodies 
dissected there, combined with an account published in the Medical 
Gazette for February 2, 1833, of very small Cysticerci occuning in 
tlie muscles of a subject at Guy's Hospital, which cannot but be con- 
sidered referrible to the same cause, render it highly probable that a 
sufficient number of observations will soon occur to elucidate this 
curious disease. In two of the cases the emaciation was accompa- 
nied by external, and in the third by internal, ulceration ; but no 
connexion was traced between the worm and any of the symptoms 
of the disease. 

In a portion of muscle placed, after it had reached a state of inci- 
pient putrescence, in spirit of wine for thiee days, the worms, when 
pressed out from their cy^ts, exhibited languid, but sufficiently evi- 



27 

• 

dent motions, consisting in the tightening and relaxation of their 
coils : and more languid motions were afterwards noticed in some 
specimens that were examined a fortnight after the death of the sub- 
ject from which they were obtained. 

. Mr. Owen enters at some length into the question of the origin 
of the cyst, and after comparing its structure and connexions Avith 
various more or less analogous productions, he states his opinion that 
the cyst is adventitious, foreign to the Entozoon, and composed of the 
cellular substance of the body infested, morbidly altered by the irri- 
tation of the worm . 

. The reading of the paper was accompanied by the exhibition of 
drawings showing portions of the infested muscle, with magnified 
representations of the cysts and of the worms contained within them ; 
and specimens of the objects themselves were also placed upon the 
table for examination with the aid of Mr. Pritchard's microscope, 
lent by him for that purpose. 

Mr. Owen also read a Paper " On the Anatomy of Linguatula 
Tanioides, Cuv." After referring to the observations on the anato- 
mical structure of this highly organized Entozoon, published by Cu- 
vier and Rudolphi, he proceeds to state the results of his own dis- 
section of a fine specimen, 34- inches in length, for which he was in- 
debted to Mr. Langstaff. The whole body is invested with a smooth, 
transparent, rather fine cuticle, which, from maceration, and proba- 
bly slight decomposition, had become detached. In this epidermis 
there exist no marks of an annulate structure ; but the cutis, or mus- 
cular pnrietes of the body, is distinctly divided into segments slightly 
overlapping each other, and most obvious on the sides of the body, 
which are its thickest and most muscular portions. The dorsal and 
ventral parietes, on the contrary, are so transparent as to allow of the 
contained parts being readily seen through them. 

The most essential difference between Linguatula and the Cestoidea, 
among which it was first placed by Chabert, consists in the genera- 
tive organs being androgynous, with the oviduct continued from one 
end of the body to the other. Rudolphi, uncertain with regard to 
the structure of the digestive organs, placed it among the Trema- 
toda ; but the specimen under examination affords conclusive evi- 
dence of the justice of Cuvier's removal of it to the Nematoidea. The 
alimentary canal commences at the central ybrwrnew, or true mouth, 
and runs straight to the opposite extremity of the body, terminat- 
ing immediately above the orifice of the genital tube ; the cesophagus 
being -j-rd of a line in length, and opening into a suddenly dilated canal, 
which continues with little variation of diameter to the anus. 

At the distance of a line posterior to the mouth, on the ventral 
aspect of the body, the narrow extremities of two elongated vesicles, 
3 lines in length and more than 4- a line in diameter, adhere firmly 
to the integument, the remainder hanging freely in the abdominal 
cavity. These Mr. Owen considers to be analogous to the impreg- 
nating glands of the hermaphrodite Rotifera, &c. The ovary, which 
is distinct from the tube so called by Cuvier and Rudolphi, is a nar- 



28 

row, elongated, minutely granulated body, extending along the me- 
sial line of the dorsal parietes of the body for tlie extent of its two 
anterior thirds : about ^ an inch from the head it gives off two slen- 
der capillary tubes, which unite below the origins of the lateral 
nerves, and enter the commencement of the oviduct. The com- 
mencement of this tube, formed by the junction of the two ducts 
just mentioned with those of the seminal vesicles, is very narrow : 
in the greater part of its course it is coiled in numerous and complex 
gyrations around the intestine, but towards the lower third of the 
body its coils become fewer and more distant, the brown ova are 
seen in scattered masses, and at length it runs parallel with the in- 
testine straight to the anus. It is widest at the commencement of 
the coils ; then becomes narrower ; and afterwards continues of the 
same diameter to its termination. 

The cerebral ganglion mentioned by Cuvier was very conspicuous 
in the specimen here described : it is situated between the mouth and 
the commencement of the oviduct, and is consequently sub-oesopha- 
geal. Eight pairs of nerves may be distinguished going from it in a 
radiated manner. This radiated disposition of the nervous system is 
similar to that which obtains in the Slug (Limax) ; and it may also 
be observed that the disposition of the muscular system in Limax is 
analogous to that of Linguatula, being most developed at the sides of 
the foot, and least along the middle line, which is thin and semi- 
transparent when viewed against the light. If it were allowable to 
trace further the analogy of form subsisting between genera so widely 
separated, the two fossa with their little hooks on either side the 
mouth of Linguatula, might be compared with the two depressions, 
which, when the tentacula are retracted, may be seen in the same 
situation in the head of the Slug. It is the superior organization of 
these parts, required for its superior powers of locomotion, that ren- 
ders necessary the further development of the nervous system in the 
Slug ; and the completion of the cerebral ring and the development 
of the supra- oesophageal ganglia constitute the chief difference be- 
tween it and Linguatula in this part of their organization. In like 
manner the action of the muscles in the Slug occasions waste, and 
demands a proportionate supply of new material ; and hence the ne- 
cessity of the superaddition of a sanguineous system for the car- 
riage of the restorative molecules, of a more complex digestive appa- 
ratus for their supply, and of respiratory and secretory organs for the 
elimination of the waste parts of the body. In Linguatula, on the 
contrary, the sphere of action being limited to a dark cavity, the 
necessity for the superadded structures does not exist ; its food, al- 
ready animalized, requires only a simple canal to complete its assi- 
milation ; neither heart nor vessels are conspicuous ; and it is pro- 
bable that nutrition is effected by transudation and imbibition. 

The reading of Mr. Owen's Paper was accompanied by the exhi- 
bition of drawings in illustration of the structures described in it. 



€^ 



March 10, 1835. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of several species of Trogon, partly 
from the Society's collection, and partly from that of Mr. Gould ; 
and, at the request of the Chairman, Mr. Gould called the attention 
of the Meeting to some of the more interesting among them= 

One of them was the Bird represented by M. Temminck, in his 
* Planches Coloriees', under the name of Trog. fasciatus ; and on this 
Mr. Gould remarked, that having had an opportunity of examining 
the drawing made by Forster, on which Pennant's original descrip- 
tion was founded, he had ascertained that it represented a species 
altogether distinct from M. Temminck's ^zrti, and much more nearly 
resembling Trog. Malabaricus. As the name of Trog. fasciatus 
must necessarily remain with the species originally described under 
it, the one figured by M. Temminck requires another designation; 
and Mr. Gould proposed for it that of Trog. Temminchii. 

Another, was the splendid species figured by M. Temminck, in 
the same work, under the name of Trog. pavoninus, a name by which 
it is now generally known; but on referring to M. Spix's 'Avium 
Brasiliensium Species Novae,' the original description and figure of 
Trog. pavoninus, Spix, appear to Mr. Gould to have reference to a 
totally different species, distinguishable by its smaller size, by the 
absence of crest from its head, by the comparative shortness of its 
hinder back plumes (which do not extend more than a few inches 
beyond the tail), and by the whole of the tail-feathers being black. 
The species exhibiting the peculiarities just adverted to will, of 
course, retain its original name of I'rog. pavoninus ; for the other 
Mr. Gould proposed that of 

Trogon resplendens. Trog. plumis capitis notceique laxis, lan- 
ceolatis, illius cristam efformantibus, hujus posterioribus longissi- 
mis, tripedalibus ; supra et ad guttur pectusque splendide aureo- 
viridis ; ventre crissoque coccineis ; rectricibus sex intermediis 
nigris, cceteris alhis ad apicem tantummodo nigris. 

Foem.? vel Junior ? Capite, gutture, pectoreque obscure viridibus ; 
dor so viridi; ventre cinerascenti-brunneo ; crisso cocctneo; capite 
subcristato ; tectricibus caudce superioribus brevioribus ; rectrici- 
bus externis tribus utrinque albis nigrofasciatis. 

Rostrum flavum, in fcemina? juniori? higrum: tarsi brunnei. 

Hab. in Mexico in provinciis Austrum spectantibus. 

Mr. Gould also characterized two species, hitherto apparently un- 
described. 

No. XXVII. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 



30 

Trogon AMBiGuus. Trog. cwpite guttureque n'tgris ; pectore, 
cervice, dorso, caudceque tectricibus superioribus viridibus ; alls 
brunneo-nigris, in medio cinereis lineis gracilibus Jlexuosis trans- 
versim notatis ; rectricibus duabus intermediis proximarumque 
duarum utrinque pogoniis exlernis cupreo-viridibus, harum pogo- 
niis internis omniumque apicibus nigris, reliquis ad basin nigris, 
ad apicem albis, in medio albis maculis parvis numerosis sparsis 
nigris. 

Long. tot. 12 unc; alee, 5^; caudle, 7-i-. 

Rostrum flavum : tarsi brunnei. 

Hab. in Mexico in plagis Septentrionalibus. 

This Bird is very nearly related to Trog. elegans, a species cha- 
racterized by Mr. Gould at the Meeting of the Society on April 8, 
1834, (Proceedings, Part II. p. 26). It differs by having the outer 
tail-feathers obscurely and finely dotted, while in Trog. elegans they 
are marked by strong and well-defined bars; and by having the mid- 
dle of the wing much more finely and minutely barred than the latter 
bird. These distinctions, although apparently trivial, having been 
observed by Mr. Gould in many specimens, and the individuals seen 
by him of T'rog. ambiguus having been brought exclusively from 
the northern, while those of Trog. elegans have all been collected in 
the southern states of Mexico ; he is induced to regard the two Birds 
as being, very probably, specifically distinct. 

Trogon citreolus. Trog. vertice, collo, dorso, guttureque cceru- 
lescenti-viridibus ; rectricibus duabus intermediis ad apicem, 
proximarum duarum utrinque pogoniis internis, reliquisque ad ba- 
sin nigris, his apicem versus albis ; ventre citrine in aurantiacum 
vergente; alls brunnescenti-nigris, rectricum pogoniis externis 
albo jimbriatis. 

Focm. Capite, gutture, dorsoque saturate cinereis; rectricibus sex 
intermediis brunnescenti-nigris ; in cceteris mart simillima. 

Long. tot. 10-J- unc; alee, 5\\ caudce, 6 ; rostri, aricta ad apicem, 1. 

Rostrum ccerulescenti-corneum. 

Hab. 

This species differs from Trog. violaceus by its smaller size, the 
lighter colour of its under surface, and the great extent of the white 
at the ends of the outer tail-feathers. 

Mr. Owen commenced the reading of a Paper " On the com- 
parative Osteology of the Orang and Chimpanzee." He stated that 
he was indebted to Mr. Walker for the opportunity of examining 
and describing in detail the skeleton of an adult Chimpanzee, ob- 
tained by that gentleman a few years since from the west coast of 
Africa, which had enabled him to compare it with that of the young 
animal. This comparison evidenced in that species a series of changes^ 
in the advance towards maturity, analogous to those which take 
place in the Orang and the Pongo, and consequently afforded a strong 
confirmation of the opinion which regards the latter animal as the 
adult of the former. 



31 

The general appearance and proportion of tlie Chimpanzee, Mr. 
Owen remarks, are unquestionably the most anthropoid that the 
Quadrumanous order presents; but many marked and essential 
differences are observable upon a close comparison. The skull of 
the adult is of a narrow elongated ovate figure, slightly contracting 
towards the anterior part, which is, as it were, truncated, from the 
depth and direction of the symphysis of the lower jaw. Compared 
with the rest of the body it is of small size, owing to the arrested 
development of the cerebral portion, which, as in other Quadrumana, 
is altogether posterior, the face sloping forwards in the adult ani- 
mal, at an open angle, as in the Baboons. Its exterior surface is 
devoid of the intermuscular frontal and sagittal crests which give 
so strong a carnivorous character to the skull of the Orang. The 
extent of the origin of the temporal muscles is, however, readily 
traceable by a slightly elevated ridge of bone : it differs considerably 
in the adult and in the foetal skulls, but exactly accords with the in- 
crease in the power of mastication required for the due action of the 
large permanent teeth. It is possible that the slight development of 
the intermuscular crest may be a sexual character ; for in an adult 
female cranium of the Orang, the crest was scarcely more prominent 
than in the Chimpanzee : in the latter, however, its development is 
less to be expected, in consequence of the smaller comparative size 
of the canine teeth. The muscular impressions on the occipital re- 
gion are also less strongly marked than in the Orang, in which the 
occipital foramen is nearer the posterior plane and its position is 
more oblique. There is a greater proportion of brain behind the 
meatus auditorius externus in the Chimpanzee than in the Orang, and 
this disproportion is much greater in the adult than in the young. 
Considerable changes also take place in the relations of the meatus 
auditorius with the glenoid cavity for the articulation of the lower 
jaw, in consequence of the increased development of the maxillary 
apparatus, while the cranium remains nearly stationary; and a pro- 
cess, of which the rudiment is perceptible in the young animal, co- 
extending in downward growth with the changed position of the 
articulation, becomes interposed between the condyle and the meatus, 
and affords a support against backward dislocation. In the cranium 
of the negro, a similar process may be traced in a rudimental con- 
dition, anterior to thejissura Glasei'i, as in the young Chimpanzee, 

The zygoma is proportionally weaker than in the Orang. But 
the most remarkable characteristic of the skull of the Chimpanzee, 
both in the young and adult states, is the large projecting supra- 
orbital ridges, which being continued into each other across the 
glabella, form a sort of barrier between the head and face. The 
cranial sutures, which are obliterated in the adult Orang, syndac- 
tylous Ape, and more or less in the Baboons, are for the most part 
persistent in the Chimpanzee, as in the human subject. Enough of 
the squamous suture remains to show that the anterior angle of the 
temporal bone joins the frontal, and separates the parietal and sphe- 
noid bones, as in the young. The condyloid processes are propor- 
tionately smaller than in the human subject, and their articular sur- 



32 

face is directed more outwardly. The foramen magnum is tlirown 
back to about the middle of the posterior third of the base of the 
skull, and its plane is inclined from before upwards at an angle of 5°. 
There are no posterior condyloid/orflmma. The styloid process is re- 
presented by a very small tuberosity. A considerable space inter- 
venes between the foramen magnum and the bony palate, which it- 
self equally exceeds the corresponding portion of the human skull. 
The zygomatic arches are opposite to the middle third of the cranium 
as seen from below, in which position also the contraction of the 
skull between the zygomata offi?rs a marked distinction from that of 
Man. 

In the front view of the cranium, the threatening supraciliary ridges 
almost hide the cephalic cavity from view ; and the latter, instead of 
forming a broad back-ground to the face, as in the young Chimpan- 
zee, and still more in Man, is surpassed in breadth by the lateral 
boundaries of the orbits and the zygomatic arches. The orbits are 
seated higher than in the Orang, and are larger in proportion; but 
their plane is more perpendicular, and they are wider apart. In 
neither the Chimpanzee nor the Orang is there a supraorbitary 
foramen, h\it its place is marked by a slight groove. The lachrymal 
bones are entirely confined to the orbit. A character by which the 
Chimpanzee approximates more closely than the Orang to the human 
subject is found in the nasal bone, which projects in a slightly arched 
form beyond the interorbital plane, and exhibits at its lower margin 
a trace of its original separation into two lateral portions: it is an- 
chylosed with the osfrontis and the suture obliterated. The malar 
bones are largely developed, and two or three smaW foramina are 
observable in the process on the outside of the orbit. The contour 
of the upper jaw from the nasal aperture to the incisor teeth is almost 
straight, while in the Orang it is rendered concave by the greater 
development of the alveolar processes of the intermaxillary bones. 
The obliteration of the sutures between these bones and the upper 
maxillary takes place at a much earlier period in the Chimpanzee 
than in the Orang ; although in the young animal, when the first 
dentition is complete, traces of the original separation are still 
visible. The situation of the/oramma incisiva is always indicative 
of the original extent of these bones, and in no Mammal do they 
approximate so closely to the incisive teeth as in Man. The infra- 
orbitary canal opens upon the face by a single ybrame?i : Mr. Owen 
has observed a second in one young specimen, but never more. In 
the Orang there are usually three or more, as in many of the inferior 
Simice, The lower jaw, like the upper, is characterized by its strength 
and relative size. Its symphysis recedes, but the depth at this part 
is much less than in the Orang. The alveoli advance more nearly 
to the level of the condyle, and consequently approximate propor- 
tionally to the structure of the brute; the mental /ora/nen is single. 

Mr. Owen next proceeds to notice the dental formula and the 
characters of the teeth; and observes particularly on the modifica- 
tions in their arrangement and relative position consequent on the 
preponderating development of the cuspidatus. He also points out 



23 

the more important deviations vvliicb occur in the disposition and 
development of the different bones of the face in connexion with the 
same influential condition of the organs of mastication ; and then 
continues his description of the skeleton of the Chimpanzee by pass- 
ing to that of the trunk. 

The number of the verlehrce is the same as in Man ; but an addi- 
tional rib subtracts one from the lumbar to be added to the dorsal 
series. The spines of the cervical vertebrce are simple and elon- 
gated; that of the third being the shortest, with the exception of 
the atlas, which, as usual, is without spine. The bodies of the lum- 
bar vertebrcE are proportionally smaller than in Man ; a difference 
easily accounted for by the necessity of affording a basis for the 
support of the latter in the erect position ; and the same recession 
from the Bimanous type is manifested in the narrow and elongated 
form of the sacrum. In the adult animal, but less conspicuously in 
the young, the iliac bones rise on either side of the last lumbar ver- 
tebra, and are partially attached to it. The coccygeal are anchy- 
losed together, but not with the sacrum', three are distinctly visible 
in the young. Of the sacral vertebrce only the two superior are 
united to the iliac bones. The pelvis diflfers from that of Man in all 
those particulars which characterize the Quadrumana, and which re- 
late to the imperfection of their means of maintaining the erect posi- 
tion. The iliac bones are long, flat, and narrow, the anterior sur- 
face stretching outwards almost parallel with the plane of the sacrum; 
the aperture is elongated and narrow ; and the tuberosities of the 
ischia are broad, thick, and curved outwards. There is, however, 
a provision for a more extended attachment of the glutcei muscles in 
a greater breadth of the ilia between the superior spinous processes 
than is observed in the inferior Simice; and we may thence infer 
that the semi-erect position is more easily maintained in the Chim- 
panzee. 

In the relative size and strength of the lower extremities, the Chim- 
panzee claims a much closer relationship to the human subject than 
the Orang. Both animals exhibit in this respect permanent condi- 
tions that are transitory in Man : in the Orang the legs have the cur- 
tailed proportions which they present in the human foetus of four 
months' gestation ; in the Chimpanzee they retain the relative size of 
the yearling infant. The femur, not more bent anteriorly than in 
Man, has its neck of equal comparative length, but standing out 
more obliquely from the shaft. In the adult, as well as in the young 
Chimpanzee, the depression in the head of the femur for the attach- 
ment of the ligamentum teres, which is wanting in the Orang and 
the Pongo, is found to exist, notwithstanding the remark of Meckel 
to the contrary. The tibia znA fibula are proportionally thicker and 
stronger than in iJ/aw; and \he 'patella proportionally smaller. In 
their relative size and position the tarsal bones more closely resemble 
the corresponding bones of the human subject than those of any other 
Quadrumanous animal. The outer articulating surface of the astra- 
galus is, however, of larger size, and a corresponding disproportion 
exists between the external and internal malleolus, tlic latter, from 



34 

its smaller size, presenting less resistance to the rotation of the tarsus 
inv.ards. The os calcis projects further backwards than in the lower 
Simice, but is more compressed laterally, and of much smaller pro- 
portional size than in Man. The os naviculare projects further down- 
wards, and the internal cuneiform bone has a corresponding inclina- 
tion below the level of the tarsal bones. But whilst the Chimpanzee 
exhibits the Quadrumanous characters in these particulars, and es- 
pecially in the curtailed proportion and detached opposable condi- 
tion of the hallux, it approaches more nearly to Man in the length 
and strength of that member. The whole foot is much longer than 
in the human subject; and the entire organization of the inferior 
members evidently bespeaks a creature destined to reside in forests, 
the modifications of the bony structure which add to the facility of 
climbing and grasping, rendering the entire frame more dependent 
on the upper extremities for the means of progression and support. 
The size and expansion of the thorax is a marked character in 
the Chimpanzee: it has thirteen ribs on each side, and the last two 
pairs are proportionally longer than in Man, the end of the last not 
being pointed, but widened for the attachment of a cartilage. The 
sternum is flattened, but not so broad as in the Orang. The har- 
monia between its body and the manubrium, and those between the 
four single pieces of which the body is itself composed, remain visi- 
ble in the adult skeleton. The clavicle is long and strong, and is 
not straight, as in the Orang, but sigmoidally curved, though in a 
less degree than in Man; while the scapula, on the other hand, re- 
cedes further from the human type than in the Orang. The hume- 
rus very closely resembles that of the human subject, but is propor- 
tionally longer and stronger, and has its twist more strongly marked 
and lower down on the bone. As the segments of the limbs recede 
further from the trunk they become subject to greater and more 
varied modifications. Thus the disproportionate length of the Am- 
merus is succeded by a still greater elongation of the fore-arm, the 
bones of which are also more curved from each other than in Man, 
and the inter-osseous space consequently enlarged. The bones of 
the carpus are the same in number as in the human subject ; but the 
trapezium and trapezoides are proportionally smaller, while the os 
pisifornie nearly equals the os magnum. The thumb does not quite 
equal in length the metacarpal bone of the first finger, and is as 
slender and weak as it is short. Some little disproportion also exists 
between the relative lengths of the fingers ; but taken together they 
are relatively stronger and more elongated than in Man. 

After completing his detailed examination of the skeleton, Mr. 
Owen reverts to the changes which it undergoes in its progress to 
maturity, especially as regards the proportions of the head and face ; 
and states that he has derived full confirmation of the identity of 
species in the young and adult crania, from a comparison of the 
crowns of the permanent teeth lodged within the jaws of the young 
Chimpanzee with those which had replaced the deciduous teeth in 
the older specimen. The resemblance in point of size and figure was 
exact, and left no room for doubt as to the point in question. The 



35 

succession takes place precisely as in the human subject, but the per- 
manent teeth, and especially the incisors and canines, are proportion- 
ally longer. The particulars of their form and arrangement are 
given at length. 

This portion of the paper was accompanied by an extensive series 
of admeasurements of the different parts of the skeleton in the adult 
and young Chimpanzee, compared with those of the young and adult 
Orang; and was further illustrated by numerous drawings, and by 
the exhibition of Mr. Walker's skeleton of the Chimpanzee, lent by 
him for the purpose. 

The second portion of the paper commences with the remark 
that the opportunity which the rare and interesting skeleton of the 
adult Chimpanzee, in the possession of Mr. Walker, had afforded of 
tracing the changes of structure occurring in that Ape, in its progress 
to the adult condition, had induced the author to review the question 
relative to the identity of the young Simia Sattjrus with the great 
Pongo of Borneo, formerly brought by him under the notice of the 
Society ('Proceedings of Committee of Science and Correspondence,' 
Part I. p. 9); and to consider the osteological structure of the latter, 
or adult Orang, with reference to that of its less powerful and 
more anthropoid congener, the Chimpanzee. This comparison 
would show that the number and value of the points of resem- 
blance, or of approximation, to the Bimanous structure are in 
favour of the Chimpanzee ; although in this, as in most other in- 
stances, there are some particulars of its organization indicative of 
a more marked relation with the inferior forms of the group than 
with those which rank immediately below it. 

In common with the skull of the Mandrill that of the adult Orang 
is remarkable for its flattened occiput, formidable canine teeth, huge 
jaws, widely expanded zygomatic arches, and strongly developed 
cranial ridges ; but it exhibits a marked distinction in its less brutalized 
expression, resulting from the more perpendicular slope of the face, 
the absence of the projecting supraciliary ridges, the greater expan- 
sion of the cerebral cavity, and the non-development of the supra- 
maxillary ridges. Its cranium is less flattened at the vertex than that 
of the Chimpanzee; and but little exceeds in capacity that of the young 
at the period of acquiring its first permanent molares, the increase 
in size being chiefly dependent on the thickening of the walls of the 
skull. The ridges which circumscribe on the frontal bone the origin 
of the temporal muscles inclose a triangular space, the smoothness 
of which strongly contrasts with the irregular surface of the re- 
mainder of the cranium ; and the interparietal crest rises, as in 
the Hycena and other Carnivora, high above the general level. The 
situation of these ridges, with reference to the sutures, is only de- 
terminable by comparing the faint commencement of their growth 
in the young animal, very few traces of the sutures remaining in the 
adult skull. That between the ala of the sphenoid bone and the 
descending angle of the parietal, by means of which the frontal 
and temporal are kept separate, and which offers one of the few 
osteological differences in which the Orang has a closer approxima- 



56 

t'ion to the human structure than the Chimpanzee, is among those 
which continue to be marked even in the adult. The occipital/o»-a- 
men approaches in figure, position, and aspect, nearer to that of 
the lower Mammalia ; the occipital condyles are more closely ap- 
proximated anteriorly; the anterior condyloid /orawjjwa are double 
on each side; and the carotid /ommera is situated more posteriorly, 
and is relatively smaller, than in the Chimpanzee. The petrous 
portion of the temporal bone is smaller, while the glenoid cavity 
forms a much larger proportion of the base of the skull. This cavity, 
if such it may be called, presents a quadrate, almost flattened sur- 
face, slightly concave in the transverse, and slightly convex in the 
antero-posterior direction, affording an interesting correspondence 
with the structure of the molar teeth, and indicative of the vegetable 
diet of the animal. The styloid and styliform processes are want- 
ing, as in the Chimpanzee ; the mastoid is represented by a protube- 
rant ridge, and its cellular structure is visible in consequence of the 
thinness of the external table. The ant-auditory process is more 
developed than in the Chimpanzee, and the margins of the auditory 
foramina are smoother. 

On the bony palate, the relative positions of the foramina hiciiiva 
correspond with the increased development ofthelaniary teeth, and 
consequently deviate in a proportionate degree from their positions 
in the Chimpanzee and in the human subject. Two or three fora- 
mina remain on either side and indicate the original separation of the 
incisive bones ; and similar indications of the original harmonitv 
between the incisive and maxillary bones are seen on the anterior 
part of the skull. In the Chimpanzee the obliteration of these sutures 
takes place some time before the temporary teeth are shed; in the 
Orang they remain until the permanent teeth are almost fully deve- 
loped : in the human subject the intermaxillary bones can be traced 
as distinct elements only in the early periods of foetal existence, when 
they were first detected by the poet Grethe. In the Orang no part 
of the OS nasi projects, as in the Chimpanzee, beyond the plane of 
the nasal processes of the superior maxillary bones ; and there are 
no traces of its original separation at the mesial line, while in tlie 
Chimpanzee such traces are usually found, and Dr. Traill observed 
two distinct ossa nasi in the young of that species dissected by him. 
The lachrymal bones are proportionally larger than in Man ; but, as 
in the Chimpanzee and the higher Quadrumana, they are confined to 
the orbit, the whole outer boundary of which has a more anterior 
aspect than in the Chimpanzee, and is relatively broader and stronger, 
but with the oblique posterior edge less developed. The interorbi- 
tal space is relatively narrower, the disproportion increasing with 
the development of the superior maxillary bones, and evidencing a 
still further departure from the human form. There are three infra- 
orbital /oramma instead of one ; the upper maxillary bones are nmch 
more largely developed in consequence of the great size of the 
laniary teeth ; and the incisor teeth project more obliquely forwards 
than in the Chimpanzee. 
"In all the peculiarities," Mr. Owen observes, "of the Orang's 



37 

skull, which are independent of the changes consequent on the se- 
cond dentition, we find an exact correspondence between the Simia 
Satyrus, or young animal, and the Pongo, or adult. The crania equally 
exhibit the absence of the projecting supraciliary ridges ; the presence 
of the double anterior condyloid _/bra»iina ; the numerous infra- 
orhiiaxy foramina, and those in the malar bone ; the same disposi- 
tion of the cranial sutures ; the same form of the os nasi; and con- 
traction of the inter-orbital space. The character of the lower jaw 
by which it differs from the Chimpanzee, viz. the greater height and 
breadth of the rami, and the greater depth of the symphysis, are 
equally manifested in the young as in the old Simia Satyrus. In 
following out the same observations with regard to the germs of the 
permanent teeth in the young Orang, the same satisfactory results 
are obtained in reference to their identity with those which are fully 
developed in the old animals, as were previously detailed in the ac- 
count of the Chimpanzee." 

Mr. Owen then proceeds to describe in detail the appearances 
presented by the germs of the permanent teeth, and to compare them 
with the adult ; and concludes this part of his subject by some ob- 
servations on the apparent confusion in which these germs lie hid- 
den within the jaw, and on the admirable and orderly arrangement 
by which the most perfect regularity is established in their ultimate 
position. Applying these observations to the replacement of the 
teeth in man, he inquires, how it happens that when the chances of 
disarrangement are so much fewer, the mal-position of the perma- 
nent teeth is of so frequent occurrence, and finds the solution of 
this problem in a mischievous interference with the agents to which 
the necessary changes have been entrusted. "The means by which 
the growth of the permanent teeth are kept in due restraint are too 
often prematurely removed by anticipating the natural period of the 
extraction of the temporary teeth; the act of extraction accelerates 
the growth of the concealed teeth, both by the removal of the check 
which nature has imposed upon it, and by the irritation induced in 
the surrounding parts : and their full development being consequent- 
ly acquired before the jaws have been sufficiently enlarged, they 
occupy more or less of the relative position which they had when 
half formed within their bony cavities." 

The conditions of the superior development of the spinous pro- 
cesses of the cervical vertebrce in the Orang, are obviously the back- 
ward position of the occipital /oramen, the disproportionate develop- 
ment of the face, and the general anterior inclination of the vertebras 
themselves. Those of the sixth and seventh vertebrce have a slight 
inclination towards the head, indicating that the centre of motion in 
this region is nearer the head than in Man. The whole of the cer- 
vical region is proportionally shorter, and consequently better adapted 
to support the head ; and the entire vertebral column has one gene- 
ral curve dorsad from the atlas to the commencement of the sacrum, 
where there is a slight curve in the contrary direction. As in ]\fan, 
the number of the dorsal or costal vertebrce is twelve, and this con- 
stitutes one of the more important differences between the Orang 



38 

and the Chimpanzee. That of the lumbar vertebra; is four, as in the 
Chimjmnzee, in the skeleton of the Pongo preserved in the Museum 
of Comparative Anatomy at the Garden of Plants, and in the trunk 
of the skeleton of the adult Orang in the collection of the Society ; 
in which latter, as the bones remain connected by their natural liga- 
ments, there is no room for supposing a vertebra to have been acci- 
dentally lost. The additional lumbar vertebra in the skeleton of the 
Pongo in the College of Surgeons, on which some stress lias been 
laid, as indicative of its specific difference from the young Orang, 
which has uniformly presented but four, indicates its abnormal cha- 
racter by its form and situation. The human subject occasionally 
presents a similar lusus in the addition of a sixth lumbar vertebra. 
The spines of these vertebrae are much shorter than in the Chim- 
panzee : as in the latter, the sacrum is longer, narrower and straighter 
than that of Man. Five sacral vcrtebrce are perforated for the 
passage of tlie spinal cord ; three are imperforated, and are conse- 
quently coccygeal : the latter are anchylosed together, but not with 
the sacrum, in the adult. 

The ilia are as much expanded as in the Chimpanzee, but flatter; 
and the ischia are less extended outwards, corresponding with the 
smaller development of the lower extremities. Both the ischia and 
ossa pubis resemble those of the Chimpanzee, in their more elongated 
form ; and the whole pelvis equally deviates from the Bimanous type 
in its position with regard to the trunk. The form of its superior aper- 
ture is an almost perfect oval, the antero-posterior diameter of which 
is to the transverse as three to two ; and the axis of the brim forms, 
with that of the outlet, a much more open angle than in the human 
subject. The chest is amply developed, equalling in size that of 
the human subject, except in being somewhat narrower from side to 
side. The ribs are narrower and less flattened, but their curvature 
is nearly the same as in Man ; the twelfth is much longer, and has 
a long cartilage at its free extremity. The sternum is short, but 
broader than in the Chimpanzee: it is composed, below the manu- 
brium, of a double series of small bones, seven or eight in number. 
This composition, always seen in the young Orang, is sufficiently 
obvious in the adult Pongo in the Museum of the College of Sur- 
geons, but much less so in that of the Garden of Plants at Paris. 
In the young Chimpanzee the sternum is composed of a single series 
of bones; while in the human subject, although at an early period 
of ossification, a single series only of ossific centres appears : at a 
later stage the lower part of the sternum is frequently seen to be 
composed of a double series. 

The clavicles are almost straight ; and the scapula also differs from 
that of the Chimj)anzee in its greater breadth, and from that oi Man 
in the inclination of its spine towards the superior costa, in the acro- 
mion being narrow and claviform, and in the absence of the flattened 
and over-hanging margin of the spine. Other differences exist in 
the comparative dimensions and features of the supra- and sub- 
spinal /bssc?, in the inclination of tlie coracoid process, and in the 
direction of the glenoid cavity. But the principal feature in the 



39 

organization of the Orang, and that in which it differs most from 
the Chimpanzee, consists in the relative lengtli of the upper and 
lower extremities, the arras in the former reaching to the heel. The 
articular surface of the head of the humerus forms a complete hemi- 
sphere ; and in some specimens that bone is perforated between the 
condyles. The principal peculiarities in the fore-arm consist in the 
large space between the radius and ulna, occasioned by the outward 
curve of the former, and in the absence of tlie acute margin on its 
idnar aspect. The proportion borne by the radius to the ulna is in 
Man as 11 to 12; in the Orang as SQ to 37. The bones of the 
hand offer the same elongated form, with the exception of those of 
the thumb, which does not reach to the end of the metacarpal bone 
of the fore-finger. Those of the carpus have their ossification com- 
pleted at a later period than in Man, and allow a freer motion upon 
each other: the os pisiforme is divided into two. Of the fingers, 
the proximal phalanges are more curved than in Man, and the dis- 
tal more pointed, not expanding to afford support for an extended 
surface of delicate touch. 

As the upper extremity of the Orang' exceeds in length that of the 
Chimpanzee, so the lower differs as much in the contrary respect; 
preserving throughout life much less than the foetal proportions of 
the human subject. The femur has a straight shaft, no depression 
on the head, a shorter neck forming a more obtuse angle with the 
shaft, and no linea aspera posteriorly. The inner condyle not being 
produced beyond the outer, the axis of the femur is in the same line 
with that of the tibia, as in the Chimpanzee, The inward curve of 
the tibia occasions a much larger space between it and the ^fibula 
than in Man or in the Chimpanzee. The patella is smaller in pro- 
■ portion than in Man, of an oval shape, and with a single articulating 
surface. The bones of the tarsus are numerically the same with 
those of the Chimpanzee, and have the same general form, but ad- 
mit of freer motion on each other. A greater degree of obliquity 
in the articulating surface of the astragalus causes the whole foot to 
be turned more inwards ; and the os calcis has still less projection back- 
wards than the Chimpanzee. The internal cuneiform bone recedes 
most from the human type in having a greater development towards 
the tibial aspect, and in having the surface of articulation for the 
hallux below the range of the other metatarsal bones, all of which 
are much longer and more bent and have greater interspaces than 
the human. That of the hallux extends very little beyond the mid- 
dle of that of the second toe, and stands off from it at an acute angle. 
The peculiarity of the structure of the hallux first noticed by Camper, 
in seven out of eight Orangs observed by him, viz. its possessing 
no ungueal phalanx and consequently no nail, loses much of its im- 
portance as a specific character from the fact that the individual 
dissected at the Society's Museum a few years since had very per- 
fect, but small, black nails, and two phalanges, and that the same 
number of phalanges exist in the natural skeleton of Lord Amherst's 
Orang in the Museum of the College of Surgeons. The j)halangcs 
of the other toes are remarkably elongated, and those of the first 



40 

scries are curved. The middle toe is longer than the rest, while in 
the Chimpanzee it barely surpasses the second. The concavity of 
the great toe is turned more towards the other toes than in the Chim- 
jianzee, (in which that toe is also longer, having always two 2)halan- 
ges in addition to the metatarsal bone,) is set more forwards on the 
internal cuneiform bone, and has its concavity directed more towards 
the sole of the foot. The resemblance to the human foot is conse- 
quently greater in the Chimpanzee than in the Orang. 

In conclusion Mr. Owen adverted to a fine specimen of the skull 
of a Pongo in the possession of Mr. Cross, of the Surrey Zoological 
Gardens, which presents the following differences when compared 
with the skull of the Pongo in the Museum of the College of Sur- 
geons. 

It is shorter in the antero-posterior diameter, and rises higher at 
the vertex. The supraorbitary ridges are more prominent; the 
plane of the orbits is more vertical, and their lateral exceeds their 
perpendicular diameter. The profile line of the skull is concave 
between the glabella and incisor teeth, while, in the specimen in the 
Museum of the College, it is almost a straight line between the same 
parts. The symphysis of the jaw from the interspace of the mesial 
incisors to the origin of the genio-hyoidei muscles, measures 2-J- 
inches in Mr. Cross's specimen, but equals 34 inches in the Pongo in 
the College Museum. There is also a remarkable difference in the 
position of the zygomatic suture. In the Pongo of the College Mu- 
seum it commences at the distance of a quarter of an inch from the 
orbital process of the malar bone, and extends obliquely backwards 
to within I4 inch of the origin of the zygomatic process of the tem- 
poral bone. In Mr. Cross's specimen the same suture commences 
8 lines from tlie orbital process of the malar bone, and extends to 
within 10 lines of the origin of the temporal zygomatic process, so 
that it is much nearer the middle of the zygoma. 

With these differences, however, there exist the same form and 
proportions of the teeth, and the same peculiarities of the foramina 
and sutures which distinguish the Orang from the Chim])anzee. So 
that although the difference in the shape and general contour of the 
two skulls, is greater than is usually observable in those of other 
wild animals, yet Mr. Owen does not consider them sufficient to af- 
ford grounds for a distinction of species. He thinks it, however, 
probable that they may be indicative of varieties of the Orang in- 
habiting distinct localities, and remarks that it would be interesting 
with that view to compare the crania of ascertained specimens from 
Borneo and Sumatra, to which Islands this very remarkable species 
appears to be confined. 



41 



March 24, 1835. 

William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A Letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by W. Willshire, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. S., dated Mogadore, February 19, 1835, and 
referring to the skin of an Aoudad, Ovis Tragelaphus, Geoff., pre- 
sented by the writer to the Society, and also adverting to his en- 
deavours to obtain the animal which, from the description of it given 
by the Arabs of the Desert, Mr. WiUshire conceives must be the 
Antilope Leucoryx described by Pennant. 

The exhibition was resumed of the new species of Shells contained 
in Mr. Cuming's collection. Those brought on the present evening 
under the notice of the Society, completed the genera Venus and Cy- 
therea, which had been commenced at the Meeting on February 24, 
(page 21). ITie Shells now exhibited were accompanied by cha- 
racters by Mr. Broderip and Mr. G. B. Sowerby. 

Genus Venus. 

Venus tricolor. Ven. testa ovato-ellipticd, crassiusculd, radiatim 
costellatd, costellis decussatis ; maculis interruptis fuscis, irregu- 
larihus, radiatim dispositis ; margine dorsali medio subangulato ; 
impressione cordiformi anticd parvd ; intHs violaced, margine ven- 
trali denticulato : long. 1'7, lat. 0*75, alt. 1'3 poll. 
Hab. ad oras Americse Centralis. (Puerto Portrero.) 
Found in sandy mud at from eleven to thirteen fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Venus histrionica. Ven. testd obovatu, pallide fulvd, radiatim 
costellatd, costellis plerumque duplicatis, concinne decussatis, 
asperis ; maculis interruptis fuscis irregularibus radiatim pictd ; 
margine dorsali rectiusculo, postice subangulato ; impressione cor- 
diformi anticd magnd ; intus albicante, margine ventrali denticu- 
lato : long. 1'8, lat. V, alt. VA poll. 

Hab. apud Real Llejos, Americse Centralis, et ad Sanctam Elenam. 

Found in muddy sand at low water. — G. B. S. 

Venus fusco-lineata. Ven. testd obovatd, albicante, radiatim cos- 
tellatd, costellis antice subdecussatis ; lineis undatis, subobliquis, 
radiisque duohus fuscis nonnunquam pictd ; margine dorsali rec- 
tiusculo, postice subangulato ,- latere antico brevi, impressione cor- 
diformi anticd parvd ; intils purpurascente, margine ventrali den- 
ticulato : long. 1*5, lat. 0'8, alt. 1-2 poll. 
Hab. ad oras Americse Centralis. (Guacomayo.) 
Found in sandy mud at a depth of thirteen fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Venus Chilensis. Ven. testd obovatd, pallidd, radiatim costellatd, 
costellis (medianis prcBcipui) planulatis, (anticis posticisque pra- 
cipue) decussatis ; maculis, lituris, strigilisque pallide fuscis or- 
natd ; margine dorsali rectiusculo, subdeclivi, postice subangulato ; 
latere antico breviore, impressione cordiformi parvd ; intus albi- 
cante, margine ventrali denticulato: long. 2*8, hd. 1'5, alt. 24 
poll. 



'^/;.7 



42 

Hab. ad oras Chilenses. (Valparaiso Bay.) 
Found in coarse sand at low water. — G. B. S. 

Venus lenticularis. Ven. testd lenticulari-subtrapeziformi, 
crassd, opacd, pallida, l<Evi, lineis concentricis antice posticeque 
distinctis, medio obsoletis, prope umbonem elevatiusculis ; margine 
dorsali subrotundato, postice subangulato ; impressione cordi/ormi 
elongatd, parvd, impressd ; intHs albidd, margine ventrali lievi : 
long. 3-1, lat. 1-5, alt. 2-7 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Chilenses. (Valparaiso Bay.) 

Found in coarse sand at low water. — G. B. S. 

Venus asperrima. Ven. testd obovatd, crassiusculd, opacd, albi- 

cante, radiatim costellatd, costellis numeronis, decussatis, asperis ; 

latere antico breviore ; margine postico dorsali declivi, rectiusculo ; 

impressione cordiformi untied elongatd: long 2', lat. 1', alt. l'G5 

poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Lobos dictam. 
Found in fine sand at low water. — G. B. S. 

Venus costellata. Ven. testd obovatd, turgidd, fuscescente, cos- 
tellis lamellosis, refiexis, postici magis eminentibus, concentricis 
ornatd ; lineis radiantibus impressis albis decussatd ; impressione 
cordiformi anticd distinctd, marginibus medianis elevatiusculis; 
intils albd, margine ventrali crenulato ; long. 2' 6, lat. 1-5, alt. 
2-3 poll. 

Hab. ad Valparaiso, Chilensium, et ad Callao, Peruviae. 

Obs. Testa nonnunquam unicolor, nonnunquam prope apices con- 
cinn^ punctulata. 

Found in coarse sand at a depth of from six to fifteen fathoms. — 
G.B. S. 

Venus opaca. Ven. testd oblongd, subquadratd, subturgidd, lavi, 
opacd, albidd, pallidissimi purpurascente ; latere antico brhviore, 
rotundato, concentrice ruguloso, postico subrotundato, suprd. in- 
frdque subangulato ; margine interno integerrimo ; Ugamento per- 
magno : long. 34, lat. 1'6, alt. 25 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Chilenses. (Conception and Maule.) 

Found in sandy mud at low water. — G. B. S. 

Venus variabilis. Ven. testd oblongo-subtrigond, tenuiusculd, leevi, 
politd, albd, strigilis lineisve angularibus fuscis varie pictd ; int^s 
albd, margine integerrimo : long. 13, lat. 07, alt. Tl poll. 

Hab. in Austraha. (Swan River.) — G. B. S. 

Venus discors. Ven. testd obovali, crassiusculd, radiatim confertim 
striatd, antice rugis decussatd, albd fusco-nigricante instrata, co- 
loribus valvce altera diversimodo ordinatis ; lined dorsali elevati- 
usculd ; intus albd, postice violaceo tinctd, margine ventrali crenu- 
lato : long. r9, lat. Tl, alt. l' 6 poll. 
Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam, Americse Meridionalis, et adGuacomayo, 
Americse Centralis. 

- The disparity in the arrangement of the colouring in the two valves 
is a remarkable peculiarity in this species. 

Found in sandy mud at from six to nine fathoms. — G. B. S. 



43 

Venus Cypria. Ven. testd oblongd, subtrigond, concentrice lamellosd, 
lamellis crassis, obtusis, postice tenuioribus, subappressis, albd 
fusco radiatd ; lined dorsali rectiusculd, declivi ; ared posticd latd, 
fuscatd ; impressione cordiformi untied conspicud, fused ; margine 
ventrali intus integerrimo : long. 0"75, lat. 0*4, alt. 0' 6 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Platae, Columbise Occidentalis. 

Found among coral sand in seventeen fathoms. 

This appears to be a near relation to the Linnean Venus Paphia. — 
G. B. S. 

Venus crenifera. Ven. testd ellipticd, asperd, albicante fusco 
maculatd et varie pictd, lamellis concentricis, brevibus, confertis, 
striis radiantibus confertissimis decussatis ; margine ventrali crenu- 
lato ; dente cardinali antico magno, elongato : long. 1"4, lat. 08, 
alt. 1'2 poll. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

Variat testd subfuscd, unicolore, striis radiantibus nonnullis elevatis 
costiformibus. 

Hab. ad Paytam, Peruviae. 

Found in the sand at low water. — G. B. S. 

Venus leucodon. Ven. testd ellipticd, cinerascente, crassiusculd, 
concentrice costellatd, costellis lavibus, reflexis, radiatim striatd, 
striis numerosis, confertis: ared dorsali posticd lunuldque fuscis ; 
margine interno ventrali denticulato, denticulis albis, interstitiis 
nigricantibus : long. \Z5, lat. 0'7, alt. 1*15 poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Califomiensi. (Guaymas.) 

Found in coarse sand at low water. — G. B. S. 

Venus Californiensis. Ven. testd globosd, crassd,albente,concen- 
trici multi-lamellosd, lamellis crassiusculis lateraliter subcrenulatis , 
costis creberrimis cancellatd ; ared posticd infossd, grandi ; lunuld 
magnd, tumente ; intus albd, impressionibus muscularibus posticis 
violaceo fucatis ; limbo , interno crenato : long. 2'9, lat. 1'7, alt. 
2-7 poll. 
Hab. in sinu Californise. (Guaymas.) 

From about the middle of the valve the concentric lamella begin 
to approach nearer and nearer, till, in old specimens, they hide the 
radiated ribs, and at length, at the ventral border which is covered 
with an epidermis, they become mere smooth lineations. The internal 
violaceous spots are not always on the posterior muscular impressions, 
but sometimes only in their immediate neighbourhood. 
Found in sandy mud at low water. — W. J. B. 

Venus compta. Ven. testd subtrigond, planiusculd, crassd, la- 
mellis concentricis lateraliter crenulatis, crassiusculis, radiatim 
creberrime costellatd, albente lineis flavo-castaneis inscriptd ,- ared 
posticd incisd, spadiceo strigatd ; lunuld pallidiore ; intiis albd, 
limbo crenato: long. 2"3, lat. 12, alt. "■?.• poll. 

Hab. ad Peruviam. (Bay of Sechura.) 

A fine species. It was dredged up in coarse sand and mud at a 
depth of seven fathoms. — W. J. B. 



44 

Venus ouNATissiMA. Ven. testd suhglobulosd, raJtalim creberrinic 
costatd, lamellis concentricis valde elevatis, crispo-plicatis.spadiceo- 
albente ; intus albd, limbo interna cremdato : long. 1"6, lot. [la- 
mellis inclusis) I'l, alt. 1'4 poll. 
Hab, ad Panamam. 

This unique and highly ornamented shell was dredged up from 
sandy mud at a depth of ten fathoms. 

The regular radiating ribs, each of which, as it advances from about 
the middle of the valve to the ventral border, has a depression in 
the middle, and the crisply plaited weU-developed concentric frill-like 
lamella, render it the most curious in point of workmanship of any 
of the species. — W. J. B. 

Venus Macteacea. Ven. testd subglobulosd, lineis concentricis, 
elevatis, acutis, subdisiantibus ornatd, albd ; limbo interna Icevi : 
long. r5, lat. 09, alt. IS poll. 
Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

This unique shell was dredged from sandy mud at a depth of 
twenty fathoms. I have given it the trivial name of Mactracea be- 
cause it reminds the spectator of some of the lamellated species of 
that genus. — W. J. B. 

Venus pulicaria. Ven. testd subtrigond, lineis concentricis, elevatis, 
creberrimis, stcbtilissitne plicatis ornatd, albd spadicea inspersd ; 
area dorsalivelposticdnigro-spadiceo strigatd, lunuld fused ; intiis 
purpurascente, limbum versus crenulatum albente : long. 18, lat. 
V, alt. 14 poll. 
Hab. ad Columbiam Occidentalem. (Chiriqui and Tumaco.) 
The scattered spots are often arranged in angular figures, and being 
more intense in some parts than others, the valves present a some- 
what radiated appearance. 

Dredged up from sandy mud at a depth of three fathoms. — 
W. J. B. 

Venus obscura. Ven. testd subglobasd, lineis concentricis crenulatis 
harridd, albente obscuri maculatd ; intiis albd, limbo crenulato : 
long. 0-7, lat. 0-5, lat. 0-7 poll. 

Hab. in Oceano Pacifico. (Lord Hood's Island.) 

Found in coral sand at low water. — W. J. B. 

Genus Cytherea. 

Cytherea lubrica. Cyth. testd subratundato-cordatd , lubricd, sub- 
violaced, intiis albd, antice et superne subconcentrice lineatd, lineis 
elevatis ; limbo interna lavi : long. 1'7, lat. 0'8, alt. 14 poll. 

Hab. in America Centrali. (Puerto Portrero). 

Tliis species, which is of moderate size, was dredged up by Mr. 
Cuming from coral sand at a depth of thirteen fathoms. The con- 
centric somewhat elevated lines are comparatively small and close at 
the upper part of the valve near the umbones, and gradually widen 
out till they become distant and strongly marked at the anterior part 
'of the valves, the middle and posterior parts of which are without 
any lineations. Tlie whole shell has a shining slippery appearance. 
— W. J. B. 



45 

Cttherea alternata. Cyth. testd subrotnndato-trigond, Uneis con- 
centricis elevatis acutis frequentibus ornatd, albd spadiceo radiatd ; 
ared dorsali vel posticd lunuldque spadiceo -violaceis ; intus albd, 
vmbones versus spadiceo-violaceo obscure nebulosd ; limbo interna 
leevi : long. 1"4, lat. 0"8, alt. 1"2 poll. 
Hab. ad Columbiam Occidentalem. (Monte Christi.) 
This species was dredged up in sandy mud at a depth of seven 
fathoms. The size of the specimen is ratlier less than that of the pre- 
ceding. — W. J. B. 

Cttherea tortuosa. Cyth. testd obliqu'i cordatd,postice sublobatd, 
Uneis frequentibus subconcentricis obtusis pqstic'h irregularibus , 
albd umbones versus subspadiceo-albd : long. 16, lat. 0"85, alt. 
1-2 poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam, et ad Xipixapi. 

Var. testa roseo rufoque pulcherrime subradiatim pictil. 

Lamarck refers to no figure for his Cyth. albina, but only says that 
it has some likeness to the Pectunculus figured in Lister's Conchology, 
t. 263, /. 99. Part of Lamarck's description would apply to the 
shell now before me, but the term " striis exiguis" is inapplicable to 
the blunt and coarse lines with which the shell under description is 
marked concentrically, and as there is no notice taken of the posterior 
sublobation, I must conclude that Lamarck's Cyth. albina is not my 
Cyth. tortuosa. 

Dredged up from sandy mud at a depth of six fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Cttherea affinis. Cyth. testd ovato-oblongd, planiusculd, Uneis 
distantibus elevatis subacutis concentricis, albente violaceo ra- 
diatd, postice vix sublobata ; ared posticd violaced, lunula pallidd- 
intus albd, limbo interna leevi; epidermide fused tenui : long. \Q, 
lat. 0-7, alt. I- 1 poll. 
Hab. ad Colombiam Occidentalem. (Xipixapi.) 
This species, which approaches the last, differs from it in the fol- 
lowing particulars. The shell is much flatter, the elevated, regular, 
concentric, somewhat sharp lines are much more distant, (especially 
as they recede from the umbones,) than the irregular, close-set, blunted 
lineations, almost amounting to rugosities, of Cyth. tortuosa. There 
is an approach to lobation towards the dorsal or posterior border ; 
but it is not nearly so strongly marked as in Cyth. tortuosa. Still it 
may be a variety of Cyth. tortuosa. 

Dredged up from sandy mud at a depth of ten fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Cttherea Dione, varr. 

Though varieties of this species have, for a long time, been known 
in this country, I am not aware that they have ever been recorded. 
ITie descriptions of Linnaeus and Lamarck and the figures quoted by 
them, apply to the variety found in the West Indies, which is com- 
paratively small with the lamella high and sharp and the spines close- 
set and short, the prevailing tinge of the shell being of a somewhat 
vinous or purplish flesh-colour. A dark-coloured long- spined variety of 
this and a white one, also with long spines, the spines in both being 
very close-set, were dredged up from sandy mud at a depth of nine 
fathoms at Salango in West Colombia. 



46 

Var. /3. Pallida, ared dorsali vel posteriori lunuldque violaceis; lineis 
concentricis antici lamellatis, alibi rotundatis irregularibus, ru- 
garum formam referentibus ; spinis distantibus longissimis. 

This variety, of which Mr. Cuming possesses a specimen with the 
lower spines an inch and a half long, grows to a large size. It was 
dredged up at Tumbez, in Peru, from soft mud at a depth of five 
fathoms. 

Var. y. Violacea ; antici et ad umbones sublamellosa, alibi Icevis ; 
spinis valde distantibus, crassiusculis, medtocribus. 

This variety, which is almost entirely of a violet colour excepting 
the two white streaks which mark the line of the spines in each valve, 
and some white about the neighbourhood of the lower part of the 
anterior border, grows also to a large size. It is smooth with the 
exception of a few concentric lines at the umbones and a few lamella; 
towards the anterior border. The spines are distant, indeed in the 
specimen before me there are hardly any in the place where the in- 
terior rows usually are, there being but one on one side and none on 
the other, with the exception of a few towards the umbones on both 
sides. The outer spines, as well as the inner one, are thick and 
strong but comparatively short, the longest being hardly seven eighths 
of an inch long in a specimen of about the same size as that from 
which the description of variety /3 was taken. Var. y was dredged 
up from sandy mud at a depth of seven fathoms at San Bias in the 
gulf of California. 

There are many gradations of colour, &c. between the varieties. 
I possess a specimen of variety ji very nearly white, with the ex- 
ception of the lunule. All the varieties are subject to have the spines, 
or at least some of thera, tortuous. — W. J. B. 

Cytherea vulnerata. Cyth. testd subglobosd, lineis concentricis 
creberrimis leevibus, albente fasciis angustis piirpureo-sanguineis 
hinc et hinc ornatd; lunuld et aredposticd sub-atropui-pureis ; limbo 
ventrali rubra, intiis subcrenulato ; epidermide sub/used ; intics 
albd subroseo suffusd : long. \6, lat. 09, alt. I 4 poll. 
Hab. in America Centrali. (Real Llejos.) 

The ruddy lines which occasionally gird this whitish shell, and its 
red border, give this species a pleasing appearance. It was dredged 
up from sandy mud at a depth of six fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Cytherea planulata, var. sufFusa. Cyth. planulata, testd <squi- 
later ali, trigond, radiis omnino suffusis ; latere postico clauso. 

Hab. ad Salango. 

This differs from Cyth. planulata, (Zool. Journ., V. p. 48,) in being 
more equilateral, rather more gibbose, in having the coloured rays 
spread all over the shell, and in being closed posteriorly. The an- 
terior side in Cyth. planulata is the longer. 

Found In sandy mud at a depth of nine fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Cytbkbea ARGENTINA. Cyth. tcstd subtrigoud, Itevi, albd, subaqui- 
laterali, latere antico paullh breviore, postico subacuminato ; mar- 
gine dorsali postico rectiusculo, declivi, ventrali rotundato ; epi- 
dermide tenui, corned, extus velutind, albd, quasi argentatd, indutd . 
long. -2-5, lat. 1-4, alt. 2-1 poll. 



47 

Hab. ad Sinura Nocoiyo, Americse Centralis. 
Found in sand banks at low water. — G. B. S. 

Cytherea pannosa. Cyth. testd obovatd, crassiusculd, lavi, albi- 
cante maculis strigis lineisve angulatis luridis obscure pictd ; 
apicibus subprominentibus : long. ri5, lat. 0'6, alt. 0' 9 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Chilenses. (Coquimbo.) 

Found in sandy mud at low water. — G. B. S. 

Cytherea pallescens. Cyth. testd obovatd, tenui, pallide lutescente, 
Icevi, concentricii striatd ; latere antico breviore, apicibus sub- 
prominulis ; intits alba ; irripressione cordiformi untied elongatd, 
distinctd: long. 1'4, lat. 0'8, alt. \'\ poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Annaan. 

Found in coral sand. — G. B. S. 

Cytherea inconspicua. Cyth. testd obovatd, crassiusculd, IcRvi, al- 
bidd, concentric'^ striatd, striis exilissimis, epidermide tenuissimd, 
pallide subfuscd ; apicibus subprominulis ; impressione cordi- 
formi untied ovatd, inconspicud : long. 1'2, lat. 0*65, alt. 1* 
poll. 

Hab. ad Paytam, Peruvise. 

Found in sandy mud at low water. — G. B. S. 

Cytherea modesta. Cyth. testd ovatd, crassiusculd, lavi, con- 
centrici sulcatd, stilcis obsoletiusculis ; albdfusco et fusco-purpu- 
rascente varid ; apicibus subprominulis ; latere postico longiore, 
declivi : long. 09, lat. 05, alt. 0' 7 poll. 

Hab. ad Xipixapi, Americae Meridionalis. 

Found in sandy mud in from nine to eleven fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Cytherea pectinata, var. immaculata. Cyth. peetinata, testd pal- 

lescente unicolore, intils lutescente. 
Hab. ad Insulas Oceani Pacifici. (Lord Hood's Island, one of the 
Paumotu group.) — G. B. S. 

Specimens were exhibited of numerous Thrushes, chiefly inhabit- 
ants of the Himalayan Mountains and of India; and Mr. Gould, at 
the request of the Chairman, brought them under the notice of the 
Meeting, principally with the view of indicating those of the former 
district as constituting a new form in the family Merulidce, Vig., for 
which he proposed the generic name 

Ianthocincla. 

Rostrum fere ut in Cinclosomate et Turdo sed magis robustum : 
mandibula superiore ad basin setigera. 

Nares basales, ovales, apertae. 

Aleebieves, concavse, rotundatse; remigibus 6ta 7m^ue longiori- 
bus, omnibus mollibus. 

Cawrfa subelongata, concava, rotundata; rectricibus mollibus. 

Tarsi elongati, robusti. 

Hallux digitum medium longitudine subsequans, ungue forti sub- 
sequali munitus. 



48 

Typus genericus. Cinclosoma ocellatum, Vig. 

Montium Ilimalayce Incolce. 

The chief distinguishing characteristics of the genus lanthocincia 
are the comparative length of the tarsus ; the length of the hinder 
toe, and the great length of the claw by which it is terminated; the 
roundness, concavity, softness, and yielding character of the wings 
and tail ; and the peculiar fullness, lightness, and downiness of the 
whole of the plumage, and particularly of that of the back and rump. 
The downy nature of the covering is alluded to in the generic name. 

The following species may be referred to it. 

1. Ianthocincla ocellata. 

Cinclosoma ocellatum, y^ig., in Proc. Comm. Set. Zool. Soc, 
Part I. p. 55. — Gould, Cent. Him. Birds, PL xx. 

2. Ianthocincla vauiegata. 

Cinclosoma variegatum, yig., in Proc. Comm. Set. Zool. Soc, 
Part I. p, 5G. — Gould, Cent. Him. Birds, PI. xvi. 
S. Ianthocincla erythrocephala. 

Cinclosoma erythroceplialum, Vig., in Proc. Comm. Set. Zool. 
Soc., Part I. p. 171. — Gould, Cent. Him. Birds, PI. xvii. 

4. Ianthocincla SQUAMATA. Ianth.hrunnea,plumis lunula nigra 
ad apicem notatis; uropygio sordide castaneo; alls caiidcique 
7iigris, rectrieibus ad apicem ochraceo-Jlavis. 

Long. tot. 91- unc; rostri, 1 ; alee, 4 ; caudce, 4-J^; tarsi, I4. 

Rostrum tersique brunnei. 

The inner webs of each of the primaries and the outer edges of 
the first seven of them are margined with a light silvery grey ; the 
secondaries have the same parts of a dull ochre yellow becoming 
more ferruginous towards the shoulders. 

5. Ianthocincla chrysoptera. lanth. saturate hrunnescenti- 
cinerca, alis fascia castaned notatis ; fronte, facie, gutture, auri- 
busque sordide einereo-albentibus ; vertice nuchdque nitide ferru- 
gineis ; seapularibus pectoreque arenaceo-rubris, hoc saturatiore, 
plumis lunula castaned ad apicem notatis; caudd supra saturate 
aureo-olivaeed, injrd brunned; remigum pogoniis externis nitide 
aureo-olivaceis. 

Long. tot. 10 — 104 unc; rostri, i; alee, 4 ; caudle, 5 ; tarsi, 1 }. 

Rostrum pedesqiie brunnei. 

The specimens exhibited of this and the preceding species were 
recently presented to the Society, with other selected Birds, by Sir 
Philip Grey Egerton. 

6. Ianthocincla RUFOGtJLARis. lanth. supra olivacea, postiee et 
ad caudam rufescenti tincta, plumis nigra apieulatis ; vertice fas- 
cidque alarum media nigiis; strigd a rictu ad oculum juguloque 
albts ; guld erissoque rufis ; pectore sordide albescente hrunneo- 
nigricante maculato ; ventre brunnescenti-einereo ; rectrieibus 
prope apicem rufo-castaneum nigro fasciatis. 

Long. tot. 10 unc; rostri, 1 ; alee, 3i ; caudee, 45 ; tarsi, 1-J.. 
Rostrum flavescenti-brunneum ; pedes brunnei. 
The ends of the secondaries are banded with black, and their ex- 
ternal margin is silvery white. 



49 



April 14. 1835. 

N. A. Vigors, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Gould, at the request of the Chairman, exhibited, from the 
collection of the President, the Earl of Derby, a specimen of a spe- 
cies of Toucan, which he regarded as hitherto undescribed. It be- 
longs to the same group with the other grooved-billed Toucans, and 
is consequently referrible to the genus recently proposed by Mr. 
Gould (Proceedings, Part II. p. 147), under the name of Aulaco- 
rhynchus. He pointed out the characters which distinguish it from 
the other species of the genus, and proposed for it the name of 

AuLACORHYNCiius Derbianus. Aul. viridts, suprh in subaureum, 
ad occiput in cceruleum vergens ; ptilis inferioribus flavescentibus ; 
rectricibus duabus intermediis brunneo apiculatis ; guld albidd. 

Long. tot. 14-j- — 15 unc. ; rostri, 3-i-; alee, 5 ; caudcs 5. 

Descr. Rostrum robustum, magis quam in congeneribus angu- 
latum, ad basin (nisi culminis) linea alba cinctum, nigrum in casta- 
neum anticfe posticeque transiens. Orbitse rufescentes. Pedes satu- 
rate plumbei. 

Mr. Gould remarked that the colouring of the extremities of the 
tail-feathers would alone suffice to distinguish from each other the 
four species at present known in this genus. In Aul. sulcatus the 
tips of the tail-feathers are not marked by any peculiar colour : in 
Aul. Derbianus, the two, and in Aul. hcematopygus, the four, inter- 
mediate tail-feathers are tipped with brown : while in Aul. prasinus 
the whole of the tail-feathers are tipped with brownish red. 

The exhibition was resumed of the hitherto undescribed Shells 
contained in the collection of Mr. Cuming. Those brought at the 
present Meeting under the notice of the Society were accompanied 
by characters by Mr. G. B. Sowerby. They consisted of the fol- 
lowing species and varieties of the 

Genus Monoceros. 
MoNOCEROs iMBRicATUM, var. Costis transversis, confertis, nume- 

rosis, imbricato-squamosis, squamulis ferh ohsoletis : long. 2-2, 

lat. 13 poll. 
Hab. apud Terra del Fuego. 
Found on rocks. — G. B. S. 

Monoceros crassilabrttm, var. album. Testd totd ttj,bd: long. 2", 

lat. 1-4. 
Hab. apud Valparaiso. 
Found on rocks at low water. — G. B. S. 
No. XXVIII. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. ^ 



50 

MoNQCKROs cosTATtJM. Moti. tsstd ovtttd, crossd, albicante cas- 
taneo svffusd ; anfractibus convexis, spiraliter costatis, costis sub- 
sqvamosis ; spird brevi ; labro crasso, extus subcastaneo, intils 
ruguloso ; dente basali brevi: long. ]'3, lat. 9 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Chiliae. (Conception.) 

Found under stones at low water. — G. B. S. 

MoNocEROs CYMATUM, Sow. MoTi. testd ovtttd, cTttssd, ruffosd, 
fused nigra albidoque strigatd et variegatd ; anfractibus quatuor 
ventricosis, rugis ultimi quatuor vel quinque latis, obtusis, spira- 
libus ; spird exsertiusculd ; labro crasso, extus sinuoso, intils den- 
tato, dentibus 4-6 albis : long. 1*7, lat. Tl poll. 
Monoceros cymatum. Sow., in Tankerville Catalogue, No. 1888. 
Buccinum cymatum, Solander, MS. ined. 
Icon. Monoceros lugubre, Sow., Genera of Shells, No. V.f. 3. — 

Wood, Suppl. t. 4. Buccinum, f. 11. 12. 
Hab. ad littora Californiensia. 

Several rows of white teeth may be seen to remain within the 
aperture, each of which has formed the inner edge of the outer lip 
at the particular period of growth to which it respectively belonged. 
— G.B. S. 

Monoceros acuminatxim. Mon. testd ovato-acuminatd, crassius- 
culd, fuscescente ; anfractibus quinque vel sex, ventricosis, spi- 
raliter costellatis, costellis interstitiisque squamuliferis decus- 
satis ; labro exttis fusco, intils albo, Icevi ; spird elongatd, acumi- 
natd : long. 2", lat. 1*1 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Chilise. (Baldivia.) 

This may be only a variety of Mon. imbricatum. — G. B. S. 

Monoceros globulus. Mon. testd subglobosd, castaned, Icevi, 
crassiusculd ; spird acuminald ; anfractibus quatuor vel quinque, 
ultimo maximo, ventricosissimo ; labro intiis subincrassato, albo, 
margine externo castaneo : long. 1*4, lat. 1* poll. 

Hab. ad oras Chiliae. (Maul6.) 

Found in the clefts of rocks. — G. B. S. 

Monoceros punctulatum, Gray. Mon. testd ovatd, crassd, leevi- 
gatd, albidd punctulis numerosis castaneis spiraliter seriatis pictd ; 
labro incrassato, extus crenulato, albo, intus dentato ; dentibus 
quinque obtusis, albidis ; aperturd intils fuscescente : long. 1*1, 
lat. 0'65 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Cocos, Oceani Pacifici Septentrionalis. 

Found on the rocks. — G. B. S. \ 

Monoceros unicarinatum. Mon. testd ovato-oblongd, crassius- 
culd, albicante fusco variegatd ; anfractibus quatuor vel quinque, 
spiraliter costatis, interstitiis concinne dccussaiis, carind unicd 
pos/icd ; labri margine crenulato, intiis Icevi : long. 0'8, lat. 0"5 
poll. 

Hab. 



51 

MoNOCKROs ciTRiNUM. MoTi. testd ovatd, crassd, lav't, citrind ; 
apice acuminato ; anfractibus tiuinque, superioribns plerumque iini- 
carinaiis, carind obtusd, ultimo gibboso ; luhro crusso, plerumque 
IcEvi, estate intUs dentato, dentibus validis, alb is : long. 14, lat. 1' 
poll. 

Variat anfractu ultimo transversim costellato, costellis squamulosis. 

Hab. apud Coquimbo. 

Found in the crevices of rocks. — G. B. S. 

Specimens were exhibited of A'arious Hymenopterous Insects, partly 
from the collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope, and partly from that 
of Mr. Westvrood. They were accompanied by characters by Mr. 
Westwood. 

Genus Plagiocera, Klug, Jahrb.fur 1834. 

Plagioceka APicALis. Plag. fulvo-lutescetis ; capita viridi-nigro, 
antennis nigris ; pedibus albidis, apice tarsorum fusco ,- abdominis 
segmentis quatiior apicalibus jmrpureo-nigris ; alis fluvidis, siig- 
mate apiceque lati fuscis. 

Antennarum, nervorum alarum, et unguium structura ut in Plug, 
thoracicd. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1\. Exp. alar. lin. 16. 

Hab. in America Meridional!. Rio Janeiro. — In Mus. Dom. Hope. 

Obs. Genus Plagiocera Cimbicidas cum Hylotomidis arctfe con- 
jungit. 

Genus Puionopelma, Westw. (Fam. ChalcididcE.) 

Caput latum, anticfe subtridentatum. 

Antennee 11 -articulates ; articulis 2do et 3tio fere sequalibus, mi- 

nutis, reliquis 8 longitudine sensim decrescentibus. 
Abdomen subsessile, oviductu corpore fere duplo longiore, vagi- 

nulis pilosis. 
Pedes graciles, intermediis crassioribus cum tibiis paullo curvatia, 

calcari valido armatis, tarsis intermediis dilatatis. 
Obs. Genus Callimomem (oviductu elongato) cum Eupclmo (pedi- 
bus intermediis) conjungens. 

Obs. Genus Phlebopenes, Perty (Del. An. Art. Bras., 3.), eum Cal- 
limo7ni iortb conjungendum. 

Prion, viridis. Prion, aureo-viridis purpurea nitens ; abdomine 
nitido ; femoribus viridi-nigris, tibiis tarsisque obscurioribus , gc- 
niculis pedum intermediorum albidis ; antennis nigris ; alis puUidh 
fulvescentibus, in medio paullo obscurioribus, nervis fuscis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 34- ; oviductus, 5 ' . Exp. alar. lin. 6. 

Hab. in Brasilia. — In Mus. Dom. Hope. 

Genus F(enus, Fab. 

FcENUs AusTRALis. F(En. piceo-niger, punctatissimus, ihorace vario- 
losa; capita anticl, thoracis abdominisque later ibus, corporeque toto 
subtuspiceo-ferrugineis; antennis nigris ; pedibus picco-fcrrugineis, 



femor'ibus supra lined nirjrd notatis; inandibulia elongatis, similiter 
dentatis, clente valido interno basali, dentibusque tribus parvis ante 
apicem positis ; alis vix coloratis apicibus nonnihil infuscatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^. Exp. alar. 9. \ 

Hab. in Nova HoUandia. — In Mus. Westw. 

Genus Tnoii-'iCANTHA, Latr. 

Thoracantha flabellata. Thor. nigro-ccerulea, nitida ; scutello 
abdomen longi superante, nitidissimo, acutissimo, ad apicem in 
spinas dvas c/racillimas desinente, longitudinaliter striata ; thor ace 
transversim striata ; alis sub scutello ainnina occultatis ; antennis 
nigris 12-articulatis, articuUs duobus basalibus fulvis, reliquis 
nigris et singulis {ultimo elongato excepto) ramum longum emit- 
tentibus ; pedibus fulvis. 

Long. corp. (scutello incluso) lin. 2-I-. 

Hab. in Brasilia. — In Mus. Dom. Swainson. 

Genus Campylonyx, Westiv. (Fam. Proctotrupidee.) 

Caput latum, oculis vald^ prominulis, fronte emarginato. 
Antenna ? graciles, elongatse, apicem versus parum incrassatae. 
Thorax valdfe elongatus, continuus, coUare longius quam latum. 
Metathorax longus, bicanaliculatus. 
Pedes antici valde elongati, raptorii, tarsorum unguiculis maximia 

recurvatis. 
Alarum nervi ut in genere Anteone. 
Abdomen ovale. 

Obs. a genere Gonatapo difFert thorace continuo et alato, ab An- 
teone thoracis et antennarum structura. 

Campylonyx Ampuliciformis. Camp, tiiger, punctatus; abdomine 
Icevi nitida ; antennis {tiisi ad basin), pedibus (nisi femoribus et 
tibiarum upice), collaris lateribus, marginibusque segmentorum 
ubdominalium testacea-rufescentibtts; capite antice obscure fiaves- 
cente ; alis brevibus pallide flavescentibus, fasciis duabus fuscis 
or?iatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4. Exp. alar. lin. 3. 

Hab. " humi luco de Feuillent, 8 Julii, 1807," prope villam 
"Lyons" Gallise. — In Mus. Com. De Jeanii. 

Genus Trigonalys, Westw, 

Caput magnum, planum, antici latius. 

Mandibula validse, 3-dentatse. 

Palpi elongati. 

Antenna capitis cum thorace longitudine, graciles, filiformes, ad 

apicem attenuatse, 24-articulatse. 
Thorax ovatus. 
Abdomen convexum, anticfe et postice attenuatum, vix peduncu- 

latum, apice incurvo. 
Al<E cellula 1 marginali, 4 submarginalibus, quarum 1mA majore. 



53 

•2cla elongato-triangulari, 3ti& parvtl, nervum 2dum recurrentem 

excipiente. 
Pedes graciles, liaud splnosi, tarsis simplicibus. 
Obs. Genus anomalum familise dubise. Caput et antennre Li/dee, 
abdomen Mutillce. Alarum nervi fere ut in Myrmosd dispositi. 

Trigonalys melanoleuca. Trig, nigra, punctata, subpuhescens ; 
capite antice et lateraliter maculisque duahus parvis posticis, tho- 
race postice, abdominisqiie basi albis; alis anticis in medio fuscis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4. Exp. alar. lin. 7. 

Hab. in America Meridionali. Bahia. — In Mus. Brit, et Westw. 
Communicavit Dom. Turner. 

Genus Diamma, Westw. (Fam. Mutillid^.) 

Corpus oblongum, nitidum, apterum. 

Caput subhorizontale, fere rotundatum. 

Mandibulce elongatse, curvatse, gracUes, dentibus tribus minutis in- 

ternis. 
Antenna breves, convolutje, ad apicem graciliores. 
Thorax elongatus, binodosus. 

Abdomen elongatum, convexum, segmentis basalibus subcoarctatis. 
Pedes breviusculi, spinosi. 
Obs. Genus Myrmecodi affine. 

Diamma bicolor. Diam. niger, purpureo cyaneoque nitens ; an- 

tennis, pedibus, mandibulisque rufis, his ad apicem tiigris. 
Long. Corp. lin. 9^. 
Hab. in Nova Hollandia. — In Mus. Westw. 

Genus Meria, ///. 

1. Meria Klugii. Mer. tota nigra, nitida-, alisnigris, dimidio api- 
cali purpurascente ; collari oblongo-quadrato ; scuto tnesothoracico 
lineis quatuor brevibus longitudinalibus impresso ; metathorace 
scabroso ; abdomine nitidissimo, elongate ; alis cellulis submargi- 
nalibus completis tantum duabus [2dd triangulari minutissimd in 
Merits veris pedunculatd, in hac specie obliteratd'] ; aculeo longis- 
simo. 

Long. corp. lin. 9l. Exp. alar. iin. 12. 

Hab. apud Sierra Leone. — In Mus. Dom. Hope. 

2. Meria Spinol^. Mer. nigra, nitida ; capite rvfo, ore antennis- 
que nigris ; abdomine utrinque maculis tribus parvis albis ; alis 

. fuscis, dimidio apicali obscuriore iridescente ; tarsis piceis ^ alarum 
nervis ut in Meriis veris. 
Long. corp. lin. 7i. Exp. alar. lin. lO^. 

Hab. apud Sierra Leone. — In Mus. Westw. Communicavit Dom. 
Hope. 

3. Meria Millefolii, St. Farg. 8; Serv., in Encycl. Meth., x. 
394., a Klugio sub nomine Mer. nitidula, anno 1810, in tomo 2do 
libri ' Beitriige zur Naturkunde' descripta. 



54 

4. Meria RUFivENTEis, Klug , loc. cit., tab. iv. fig. 7. 

5. Meria Latreillei, Fabr., (Betliyllus). Tiphia tripunctata, 
Punz. Tachus staphylinus, Jur. 

6. Meria dimidiata, Spin. (Tachus). 

Obs. Meria dichroa, Perty, Del. An. Art. Bras,, t. 27. /. 13, 
haud congenerica. 

The following Notes, extracted by Sir Robert Heron, Bart., from 
his Journal, were read. 

1814. — For a good many years I have attended to the habits of 
Peafowl, and for the last eleven have written down my observations. 
I find the individuals to differ as much in temper as human beings : 
some are willing to take care of tlie young ones of others, whilst 
some have pursued and killed them, and this whether they had a 
brood of their own or iiot. Some cocks have assisted in the care of 
young ones, whilst others have attacked them. An early hen fre- 
quently has a brood herself the next year. Age makes no difference 
in the number of the brood. I have had six from a hen a year old, 
and one from an old hen. The hens have frequently a great j)re- 
ference to a particular peacock. They were all so fond of an old pied 
cock, that one j^ear, when he was confined in view, they were con- 
stantly assembled close to the trellice walls of his prison, and would 
not suffer a japanned peacock to touch them. On his being let out in 
the autumn, the oldest of the hens instantly courted him, and ob- 
tained proofs of his love in my presence. The next year he was shut 
up in a stable, and the hens then all courted his rival ; for the ad- 
vances in these birds are always made by the female. 

The japanned breed are, I beheve, a variety originating in En- 
gland. In Lord Brownlow's numerous breed of common, white, and 
pied, the japanned suddenly, in my memory, appeared amongst them. 
The same thing happened in Sir J. Trevelyan's flock of entirely the 
common sort ; also in a breed of common and pied given by Lady 
Chatham to Mr. Thoroton : and in both cases to the extinction of 
the previously existing breed. 

1821-2. — A black Poland cock, belonging to my friend and neigh- 
bour Mr. Kendall of Barnsley, was seized last winter, near the house, 
by a fox, but his screams being heard by the ser\'ants, he was res- 
cued, desperately wounded, with the loss of half his feathers. In time 
the remainder of his feathers came off, and he is now become per- 
fectly white. Tliis seems to have some relation to the human hair 
becoming white at once from fear. 

1827. — Mr. Reid, near York, has two Water Tortoises, brought 
over from the siege of Belleisle, which commenced in 1761 : one of 
them, having wandered, was missing for sixteen years, when it was 
found on cleaning out another pond. They are both alive, and very 
tame. 

1833, April 20. — This morning I found a large white Gold-fish 
in great distress. A large male toad had fastened itself upon the 



55 

head and shoulders of the fish. On removing the toad, the fish swam 
away, apparently unhurt. 

Colonel Sykes read a paper " On the Quails and Hemipodli of 
India," which he illustrated by the exhibition of a very extensive 
series of those Birds, belonging partly to his own collection, which 
was made in Dukhun, and partly to that of the Society, which has 
been enriched by specimens from various Indian localities. 

The author prefaces his descriptions of the species by some ge- 
neral observations on generic distinctions and characters, and illus- 
trates his remarks by commenting on some of the genera and species 
constituting the genus Tetrao of Linnaeus and his followers. He 
shows that the form of beak alone is inadequate as a mark of ge- 
neric distinction, and that the form, and number, and size of the 
toes and nails, are not always of themselves to be regarded as suffi- 
cient for generic characters. Passing to the characters deriveable 
from the combined consideration of the beak and feet, on which 
Brisson's system was founded, he remarks on some incongruous 
associations which were thereby occasioned. Size, the most conve- 
nient mode (in his estimation) of distinguishing the Quails from the 
Partridges, cannot, he remarks, be admissible as affording adequate 
grounds for generic distinction. Habits, also, present many diflSi- 
culties in defining associations into genera ; those assigned by au- 
thors to an entire group belonging frequently to only one or a few 
of the species included in it, while in some cases, such as that of 
the common Quail, the habits differ in different localities ; that bird 
being in Europe migratory, while in India (and proljably in China 
also) it is stationary : its solitary habits, except at a particular sea- 
son, are preserved in India, but its evident congener, the Cot. tex- 
tilis, is never flushed without a second being found within a few 
paces. Plumage, although in many genera there is an evident ten- 
dency to assume a particular livery, is evidently unsuitable for ge- 
neral adoption as affording adequate grounds for generic distinction, 
however useful it may be in the discrimination of species. 

After passing in rapid review the genera adopted by M. Tem- 
minck in the family of Tetraonida, and offering brief remarks on the 
validity of the several groups. Colonel Sykes proceeds to state that 
having felt himself disappointed in his attempts to form a just and 
precise estimate of generic differences from external characters only, 
he sought in internal organization, in the form of the tongue, and in 
the colour of the irides for additional guides and evidences of affini- 
ties or dissimilarities. As regards the former of these, he turned his 
attention principally to the stomach, the caca, the proportional length 
of the cmca to the intestine, and the proportional length of the in- 
testine to the body. Notes of these several particulars, as obsei-ved 
by him in India in nearly two hundred species of animals, are now 
in bis possession ; from which he extracts and arranges in a tabular 
form such as relate to the Quails and Hemipodii, and, by way of 
further illustration, such also as relate to some species of Perdix, 
Francolinus, Colv.mha, and Pterodes. 



56 

Colonel Sykes then describes in detail the following species, ac- 
companying his descriptions by observations on their habits, and on 
such other points connected with them as appear to him to be in- 
teresting. 

Genus Coturnix. 

1. Coturnix dactylisonatis, Mey. 

2. Coturnix textilis, Temm. 

3. Coturnix erythrorhyncha, Sykes, in Proc. Comm. Sci. Zool. 
Soc, Part II. p. 153.— (Pevdix, Mey.) 

4. Coturnix Argoondah, Sykes, Ibid. — (Perdix, Mey.) 

5. Coturnix Pentah, Sykes, Ibid. — (Perdix, Mey.) 

Genus Hemipodius. 

6. Hemipodius pugnax, Temm. 

7. Hemipodius Taigoor, Sj'kes, Ibid., p. 155. 

8. Hemipodius Dussumier, Temm, 



57 



April 28, 1835. 

WiUiam Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Chairman exhibited a portion of the vertebral column of a 
Sole, Solea vulgaris, Cuv., which had been sent to him by Sir Tho- 
mas Phillipps, Bart., for the purpose of illustrating the manner in 
which reunion takes place after fracture of the long spinous processes 
of the caudal vertebra. Each end of the fractured bones is enlarged, 
and appears to have become a new centre of ossification, from whence 
processes have been sent out to join the neighbouring one ; and 
where, as in this instance, several adjoining bones have partaken of 
the injury, the new processes have, in more than one place, united 
the broken portion, not to that with which it was originally con- 
nected, but to the bone immediately preceding or following it : the 
new bone exhibiting no appearance of disease, but possessing alto- 
gether a healthy character. 

Mr. Gray exhibited a specimen of a Toad, which he had recently 
received from Swan River, whence it was sent to him by Joseph 
Wright, Esq. Believing it to be hitherto \indescribed, he charac- 
terized it as the 

BoMBiNATOR AtJSTRALis. Bomb. hrunneus ; frontc, svperciliis, gnttis 
dorsi sparsis, vittd lumbari, maculd ad basin artuum alterdque ad 
basin pedum, maculisque majoribus irregularibus menialibus ven' 
tralibusque flavis. 

Hub. in AustraHa. 

The back is generally smooth, and has some small smooth tuber* 
cles arranged along it in longitudinal series. The toes are four in 
number on the anterior feet, and five on the posterior : they are 
slender, free, and unequal. 

Mr. Gray remarked, that the form of Toad to which the name of 
Bombinator has been given had not previously been met with beyond 
the limits of Europe ; and added, that this Australian species agreed 
with the European, not only in the essential characters of the group, 
but in the tone and nature of its colouring, and was only specifically 
distinguishable by the mode in which the markings were distributed 
on its surface. 

Mr. Gray also exhibited some specimens of the genns Echinus, aa 
restricted by Lamarck and modem authors ; and proceeded to ex- 
plain his views with regard to its subdivision into what he consi- 
ders four natural genera, adapted to facilitate the distinction of the 
species of this extensive group. He regards this distinction as of the 
more importance, in as much as some of the characters which had been 



58 

used for this purpose, such as the number of the tesseree, and of the 
pores in the ambulacra, have been found to be inconstant ; the num- 
ber of these increasing, as they are now known to do, with the age 
of the specimens. He proposed to divide the Echini as follows : 

Genus 1, Arbacia. 

Corpus depressum. 

Area ambulacrorum angustissimae : ambulacra angusta, recta, sin- 

gulo e serie simplici tesserarum biporosarum superpositarum 

eiFormato. 
Tessera ovariales et interovariales mediocres. 
Anus valvis quatuor spiniferis tectus. 

This genus corresponds with Echinus section A. of M. de Blain- 
ville, and contains Arbacia pustulosa {Echinus pustulosus, Lam.), 
Arb. punctulata {Ech, punctulatus. Lam.), &c. 

Genus 2. Salenia. 

Corpus subsphsericum. 

Area ambulacrorum angustissimae: ambulacra angusta, recta, sin- 

gulo e serie simplici tesserarum biporosarum superpositarum 

efformato. 
Tessera ovariales et interovariales maximse. 
Anus subexcentricus. 

This genus is known only in the fossil state, and has hitherto even 
been confounded with Cidaris, but its tubercles are not pierced. It 
comprehends Salenia scutiger (Cidaris scutiger, Munst., Goldf, Pe- 
tref., t. 49. f. 4.— Park., Org. Rem., t. 12. f. 13.; Echinus petali- 
ferus, Desm.) and two or three other allied species in Mr. Gray's 
collection. 

Genus 3. Echinus. 

Corpus plus minusve depressum. 

Area ambulacrorum latitudine dimidium arearum extraambula- 

cralium aequantes : tessera ambulacrales tripliciter biporosae. 
Tessera ovariales et interovariales mediocres. 
Anus subcentralis, squamosus ; squamis spiniferis. 

The ambulacral tessera in this genus may be regarded as being 
each composed of three doubly pierced pieces : of these the upper 
is placed in the ipiddle of the upper edge of the tessera ; the next 
below it, on the njiddle of the outer edge ; and the lowest on the 
lower part of the inner edge of the plate : so that when the plates 
are together, forming the ambulacra, the pores appear to form oblique 
lines, each composed of three double pores, the inner upper double 
pore of each line belonging to the plate above the other two double 
pores. 

This genus contains the sections B*. C. E. and G. of M. de Blain- 
\'ille. The species may be divided into two very distinct sections, 
thus : 



59 

1 . Ambulacris angustiorihus .- poris mediocribus approximatis. 

a. Ore subintegro. 

Of this section Ech. esculentus may be regarded as the type. 

On this species Mr. Gray incidwitaiy remarked that it is extremely 
variable in shape, becoming very high and subconical in the adult age, 
when it is Ech. Melo, Lam. ; and being often subangular, in which 
condition it is Ech. subangulosus, Ejusd. 

b. Ore profunde inciso. 

Ech. excavatus. Lam. ; Ech. Pileolus, Lam. ; &c. 

2. Ambulacris latis : poris inter se tuberculis parvis sejunctis : 
ore 5-iKciso. 

Ech. ventricosus, Lam. ; &c. 

Genus 4. Echinom'etra. 

Corpus plus minusve depressum, saep^ oblongum. 

Area ambulacrorum mediocres : tessera ambulacrales quinquariam 

vel ultra biporosse. 
Tessera ovariales et interovariales mediocres. 
Anus subcentralis, squamosus ; squamis ssepe spiniferis. 

In this genus the ambulacra! plates may be considered as being 
composed of five or more doubly pierced pieces, which form an 
arched line round the outer edge of the tessera, with a single pair 
of pores at its lower inner angle. 

The spines with which the species of this genus are furnished are 
often of very unequal size, and they are of very variable form, some 
of the larger ones being very long, as in Echinometra trigonaria ; 
and others very short and truncated, as in Ech. atrata. 

Mr. Gray ste.ted that he had formerly separated from the Echini 
some of the species of this genus which are peculiar for their oblong 
form, and that the genus so proposed by him had been adopted by 
M. de Blainville ; but a much more extended examination has con- 
vinced him that individuals of the same species vary from roundish to 
oblong : and, therefore, having observed many round species agree- 
ing with oblong ones in the peculiar character of the ambulacra, he 
has united them to the former, under the same name. It is to be 
remarked, as throwing doubt on the bilaterality of the Echinida, 
attempted to be established by M. Agassiz, that the spongy ovarial 
plate which that gentleman regarded as the mark of the hinder part 
of the Echinida, is always placed on one side or the other of the 
longer axis of the oblong species. 

This genus will contain sections B**. D. and F. of M. de Blain- 
ville, as well as the Echinometra of that author, and many new spe- 
cies which are as yet undescribed. 

Mr. Gray subsequently exhibited a specimen of a new genus of 
Corals, which he had recently received from the coast of Montserrat 
in the West Indies. The coral in question is formed almost entirely 
of rather large transparent rough fusiform spicula, which are irre- 



60 

gularly placed side by side along the stems, and are imbedded in the 
animal matter : the spicula are so abundant as to render the coral 
very hard, and to give it much of the appearance of a mass of arra- 
gonite, of which it has also the form. Its stem is irregularly cylin- 
drical, rather crooked, and slightly tapering : it throws off a rather 
thinner branch a little below the middle of the main stem ; and both 
the main stem and its branch end in a hemispherical head, the upper 
surface of which is covered with forty or fifty rather large conical 
tubercles, each terminating in a small central mouth. These tuber- 
cles are formed of spicula resembling those of the stem, the points 
of which arm the apices of the cones. The central cones are the 
largest and most distinct, and the marginal ones are smaller, and 
more or less confluent. The stem when broken exhibits similar spi- 
cula and a few internal cells, but it has no distinct central axis : the 
conical tubercles of the head are hollow, and they doubtless inclose 
and give exit through their central mouths to the Polypes which form 
the coral. 

This coral appears to be most nearly allied to the genus Zenia (of 
which Alcyonium fioridum of Esper is the type), and agrees with it 
in having no distinct axis, and in having the whole surface covered 
with large spicula, and the Polypes protruded from tubular cells at 
the end of the branches. It differs, however, from that genus in 
its spicula being much more abundant, and the coral consequently 
more solid, and by no means spongy ; and m being less branched, 
with the polype-cells forming a hemispherical head, instead of a 
bunch of small branches. For these reasons Mr. Gray is led to con- 
sider it as forming a new genus, which, until the animal is known, he ' 
is induced to place next to Zenia, with the following characters : 

. Genus Nidalia. 

Corallium fixum, cylindricum, subramosum, subsolidum, spiculis 
calcareis dens^ indutum ; apice capitato, hemisphaerico, e pa- 
pillis conicis insequalibus spiculiferis formato. 

Nidalia Occidentalis. Nid. corallio albido, subramoso. 

Hab. in littore Oceani Atlantici apud Montserrat in Indi& Occi- 
dental!. 

The specimen described is now in the collection of the British 
Museum. 



CI 



May 12, 1835. 

N. A. Vigors, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by P. L. Strachan, 
Esq., and dated Sierra Leone, February 22, 1835. It referred to 
some Alligators sent from that country by the writer several months 
since, all of which died on their passage. It also stated that he had 
forwarded to the Society a Mud Turtle (Trionyx?), which, he hoped, 
would prove acceptable. 

A letter was read, addressed lo the Secretary by A. MacLeay, 
^sq.. Colonial Secretary, New South Wales, dated Sydney, October 
25, 1834. It stated that the writer had, in consequence of the ap- 
plication made to him, set on foot inquiries respecting that interesting 
Bird of New Zealand, the Apteryx Australis, Shaw ; and that he 
had succeeded in obtaining a skin of it, (destitute, however, of the 
legs,) which he had forwarded to the Society. The specimen was 
exhibited. 

The skin presented by Mr. MacLeay to the Society was obtained 
by him from the Rev. W. Yate, who writes to him as follows, dated 
Waimate, March 10, 1834: "About six weeks ago I had one of 
these birds in my possession, the second I have seen in the Land. 
I kept it nearly a fortnight, and in my absence it died. One of my 
boys took off the skin ; the legs rotted off. I have very great plea- 
sure in sending you the skin as it is. Should I ever meet with an- 
other, I will do all I can to preserve it for you. Its food is long 
earth-worms. It strikes with its bill on the ground, and seems to 
know by the sound where its prey lies. It then thrusts its bill into 
the ground, draws up the worm, and swallows it whole and alive. 
They kick very hard, and their legs are remarkably strong for the 
size of the bird. They are very rare in New Zealand, but are found 
in the greatest numbers at Hiku Rangi, the mountain which you 
mention." 

Mr. MacLeay adds, that he has applied to other friends on the 
subject, and that, should he succeed in procuring further information, 
he will communicate it to the Society. 

He concludes by expressing his intention of forwarding to the 
Society the white-fleshed Pigeon of the Colony, which, he conceives, 
would be a great acquisition in England : it is certainly, he says, fat- 
superior to Partridge. 

No. XXIX. Proceedings of ihe Zoological Society. 



62 

Colonel Sykes, in illustration of the extended geographical distri- 
bution of some species of Birds, called the attention of the Meeting 
to a collection of Bird-skins, formed at the Cape of Good Hope by 
Captain Spiller, R.A., and presented by that gentleman to the So- 
ciety. The principal object had in view was the demonstration of 
the identity of many species of Birds existing in Southern Africa, 
with those which Colonel Sykes had himself obtained in Dukhun. 
By the juxtaposition of the Cape Birds, and of those killed by him- 
self in India, he showed that the following species exist equally in 
both those countries : several of them are also common to Europe. 

Falco Tinnunculus, Linn. — South Africa, India, and Europe. 

Mihus Govinda, Sykes. — South Africa and India. 

Strix Javanica, Horsf. — Strix Jlammea, Linn. ? Universal ? 

Alcedo rudis, Linn. — South Africa and India. 

Oriolus melanocephalus, Linn. — South Africa and India. 

Coracias Indica, Linn. — South Africa and India. 

Vpupa minor, Shaw. — South Africa and India. 

Cinnyris Mahrattensis, Cuv. — South Africa and India. 

Ardea Caboga, Penn. — South Africa, India, and Europe. 

Nycticorax Europceus, Steph. — South Africa, India, and Europe. 

Limosa Glottoides. — South Africa and India. 

Gallinago media, Ray. — South Africa, India, and Europe. 

Rhynchaa Capensis, Steph. — South Africa and India. 

Cursorius Asiaticus, Lath. — South Africa and India. 

Himantopus melanopterus, Horsf. — Universal. 

Colonel Sykes remarked that he had previously, while illustrating 
his ' Catalogue of the Birds of Dukhun', read before the Committee 
of Science and Correspondence in 1832, shown the specific identity 
of many European and Indian Birds, especially in the orders Gral- 
latores and Natatores. 

" Some account of a hybrid Bird between the cock Pheasant, Pha- 
sianus Colchicus, Linn., and the grey Hen, Tetrao Tetrix, Ej., by 
Thomas C. Eyton, Esq.," was read. It was illustrated by the ex- 
hibition of the preserved skin of the bird, and also of a drawing 
made from it. 

" For some years past a single ^rey Hen has been observed in the 
neighbourhood of the Merrington covers, belonging to Robert A. 
Slaney, Esq., but she was never observed to be accompanied by a 
black Cock, or any other of her species. In November last a bird 
was shot on the manor adjoining Merrington, belonging to J. A. 
Lloyd, Esq., resembling the black game in some particulars, and the 
Pheasant in others. In December another bird was shot in the Mer- 
rington covers, resembling the former, but smaller : it is now in my 
collection, beautifully preserved by Mr. Shaw of Shrewsbury. 



63 



" The hybrid bird in my possession, which is a female, may be 
thus shortly described : 

" Tarsi half-feathered, without spurs, of the same colour as in the 
Pheasant. Bill resembling that of the Pheasant, both in colour and 
shape. Irides hazel. Crown and throat mottled black and brown. 
Neck glossy black, with a tinge of brown. Breast of nearly the same 
colour as that of the cock Pheasant, but more mottled with black. 
Tail of the same colour as in the grey Hen ; centre tail feathers 
longest ; under tail coverts light brown. 

" The plumage of this bird is very curious ; as some parts of it 
resemble either sex of both black game and Pheasant. 

" I had an opportunity of examining the body after it was taken 
from the skin, and of comparing it with the black game and the 
Pheasant. 

" The following are some remarks which I made on its anatomy : 

" Left'oviduct very imperfect ; the ovaries very small ; the eggs 
scarcely perceptible, and very few in number. 

" The sternum approaches nearer to that of the black Grouse than 
of the Pheasant ; but the bone is not so massive, the anterior edge 
of the keel is more scolloped, and the bone between the posterior 
scollops is not so broad as in the black game. 

" The OS furcatorium is that of the Pheasant, being more arched 
than in the black game, and having the flat process at the extre- 
mity next the sternum broader. 

" The pelvis is exactly intermediate between the two, having more 
solidity, and being both broader and longer than in the Pheasant ; 
but resembling that of the Pheasant in having the two processes on 
each side of the caudal vertebrce, which serve for the attachments of 
the levator muscles of the tail. 

" The subjoined Table shows some comparative measurements 
between the hybrid bird in question, the cock Pheasant, and the 
grey Hen. 



Length of the tarsus 

Length of the middle toe 

Expansion of the wings 

Length of the middle tail feathers 
Length of the intestinal canal from "1 

vent to gizzard J 

Length from the vent to the cceca 
Length of the cceca 



Grey Hen. 


Hybrid Bird. 
Female. 


Male 
Pheasant. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


2^ 


2-i- 


3^ 


2tV 


24- 


2W 


2 


2 2 


2 44- 


4 


74- 


1 7i 


4 2 


3 5-J- 


4 


6 


5^ 


4-i- 


2 


2 


8i 



Mr. Gray exhibited, from his own collection, specimens of a Coral, 



64 

known to some of the English residents at Canton by the name of 
the Glass Plant. He stated that it appeared to him to be most 
nearly related to Gorgonia, although it differed widely from that 
genus by its axis consisting, not of a single calcareous stem, but of 
a congeries of almost innumerable siliceous filaments, slightly twisted 
together into the form of a rope. Each of these filaments, however, 
is composed, like the stem of Gorgonia, of very numerous concentric 
lamince, which are easily separated from each other by exposure to 
heat, such as the flame of a candle, when the fibre splits down one 
side, leaving the inner lamince exposed. Near their upper extre- 
mity the filaments have a wrinkled appearance, and are furnished 
with numerous barbs, directed backwards ; towards the base they 
taper gradually, and become much attenuated. The crust bearing 
the polypes surrounds the mass of siliceous filaments, and a thin 
portion of it probably envelopes each of the component filaments of 
the rope, as it may be termed : the bark is of a leathery substance, 
and includes a number of small sptcula : its outer surface is sandy : 
it is famished with large, distinct, flat-topped tubercles, from which 
the polypes are doubtless emitted, as they are from the somewhat 
similar tubercles of the bark of the genus Eunicea. Towards the 
lower end of the stem the crust is discontinued ; and this part is im- 
bedded in a species of Sponge, which, if essential to the coral, is, 
however, independent of it, the sponge occurring without the coral, 
but the coral not having yet been found without the sponge. The 
coral seems to be affixed only by the intervention of the sponge, and 
is not flattened out at the base, like Gorgonia, for attachment to other 
bodies. In Pennatula, which is affixed by the insertion of its lower 
undilated end into yielding substances, the polypiferous crust is con- 
tinued to the extremity of the stem, and does not cease, like that of 
tbe glass-rope Coral, at the point of immersion. 

Mr. Gray remarked that this Coral is peculiar, as being the only 
body, the animal nature of which is undoubted, that is yet known to 
secrete silica ; the spicula and axis of all other Corals which have 
fallen under his observation being purely calcareous : he has not, 
however, yet had an opportunity of examining the Gorgonia Briaretis, 
the axis of which is described by Ellis as consisting of numerous 
little purple glossy needles, but in the nearly allied Alcyonium ashes- 
tinum (the spicula of which closely agree with this description) he has 
ascertained that the spicula are calcareous. In the siliceous nature 
of its spicula the Coral in question agrees with some of the Sponges, 
Tethyce, &c. 

Mr. Gray stated that this curious production had occupied much 
of his attention several years since, and that he had delayed the 
publication of his views respecting it, in the hope of being enabled, 
by the acquisition of more copious materials, to clear up some points 



65 

which did not appear to him to be, at that time, capable of satisfac- 
tory elucidation. He characterized it as the type of a new genus. 

Hyalonema. 

CoralUum simplex, subcylindricum, ad basin attenuatum et in 
Spongid immersum, supra basin cortice coriaceo tuberculato 
tectum ; tuberculis sparsis, depressis, polypiferis. j4xis e spi- 
culis numerosis, elongatis, filiformibus, subcontortis, siliceis 
constans. 

Polypus ignotus. 

Hyalonema Sieboldi. 

Hab. apud Japoniam, Dr. Siehold. 

Specimens are contained in the British Museum, to which they 
were presented by John Reeves, Esq. ; in the Museum at Leyden ; 
and in the collection of Mr. Gray ; the latter having been purchased 
from the Dutch Museum, through the kindness of Dr. De Haen. 
A few fibres of the axis formed part of the Sloanean Collection, 
when it was originally acquired for the British Museum, but their 
nature was altogether unknown. 



66 



May 26, 1835. 
N. A. Vigors, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to Mr. Vigors by Philip Poole, Esq., 
Assistant Surgeon, Madras Medical Establishment, and dated Tra- 
vancore Residency, December 17, 1834. It accompanied a collec- 
tion of skins o{ Mammalia, Birds, and Reptiles, amounting in number 
to upwards of a hundred, which the writer presented to the Society. 
" The whole of the animals were obtained in the forests about twenty 
miles inland from Kolun or Quilon, in the Travancore country." 
Mr. Poole expresses his readiness to collect other objects for the 
Society, and calls particular attention to the " red Mangouste, of 
which," he says, " I send both male and female : they are considered 
a great curiosity in India, and I have been told that they are only to 
be found in the Travancore country." 

The several Mammalia contained in Mr. Poole's collection were 
then exhibited, and Mr. Bennett brought them in succession under 
the notice of the Meeting. The most interesting among them, he 
stated, was the Ichneumon especially referred to by the donor, which 
represented a species hitherto undescribed, and differing remarkably 
from the usual livery of the genus. While the Herpestes fasciatus, 
he observed, deviates from the nearly universal grizzled appearance 
of the fur which characterizes the Ichneumons generally, and ap- 
proaches, by the cross bands of its back and loins, to the markings 
of the Suricate, Ryzcena tetradactyla, 111., the species from Travan- 
core is equally aberrant by the possession of a longitudinal dark 
dash on each side of the neck, which, in some degree, seems to ap- 
proximate it in point of colouring, to the Civets, Civetta, Cuv. 

The almost uniform colouring of Mr. Poole's specimens, which are 
destitute, except on the head, of any grizzled appearance, might 
have been regarded as an additional deviation from the ordinary 
characteristics of the group ; but this Mr. Bennett showed, by the 
exhibition of a skin which had still more recently come into the So- 
ciety's possession, is by no means universal throughout the indivi- 
duals of the species, the skin last referred to (which is believed to 
have been imported from Bombay) being grizzled, as in the other 
Ichneumons, over the greater part of its surface, and having the uni- 
form red colour limited to the extremity of the back and the con- 
tiguous part of the tail. Notwithstanding this discrepancy in the 



67 

colouring, he stated his conviction that the Bombay animal belongs 
to the same species with those from Travancore ; agreeing, as they 
do, in the possession of the remarkable dark dash along the sides of 
the neck, in the broad dark tip of the tail and the uniform red of 
its base, and in the general proportions of the body. 
He characterized the species in question as the 

Herpestes viTTicoLLis. Herp. gr'isea uut Tuhra ; caudd ad basin 
rubra ad apicem late nigra ; artuhus vittdque ab aure ad scapu- 
lam ductd nigris. 

Long, corporis cum capite 22 unc. ; caudce (sine pilis), 12 J. 

Hub. in Indias Orientalis partibus Austrum spectantibus. 

Mr. Bennett stated his intention of giving a detailed description 
of this new species in some " Observations on the genus Herpestes, 
111.," which he was about to prepare, and in which he proposed to 
advert to the other Ichneumons in the Society's possession. He 
added, that a living individual of Herp. fasciatus had lately been, for 
a short time, in the Society's Menagerie, on its way to the collection 
of the President, the Earl of Derby, at Knowsley. 

A skin was subsequently exhibited of a Mammiferous animal, 
which had lately been added to the Society's collection, and \vhich 
Mr. Bennett regarded as the representative of a second species of 
his genus Lagotis. He pointed out the marks by which it is distin- 
guished from the species on which the genus was originally proposed 
by him, and which was described in detail in the ' Transactions ', 
vol. i. p. 25, and proposed for it, in allusion to one of the most 
striking of them, the name of Lag. palUpes. Its occurrence, he re- 
marked, renders it necessary to characterize the two species of the 

Genus Lagotis. 

1. Lagotis Cuvieri, Benn. Lag. auriculis caput longitudine 
cequantibus ; vellere longiore ; caudce setis albidisque nigrisque ; 
pedibus cinereis. 

Long, corporis cum capite 16 unc. ; caudce (praeter pilos). 111; 

auriculce, 2^; pedis postici, 3^. 
Hab. in Peruvia ? 

2. Lagotis PALLiPEs. Lag. auriculis capite subbrevior'tbus; vellere 
brevi ; caudce setis ferrugineis ; ventre pedibusquej'ulvescentibus, 
his pallidioribus. 

Long, corporis- cum capite 15 unc; caudce (praeter pilos), 11 ; 

auricula, 2\ ; pedis postici, 3. 
Hab. in Chiliae montosis. 

Mr. Bennett stated his intention of preparing, in consequence of 



68 

the acquisition of this specimen, a short paper, which he proposed 
to entitle " Additional remarks on the Genus Lagotis, with some 
account of a second Species referrible to it." 

Mr. Reeve exhibited specimens of two Shells, which he regarded 
as previously undescribed, and compared them with the species most 
nearly related to them, which he also exhibited. 

The first of them is characterized by Mr. Lake as follows : 

CyprvEA subviridis. Cyp. testa ovatd, pyriformi, subventricosd ; 
dorso convexissimo, subviridi, fasciis duabus tribusve latis, fulvo 
brunneoque varie picto ; basi convexd, pallida ; margine subin- 
crassato, rufescenti-brunneo, extremitates versus subproducto ; ore 
lineari, sublaio, postice recurvo, dentibus submagms subdistan- 
tibiis, columella convexd: long, l-f-, lat. -r, alt. ^ poll. 

Hab. 

This shell seems to partake of the characters of Cyp. Errones and 
Cijp. pallida ; having for the most part the colouring and marking 
of the former, and the form of the latter: it is, however, specifically 
distinct from either. It is of a ventricose pyriform shape; the back 
is of a light green colour, variously painted with yellowish brown ; 
and the margin is of a reddish brown colour, darker towards ^le 
extremities. — L. 

The second species is thus characterized by Mr. Reeve : 

LuciNA RUGiFERA. Luc. tcstd rotuudatd, lenticulari, convexiusculd, 
albicante spadiceo-rufescente concentrice subfasciatd; striis ra- 
diatis elevatis aliisque concentricis rugosd ; intus albd ; ano tri- 
gono, impresso, minimo : long. 2^, lat. 2, alt. 1 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Novae HoUandiae. 

This shell is closely allied to Luc. tigerina, {Cytherea tigerina, 
Lam.,) and appears at first sight to be the var. 3 of that species 
(Lam., Anim. sans Vert., nouv. ed., p. 219) : but upon examination 
it is found to differ, principally in the longitudinal strice being more 
elevated, and crossing the transverse strice, and in the interior being 
perfectly white : it is also from a very different locality. There is 
in the collection of Mr. Cuming a specimen of the variety of Luc. 
tigerina above mentioned which answers exactly to Lamarck's de- 
scription. — L. A. R. 

Specimens were exhibited, partly from the collection of the Rev. 
F. W. Hope, and partly from that of Mr. Westwood, of various 
Hymenopterous Insects, which Mr. Westwood regarded as new to 
science. They were accompanied by the following characters by 
Mr. Westwood : 



69 

Genus Dirhinus, Dalm. 

DiRHiNUs Mauritianus, Dir. ceneo-niger ; capite thoraceque crass^ 
punctatis, illius cornubus brevioribus obtusis ; antennis nigris ar- 
ticulo \mo ad basin et ap'icem piceo ; tibiarum quatuor anttcarum 
apicibus tarsisque omnibus teslaceis ; scutello in medio fceviusculo ; 
metathorace longitudinaliter 4-costato et ulrinque angulato ; ah- 
domine nigro nitido, subtus ( ? ) fornicato. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2. Exp. alar. lin. 3. 

Hab. in Insula Mauritii, Dom. Templeton. 

Genus Metapelma, Westrv. (Fam. Chalcididce.) 

Thorax ante alas elongatus, declivis. 

Antennce graciles, fere thoracis longitudine, apicem versus paullo 

crassiores, apice ipso oblique truncato. 
Abdomen compressum, oviductu exserto, abdominis longitudine. 
Pedes intermedii longiores, femoribus paullo retro-curvatis, tibiis 

calcari longo instructis, tarsis vix dilatatis subtus ciliatis, arti- 

culo Imo longiore : postici crassiores, tibiis tarsorumque basi 

valde dilatatis compressis. 
Obs. Genus Eupelmo affine. 

Metapelma spectabilis. Met. capite thoraceqwe viridibus cupreo 
nitentibus ; antennis nigris ; abdomine nigro, chalybeo purpureo- 
que nitente ; pedibus quatuor anticis ferrugineis viridi subniten- 
tibus ; tarsis intermediis fuscis ad basin albidis ; pedibus duobus 
posticis fuscis, femoribus basi rufis, tibiis basi ulbis ; oviductu 
nigro ; alis pone medium nubecula vix infumatis. 

Long. corp. lin. 2^; oviductus, lin. 1. Exp. alar. lin. 3^. 

Hab. in Georgia Americas. — In Mus. Brit. 

Genus Schizaspidia, Westrv. (Fam. Chalcididce.) 

Corpus breve, crassum. 

Antennce breves, crassse, 13-articulatae, articulis 2do et 3tio fere 

sequalibus, 4to-10mum interne serratis, reliquis tribus in unum 

coalitis. 
Scutellum magnum, postice supra abdomen productum et ejus di- 

midium basale superans, ad apicem furcatum. 
Abdomen thorace paullo majus, supra planum, pedunculo (fere 

tertiam partem abdominis longitudine aequante) ad thoracem 

affixum. 
Obs. Perilampum (habitu) cum Eucharide (scutello armato) con- 
jungens. 

Schizaspidia furcifer. Schiz. cenea; thoracis parte anticd trans- 
versim striata; scutelli lateribus longitudinaliter sulcatis; abdo- 



10 

mints dimidio basali cceruleo, apicali fulco ; antennis pedibusque 
fulvescentibus ; alis macula suhstigmaticali fuscescente. 
Long. corp. lin. 2^. Exp. alar. lin. 44-. 
Hah. apud Bengaliam. — In Mus. Brit. 

Farzai magnitudine minore ; antennis profundius serratis; thorace 
niagis sulcato ; abdomine toto fulvo. (An sexus alter 1(^1) 

Genus Pentacladia, Westw. (Fam. Chalcididce.) 

Eulopho affinis : differt antennis 9-articulatis, articulo 2do parvo, 
3tio-7mum ramum longura emittentibus, 8vo 9noque majoribus 
oblongo-ovalibus ; abdomine compresso. 

Pentacladia elegans. Pent, splendide purpureo-coerulescens, 

antennis obscurioribus. 
Eulopho ramicorni dimidio longior. 
Hah. ? — In Mus. Com. Dejean (olim Latreillii). 

Genus Chalcitella, Westw. (Fam. Chalcididce.) 

Antennce ad os insertse, 12?-13?-articulatae, articulo 2do brevi, 
3tio et sex sequentibus paullo majoribus, valde continuis, reli- 
quis tribus vel quatuor massam elongato-conicam efformantibus. 

Metathorax valde declivis. 

Pedunculus dimidium abdominis longitudine aequans, gracilis, cy- 
lindricus. 

Femora intermedia ad basin gracilia, ad apicem subclavata ; coxae 
posticae crassae, longas ; femora postica maxima, subtus 7-den- 
tata. 

Obs. Genus Chalcidibus typicalibus (ex. gr. Sispes) affine. 

Chalcitella Evanioides. Chalc. nigra, punctata ; abdomine com- 
presso, nitido ; antennarum hasi, geniculis et interdu7n pedunculo 
piceis ; tibiis tarsisque magis testaceis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 1^^. Exp. alar. lin. 2. 

Hob. in Insula Mauritii, Dom. Templeton. 

Genus Macroteleia, Westw. (Fam. Proctotrupidce.) 

Corpus longissimum, lineare. 

Caput rotundatum, thoracis latitudine. 

Antennce in utroque sexu thoracis longitudine, 12-articulataB, (J 
articulis fere aequalibus, submoniliformibus, ? articulis sex 
terminalibus clavam crassam oblongam efformantibus. 

Thorax ovatus : scutello inermi. 

Alee abdomine multo breviores, nervis ut in genere Pteromalo dis- 
positis. 

Abdomen fere sessile, longissimum, longitudinaliter striatum, seg- 



71 

mentis quatuov basalibus aequalibus, depressum, marginatum ; 
in ? longius et postice valde attenuatum : oviductu retracto. 
Obs. Genus Teleadi afEne. 

Macroteleia Cleonymoides. Macr, nigra; ahdomine piceo ; 
antennarum hasi pedibusque rufescentibiis ; {($): ? picea; capite 
antennarumque clavd nigjis ; ahdomine testaceo, apice nigro. 

Long. Corp. ^ lin. 1^, ? 2i. Exp. alar. lin. 2i. 

Hab. in Insula Mauritii, Dom. Templeton. 

Genus Anodontyra, Westrv, (Fam. Scoliidce.) 

Corpus elongatum : abdomen, articulis continuis, oblongo-ovatum, 

ad apicem inerme. 
AntenncB graciles, 13-articulatae, articulo 2ndo discrete, (J. 
Mandlbulce dente valido interno ante apicem armatse. 
Palpi maxillares elongati, 6-, labiales 4-articulati. 
AInrum nervi fere ut in Tengyra Sanvitali dispositi. 
Obs. Tengyris affinis : statura minus elongata quam in Tengyris 
et Myzinibus ^ , 

Anodontyra tricolor. An. nigra ; collari antice Jlavo lineato ; 

segmentis abdominalibus 2do, 3tio et 4<o ad marginem posticum 

Jlavo interrupte marginatis, suhtiis etiam macula parvd laterali 

ejusdem coloris notatis ; tibiis tarsisque testaceis ; alis fulvo' 

testaceis, ante apicem nubilo fuscescenti notatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 8^. Exp. alar. lin. 14|. 

Hah. in Chili. — In Mus. Dom. Hope. 

Genus Sericogaster, Westrv. (Fam. Vespidce ?) 

Caput magnum, planum, quadratum : octdi integri, ovales. 
Antennce (?) capite non longiores, in medio faciei insertae, genicu- 

latae, 12-articulatae, articulo Imo longo, reliquis valde continuis. 
Labrum corneum, triangulare. 

Mandihulce mediocres, ante medium et sub apicem interne excisae. 
Maxillce et Mentum elongatse : palpi maxillares 6-, labiales (bre- 

viores) 4-articulati. 
Labrum e lobis duobus parvis carnosis constans. 
Thorax brevis : scutello baud elevato. 
Abdomen ovale, subdepressum, segmentis continuis. 
Pedes breves, antici (?) baud fossorii, tibiis posticis spinosis. 
Alee anticae cellula 1 marginali subappendiculatsl, cellulis 2 sub- 

marginalibus completis quarum 2da nervos duos recurrentes 

recipit. 
Obs. Genus quoad affinitates dubium. Ceramimn (habitu) Philan- 
this vel potius Sapygis (structura orali) quasi conjungens. 



72 

Sericogaster fasciatus. Ser. niger ; scutello, antennis, pedibus- 
que rufescentibus ; femoribus posticis ad basin apiceque antenna- 
rum piceis ; abdominis segmentis Jlavo irregulariter marginatis. 

Long. corp. lin. 44. Exp. alar, lin, 64. 

Hab. in Nov^ Hollandia. — In Mus. Dom. Hope. 

Genus Dorylus, Fabr. 

DoRYLUs Orientalis. a Dor. helvolo distinguihir, staturd paidlo 
graciliore, nervo recurrenti alarum anticarum jione medium 
areolce submarginalis inserto, nervisque bints internis (posti- 
carum) nervis duobus transversis C07inexis. 

Hab. in India Orientali. — In Mus. Westw. Communicavit Dom. 
W. W. Saunders, F.L.S. 

Mr. Owen read a paper " On the Anatomy of Distoma clavatum, 
Rud.," an Entozoon of an intermediate grade of structure between 
the two subjects, Trichina and Linguatula, which he has recently 
brought under the notice of the Society : the one manifesting simply 
a homogeneous granular pulp enveloped in a transparent, thin, elastic 
tegument ; and the other having distinctly developed nervous ganglia 
and filaments, a muscular tunic, a digestive canal contained in an 
abdominal cavity, ovaries, oviduct, and fecundating glands. 

The specimen of Dist. clavatum examined by Mr. Owen measured 
2 inches and 2 lines in length, and 1-}- inch in circumference at its 
thickest part. Its outer integument was thin, crisp, and semitrans- 
parent ; transversely and minutely wrinkled, and evidently fibrous 
in the same direction ; and adhering but slightly, at least after ma- 
ceration in spirit, to the succeeding layer. This latter tunic was 
evidently muscular, and was composed of longitudinal fibres : it ad- 
hered pretty closely to the membrane immediately inclosing the cel- 
lular parenchyma of the body, but was separable from it by careful 
manipulation. The muscular tunic was beautifully ornamented by 
tortuous vessels containing a dark-coloured fluid. 

The anterior orifice is surrounded by a muscular sphincter, forming 
a suctorious disc, at the bottom of which is a minute orifice leading 
to the digestive tubes. These are two in number, and are continued, 
slightly enlarging and diverging from one another, to the cells at 
the posterior part of the body. 

The large cup-like canity, about 3 lines posterior to the anterior 
end of the animal, is simply for adhesion, and has no communication 
with the interior of the body ; but immediately in front of it is a 
small transverse slit, concealed by the wrinkles of the integument, 
which forms the outlet of the generative organs. 

At the posterior extremity of the body there is a minute central 
orifice, leading into a narrow cavity formed between two layers of a 



73 

, villous membrane, extending vertically across the terminal dllateil 
part of the animal. Between this ca\'ity and the rest of the body no 
communication could be detected, on the most minute inspection. 
Its internal surface is of a yellowish white colour, and smooth. Its 
function is probably excretory, and it may, therefore, be regarded 
as exhibiting a rudimentary condition of the respiratory system. On 
each side of it is a large lateral cavity, internally black and minutely 
wrinkled, and filled (in the individual examined) with a dark brown 
fluid, similar in appearance to partly digested blood. This nutriment 
is conveyed to the lateral cavities by the intervention of the smaller 
cells anterior to those from the two alimentarjr canals leading from 
the mouth, and is distributed into the dark-coloured vessels of the 
muscular tunic : so that the lateral cavities, analogous to those which 
have been considered as chyle-receptacles in Amphistoma, &c., hold 
an intermediate position between the alimentary and the sangui- 
ferous canals. The cells at the smaller end of the body were occu- 
pied by a yellow fluid, containing numerous ova of the same colour, 
many of which had thence passed into the tortuous oviduct. 

Distoma is thus seen to possess, in addition to the ce\lula.T paren- 
chyma of the body, the three systems of canals, digestive, vascular, 
and generative, which are usually met with in the Trematoda. An 
analogy to the Leech may be traced, not merely in the external 
suckers, but also in the form of the cells, wliich at the posterior part 
of the body communicate with, and form part of, the digestive ap- 
paratus, especially of the two last cavities, which very closely re- 
semble the last pair of gastric cceca that occupy, in the Leech, a 
similar position. 

The reading of the paper was illustrated by the exhibition of the 
animal described in it, and of drawings of its several parts. 

Mr. Owen subsequently read " Some Remarks on the Entozoa, 
and on the Structural Differences existing among them ; including 
Suggestions for their Distribution into other Classes." 

The difiiculty of assigning to the internal parasites of other ani- 
mals a definite character, by which they may be distinguished as a 
class, is evident on a mere inspection of the definition proposed for 
the Entozoa by Cuvier : it rests chiefly on their habitats, and on 
certain negative properties, and attempts to combine with these a ge- 
neral resemblance of form. Rudolphi at one time imagined that he 
had overcome this difficulty, by denying to the Entozoa a nervous 
system ; but he was subsequently under the necessity of regarding 
the Nematoidea as excluded from this definition, and he proposed to 
associate this portion of the Entozoa with the Annelida. But the 
possession by the red-blooded Worms of a distinct respiratory system 
would alone be sufficient to forbid this association, even if the essen- 



74 

tial character of ganglions on the nervous chords were not also pre- 
sent to negative it absolutely. As the Nematoidea differ from the 
Parenchymatous Worms by possessing a distinct nervous system as 
widely on the one hand, as they do from the Annelida in the form of 
that system on the other, Mr. Owen has been induced to associate 
them with those other classes of the Radiata of Cuvier which, while 
they are distinguished from the rest of the division by the undoubted 
presence of nerves, agree with the Nematoidea in manifesting these 
organs in the form of simple ungangliated disconnected chords. 

The subdivision of Cuvier's Radiata, proposed by Mr. W. S. Mac- 
Leay, into two principal groups, the Acrita and the Radiata, may be 
regarded as consonant with the system of nature, although the latter, 
by the exclusion of the Nematoidean Worms, is too restricted as to 
its contents : the definition of the former group given by its pro- 
poser requires also modification, in consequence of the vast disco- 
veries which have of late years been made in the organization of the 
animals comprised in it. Mr. Owen discusses the several characters 
assigned to the Acrita, and dwells particularly on the variations in 
the generative system which range from gemmation and spontaneous 
fission, observed only in this group in the animal kingdom ; to the 
cryptandrous or productive form only, which occurs in the Cystici 
and Cestoidea ; to the superaddition of a fecundating gland to the 
ovary, as in Trematoda; and to the separation of the sexes, as in the 
Acanthocephala : so as already to typify almost all the modes of ge- 
neration by which the higher races of animals are perpetuated. 

Mr. Owen regards the molecular and the filiform condition of the 
nervous system as respectively furnishing the primary characters of 
the Acrita and the Radiata ; although traces of longitudinal nerv'ous 
chords may be met with in Echinorhynchus and in the Acalephce. 
Another distinction of great moment is the absence, in the Acrita, 
of a distinct abdominal cavity separating the digestive cavity from 
the parietes of the body ; the digestive cavity in those animals, what- 
ever may be its form, being essentially a simple excavation of the 
parenchyma. The vascular system, where traces of it are met with 
in the Acrita, corresponds with the digestive system in being equally 
devoid of proper parietes, and consisting of canals excavated in the 
parenchymatous substance of the body, in which a cyclosis of the 
nutrient fluids, analogous to that of plants, is observed, but no true 
circulation. 

In the Acrite subkingdom, with the exception of the generative 
and digestive organs, all the other systems are more or less blended 
together, and the corporeal parenchyma seems to possess many func- 
tions in common. WTiere a distinct organ is eliminated, it is often 
repeated almost indefinitely in the same individual. Thus, in the 
Polypi the nutritious canals are supplied by a thousand mouths ; in 



75 

the Polygastnca there is an analogous multiplication of the digestive 
cavity itself; the generative system becomes the subject of this re- 
petition in the Taniee, each joint being the seat of a separate ovary; 
and the Sponges, which exhibit in their calcareous and siliceous spi- 
cula the first rudiment of an internal skeleton, repeat again and again, 
without modification, in the same individual the same spiculum. The 
Acrita offer, as it were, the germs of the higher animal forms, and 
sketch forth the ideas of the typical condition of the principal sub- 
divisions of the animal kingdom. 

As classes of Acrita Mr. Owen proposes to regard the Polygastrica, 
the SpongicE, the Polypi, the Acalephm, and the Vers Intestinaux Pa- 
renchymateux of Cuvier, for which latter he proposes the name of 
Sterelmintha. 

Among the Radiata, for which he uses the name Nematoneura, he 
includes the Echinodermata and the Rotiferu, together with the Vers 
Cavitaires of Cuvier ; which latter he subdivides into the Epizoa and 
the Ccelelmintha, a term proposed by him to comprise all the Nema- 
toidea, together with the genera Linguatula and Sipunculus. 

He passes in rapid review the several systems of the Ccelelmintha, 
and remarks on the generative functions, that the same variations 
which are met with in the Sterelmintha occur in this series also. We 
have the simple female apparatus without male organs, or the crypt- 
androus type, in Sipunculus ; the superadded male glands, but 
without reciprocal fecundation, in Linguatula ; and the separate sexes 
in the Nematoidea. 

In conclusion, Mr. Owen gives the following list, distributed ac- 
cording to his views of the 

Entozoa Hominis. 

Subregnum Acrita. 

Classis (Infusoria, Cuv.). 

1. Cercaria Seminis cui locus Semen virile. 

2. Trichina spiralis Musculi voluntarii. 

Classis Sterelmintha. 

3. Echinocercus Hominis Hepar. 

4. Cysticercus CellulostB Musculi et cerebrum. 

5. visceralis Viscera generatim. 

6. Tania Solium Intestina tenuia. 

7. Bothriocephalus latus Intestina tenuia. 

8. Polystoma Venarum Vense. 

9. pinguicola Ovaria. 

10. Distoma hepaticum Vesica fellea. 



76 





Subregnum 


Nematoneura. 




ClaSSis C(ELELMINTHA. 


11. 


Ascaris vermicularis 


Intestinum rectum. 


12. 


Lumbricoides 


Intestina tenuia. 


13. 


Strongylus Gigas 


Ren. 


14. 


Spiroptera Hominis 


Vesica urinaria. 


15. 


Trichocephalus dispar 


Caecum et intestina crassa 


16. 


Filaria branchialis 


Glandulse branchiales. 


17. 


Medinensis 


Substantia cellulosa. 


18. 


Oculi 


Oculus. 



77 



June 9, 1835. 

William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Tliompson of Belfast exhi- 
bited numerous specimens of Birds and Fishes, some of which were 
new to the Britisli, and many to the Irish, Fauna. With reference 
to these specimens, and to others not in his own possession, he read 
the following notes. 

" Of the following species of Birds, Fishes, &c,, the first four are 
additions to the British Fauna : the remainder are species hitherto 
unpublislied in the Fauna of Ireland. 

Canada Owl, Surnia funerea, Dum. An Owl of this species, pre- 
served in the collection of Dr. Burkitt of Waterford, was taken on 
board a collier, a few miles off the coast of Cornwall, in March, 1830, 
being at the time in so exhausted a state as to allow itself to be 
captured by the hand. On the arrival of the vessel at Waterford, 
whither she was bound, the bird was given to a friend of Dr. Burkitt, 
with whom it lived for a few weeks, and then came into his posses- 
sion. The very circumstantial account of the capture of this bird 
given by Captain Stacey of the collier, leaves no doubt of its accu- 
racy. 

Lough Neagh Coregonus. In September last a comparison of the 
Lough Neagh Coregonus with the Vendace of Loch Meben (whence 
I procured specimens, through the kindness of Sir William Jardine, 
Bart.,) proved to me that these species are distinct. The disagree- 
ment of the former with the Gwiniad, or Coregonus of Wales, as de- 
scribed by Pennant, was at the same time very obvious ; and from 
the examination of an individual of the latter species (lately favoured 
me by Mr. Yarrell) and specimens of the Lough Neagh Fish, I am 
fully satisfied that they are specifically different. 

From the Gwiniad, the Pollan or Lough Neagh Coregonus differs 
in the snout not being produced ; in the scales of the lateral line ; 
in having fewer rays in the anal fin, and in its position being rather 
more distant from the tail ; in the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins being 
of less dimensions ; and in the third ray of the pectoral fin being 
longest, the first being of the greatest length in the Gwiniad. 

From the Pollan, the Vendace or Loch Meben Coregonus differs so 
essentially in its lower jaw being the longer, as well as in its being 
turned upwards, as to render it unnecessary to draw further com- 
parison. 

The Pollan is very uniform in size, its ordinary length being 
about 10 inches: none that I have ever seen exceeded 12. The 
relative length of the head to that of the body is as 1 to about 3^: the 

No. XXX. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



78 

depth of the body equal to the lengtli of the head : the jaws equal, 
both occasionally furnished with a few delicate teeth ; the tongue 
with many teeth : the lateral line sloping downwards for a short way 
from the ojierculum, and thence passing straight to the tail : nine rows 
of scales from the dorsal fin to the lateral line, and the same number 
thence to the ventral fin ; the row of scales on the back and that of the 
lateral line not reckoned : the third ray of the pectoral fin the longest. 

D. 2 + 12. P. 16. V. 1 + 11. A. 2+11. C. 19. B. d.—Fertebns 59. 

Colour to the lateral line dark blue, thence to the belly silvery ; 
dorsal, anal, and caudal fins towards the extremity tinged with black; 
pectoral and ventral fins of crystalline transparency, excepting at 
their extremities, which are faintly dotted with black, hides sil- 
very, pupil black. 

As not one of the Coregoni, of which I can find descriptions, agrees 
with the Lough Neagh species, I am induced to consider it as new, 
and venture to propose for it the name of Coregonus Pollan, as by 
this trivial appellation it is invariably known in its native district. 

Cephaloptera, Dura. A fish of this singular genus, taken about 
five years ago on the southern coast of Ireland, and thence sent to 
the Royal Society of Dublin, is at present preserved in their Museum. 
In breadth it is about 45 inches. The specimen being imperfect, and 
the characters of some of the species being ill defined, I hesitate 
applying to it a specific name. It somewhat resembles the Ce^j/j. 
Giorna, as figured by Risso. 

Physalia pelagica, Eschsh. On the 13th of March, 1834, a spe- 
cimen of this Physalia was found by Miss Ball of Youghal, on the 
coast of the county of Waterford, near Ardmore. When taken up it 
exhibited great brilliancy of colour. To Mr. Gray I am indebted 
for the opportunity of consulting the work of Eschsholtz (Syst. der 
Acaleph.), according to which the P/i^/s. ^t/a^ica of Lamarck differs 
from this, being identical with his Phys. Caravella. The Phys. tuber- 
culosa of Lamarck is considered by Eschsholtz synonymous with his 
Phys. pelagica. 

Orange-legged Hobby, Falco ntfipes, Bechst. An immature spe- 
cimen of this bird, shot in the county of Wicklow in the summer of 
1832, forms part of the collection of T. W. Warren, Esq., of Dublin. 

Snowy Owl, Noctua nyctea, Sav. About the 26th of March, 1835, 
one of these birds was shot near Portglenone, county Antrim, and 
came into possession of Dr. Adams of that place, who presented it 
to the Natural History Society of Belfast: the individual now exhi- 
bited is said to have been seen along with it. On the 21st of the 
same month a bird of this species was seen on an open or heath- 
covered moor about twenty miles distant from Portglenone, by two 
of my friends, within a few yards of one of whom it sprung, just as 
he had fired at a Snipe. 

In Dublin I subsequently saw a specimen of this Owl which had 
been shot in the county of Mayo, also in the month of March ; and I 



79 

am credibly informed that a few others were obtained about the same 
time in different parts of Ireland. 

Great spotted Woodpecker, Picus major, Linn. A specimen of 
Pic. major, preserved in the Museum of the Royal Dublin Society, 
was shot in the vicinity of that city a few years since. In the manu- 
script Notes of the late Mr. Tenipleton it is stated that an indivi- 
dual of the same species was sent to him, in August, 1802, from the 
county of Londonderry. 

Little Bustard, Otis Tetrax, Linn. Two birds of this rare species 
were seen in the county of Wicklow, on the 23rd of August, 1833, 
and one of them was shot by Mr. Reside, for whom it was set up 
by Mr. W. S. Wall, Bird Preserver, Dublin. 

Velvet Scoter, Oidemia fiisca, Flem. In December, 1833, a spe- 
cimen of this Duck was killed at Clontarf, near Dublin. Its occur- 
rence on the Irish coast in one or two other instances has been com- 
municated to me. 

Red-necked Grebe, Podiceps rubricollis, Lath. Dr. J. D. Marshall 
of Belfast informs me that a specimen of this bird, which he pos- 
sesses, was procured in the neighbourhood of that town in the au- 
tumn of 1831. 

Great Auk, Alca impennis, Linn. One of these birds, taken in 
1834 off the coast of the county of Waterford, is preserved in the col- 
lection of Dr. Burkilt of Waterford. It lived in confinement for some 
months. 

In Sampson's 'Londonderry' it is erroneously stated that Alca 
impennis frequents the rocks of that county as well as those of 
Donegal : the Razor-bill, Alca Tarda, Linn., which is common to 
both counties, being omitted in Mr. Sampson's Catalogue, is, I pre- 
sume, the bird alluded to under the name oi Alca impennis. 

Pomarhine Skua, Lestris Pomarhinus, Temm. Of this Skua, three 
specimens were procured in different parts of Ireland, within a short 
period, about the commencement of the winter of 1834-5. The 
first, purchased alive at Youghal, county Cork, on the 12th of Oc- 
tober, was caught upon a hook, at sea, and lived for a few weeks, 
part of which time it was in the Garden of the Zoological Society 
of Dublin. The second specimen was shot in Belfast Bay, on the 
18th of October, and is in the collection of Dr. J. D. Marshall. 
Both these individuals were immature. The third, an adult bird, 
was shot from among a flock of Gulls, in the Phoenix Park, Dublin, 
on the 5th of November, and, with the first mentioned, is in the pos- 
session of Robert Ball, Esq., of Dublin. 

Sapphirine Gurnard, Trigla Hirundo, Linn., is commonly taken 
on the north-east coast of Ireland : it not unusually attains 2 feet 
in length. By the Howth (county Dublin) fishing-boats I have seen 
this species brought ashore in considerable quantity. 

Lineated Gurnard, Trigla lineata, Linn. On the 28th of February, 



80 

1835, Dr. J. D. Marshall, being attracted by the peculiar colour of 
a Gurnard in Belfast Market, kindly communicated the circumstance 
to me, and on inspection of the fish, I found it to be the Trigla 
lineata, and learned that it had been taken in Strangford Lough. Its 
length is 16^ inches. On the 3rd of March I procured another spe- 
cimen, but of smaller dimensions, from the same locality. 

Long-spined Cottus, Cottus Buhalis, Euphr. This appears to be 
more common on the Irish coast than Cott. Scorpius, Linn. I have 
taken it off Down, and in Galvvay Bay, and have seen a specimen of 
Mr. Ball's from the harbour of Cork. Of eleven specimens of Cott. 
Buhalis and Cott. Scorpius examined by me, which were obtained in 
the north-east, the west, and the south of Ireland, and preserved 
without any regard to species, eight were of the former, and three 
of the latter. 

One specimen of Cott. Buhalis, taken in Belfast Bay, and preserved 
in the Museum of that town, is 7 inches in length. ^ 

Pogge, Aspidophorus Europceus, Cuv. & Val., {^Cottus Cataphrac- 
ius, Linn.). Specimens of this fish, from the coast of Down, have 
been sent to me by Captain Fayrer, R.N. ; and in Mr. Ball's collection 
is one from the coast of Cork. 

Bonito, Scomber Pelamys, Linn. Of this species, rarely captured 
in the British seas, one taken on the coast of Wexford, some years 
since, was sent in a fresh state to the Royal Dublin Society, and is 
preserved in their Museum : its length is 29 inches. 

Atherine, Atherina Presbyter, Cuv. This is taken "plentifully on 
the «oasi of Down, especially in Strangford Lough. Of about forty 
specimens from this locality, which I examined in January last, the 
average length was 6-V inches : a few were 7, and one was 7-j- inches 
long. Mr. Ball informs me that the Atherine is not unfrequently 
taken along with Sprats at Youghal, and that on the 14th of Sep- 
tember last he saw a shoal of them at Portmarnock, county Dublin, 
where a stream had formed a pool in the sand below high-water 
mark. 

Smooth Blenny, Blennius Pholis, Linn. This is more commonly 
to be met with than any other species offish in tlie rocky pools on the 
north-east coast of Ireland : specimens have been sent to me from 
the south by Mr. Ball; and in Galway Bay, on the western coast, I 
captured a few individuals in June, 1834. 

Wolf Fish, Anarrhichas Lupus,Jjmn., is occasionally taken on the 
eastern coast of Ireland. The Museum of the Royal Dublin Society 
contains a native specimen. 

Black Goby, Gobius niger, Linn. ? Of the black Goby, as gene- 
rally recognised by British authors, a specimen taken at Youghal 
has been submitted to me by Mr. Ball. In a paper read before the 
Linnean Society last year, I show-ed that the Gob. niger of Pennant, 
and the fish to which Donovan applies the same name, are two di- 



81 

stinct species. To the latter Mr. Yarrell has since given the name 
of Gob. hipunctatus. 

Sordid Dragonet, Callionymus Dracunculus, Linn. A specimen of 
this fish, taken at Youghal in August last by Mr. Ball, is in his col- 
lection. 

Ballan Wrasse, Labrus maculatus, Bloch, occurs commonly, and 
of a large size, on the coasts of Down and Antrim, often attaining 
upwards of 20 inches in length. 

Striped Wrasse, Labrus variegatus, Gmel., is occasionally taken 
on the Down and Antrim shores : a specimen from the south lias 
been sent to me by Mr. Ball : and in the Museum of the Royal 
Dublin Society one is preserved, which was purchased in Dublin 
Market. 

Goldfinny, Crenilabnis Cornubicnsis, Yarr. I have seen but one 
Irish specimen of this fish, which was taken at Youghal by Mr. Ball. 
The proportion of spiny to soft rays in its dorsal fin is but 13 + 10 ; 
otherwise it agrees with this fish as commonly described. 

Salmo ferox, Jard. & Selby. A large species of Salmo, found in 
Lough Neagh, and known there by the name oi Buddagh, has long 
attracted attention. 

In Harris's ' History of the County of Down', published in 1744, 
it is remarked (p. 236), ' Thft Buddagh seems to be the same fish 
found in the lake of Geneva, and called by Gesner and Aldrovandus 
Trutta lacustris.' In Sampson's ' Londonderry', and Dubourdieu's 
'Down', it appears as Salmo lacustris. However, upon seeing a 
specimen of the Loch Awe trout, named Salmo ferox by Sir Wil- 
liam Jardine and Mr. Selby, at the last Meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation, I recognised it as identical with the Buddagh of Lough 
Neagh. 

Small-headed Dab, Platessa microcephala, Flem., is occasionally 
brought from the Down coast to Belfast Market, where it is known 
by the name of Lemon Sole. 

Whiff, Pleuronectes megastoma, Don., occurs, though very rarely, 
on the north-east coast of Ireland. 

Pleuronectes punctatus, Penn. On the 25th of March, 1835, I 
procured a specimen of this fish, 64- inches in length, from Ardglass, 
county Down, where it must be very rare, being quite unknown to 
the fishermen. 

Ocellated Sucker, Lepadogaster Cornubicnsis, Flem. The only 
Irish specimen of this fish which I have seen was taken by Wra. H. 
Harvey, Esq., of Limerick, on the coast of Clare. 

The number of fin-rays in this specimen differs very much from 
that stated by Pennant and Donovan to exist in the ocellated Sucker : 

Pennant gives . . . . D. 11. A. 9. V. 4 ; 

Donovan D.ll.A.lO. P.IZ.C.G; 

Mr. Harvey's specimen has D. 20. A. 11. V.4. P,19. C. 14. B.6; 



82 

and exhibits, in addition to the two filaments which appear before 
each eye, a third fleshy appendage placed nearer to the eye, and un- 
connected with the others. 

Notwithstanding these discrepancies, the general accordance of 
Mr. Harvey's fish with the figures of the ocellated Sucker given by 
the authors above quoted, and its possessing the character whence 
the trivial name has been derived, make me unwilling, without further 
investigation, to consider the species distinct. 

A notice of two specimens of Lepadogaster bimaculntus, Flem., 
having occurred to me on the coast of Down, was, early in the pre- 
sent session, communicated to the Linnean Society, it being at the 
same time remarked that the spots from which the species had ob- 
tained its scientific as well as trivial name were in both instances 
wanting. Since that time T, on one occasion, took upwards of a 
dozen specimens of this fish, by deep dredging in Belfast Bay : one 
or two of these were also immaculate. 

Leptocephalus Morrisii, Penn. By the kindness of scientific 
friends I am enabled to mention the occurrence of six specimens of 
Lei^t. Morrisii on the coast of Ireland. Mr. Ball has thus written 

me respecting it : ' The first I saw was at Cove, in 1809 I 

was at the capture of a second at Clonakilty, in 1811. I caught one 
myself at Youghal, in 1819, and procured another which was taken 
there. The fifth, the specimen which I have preserved, was taken 
in a shrimp-net, at Youghal also, in 1829 ; the four others having 
been found under stones, near low-water mark.' Dr. J. L. Drum- 
mond informs me that when in Bangor, county Down, in June, 1831, 
a specimen o£ Lept. Morrisii, about 4 inches in length, was brought 
to him : it had been just taken from a pool left in the sand by the 
ebbing tide, and was almost perfectly transparent. 

Syngnathus Ophidion, Linn. Of this fish I have seen a few spe- 
cimens, which were obtained by Mr. G. C. Hyndman at the entrance 
of Strangford Lough, in March, 1832. 

Ammoccetes branchialis, Flem. I have specimens of this fish from 
the county of Kildare. 

The oceanic shell lanthina exigua, Sow., which was, I believe, 
for the first time noticed in 1834, as occurring on the English coast 
(Turton, in Mag. of Nat. Hist., vol. vii. p. 352), and never before 
on that of Ireland, was obtained in considerable abundance in Sep- 
tember, 1834, at Kilkee, on the coast of Clare, by Mrs, James Fisher, 
of Limerick." — W. T. 

Mr. Thompson also read the following notes respecting two Birds, 
which he regarded as interesting on account of the rarity of their 
occurrence. 

Scolopax Sahini, Vig. The specimen exhibited of this very rare 
bird is one of the four individuals noticed by Mr. Yarrell in a paper 
on British Snipes, which appeared in the ' Magazine of Natural Hi- 



83 

story ' for 18S0 (vol. iii. p. 29). It is there merely mentioned as " a 
third specimen, lately mounted by a London bird preserver", and 
no particulars respecting it have yet appeared. It was shot by Cap- 
tain Bonhara of the 10th Hussars (who most kindly ordered it to be 
sent hither from Brighton for my inspection), at the end of Novem- 
ber or beginning of December, 1827, near Garvagh, in the county 
of Londonderry, being the second individual killed in Ireland. In 
a letter to a mutual friend, Captain Bonham remarks of this bird, 
that it sprung from the side of a high heathery hill, from which 
common Snipes, Scol. Gallinago, Linn., were at the same time raised, 
but that it did not call as they do. His want of success in obtaining 
it before the third shot afforded Captain Bonham an opportunity of 
I'emarking its disregard for his presence, which was manifested by 
its alighting quite near again, after being fired at, in the manner of 
the Jack Snipe, Scol. Gallimda, Linn. 

Lams Sabini, Sab. A third specimen of this bird occurred last 
autumn in Ireland. It was shot on or about the 15th of September, 
ISS-l, on the shore of Belfast Bay, near Claremont, the residence of 
Mrs. Clewlon, in whose possession it now is. It is a young bird of 
the year, and in plumage similar to the other two individuals of this 
species, which I had the satisfaction of announcing to the Linnean 
Society last year as having been obtained in Ireland. — W. T. 

Mr. Thompson subsequently read the following notice respecting 
the 

Larus Argentatoides, Swains. & Rich. " On submitting six mature 
specimens of the Herring Gull of the north of Ireland to a critical 
examination, similar to that pursued in the second volume of the 
'Fauna Boreali-Americana' by Mr. Swainson and Dr. Richardson, 
I ascertained their identity with the Lar. Argentatoides of that work 
(vol. ii. p. 417). Between the largest and the smallest of these spe- 
cimens there was a difference in total length of from 22^^ to 244- 
inches, and in their tarsi of from 27 to 32 lines. The second quill 
in two individuals, exhibited, in addition to the white tip, * a round 
white spot on its inner web' ; in this respect agreeing with the Lar. 
Argentatoides as described in the work referred to, and previously 
by C. L. Bonaparte in his ' Synopsis of the Birds of the United 
States' (Ann. of Lye. of New York, vol. ii. p. 360); the second 
quill in three of these specimens wants this white spot, in which par- 
ticular they agree with the Lar. argentatus, as contradistinguished 
by Bonaparte from the Lar. Argentatoides : the same quill in the 
sixth specimen is in an intermediate state, a round white spot, not 
more than -j- of an inch across, appearing on it in the one wing ; the 
second quill of the other wing in the same individual exhibiting a 
white spot fully half an inch in diameter : thus proving that this 
marking is so inconstant that it should not be relied on as a cha- 
racter."— W. T. 

Mr. Thompson finally exhibited, from the collection of Mr. Ball, 



84 

the first specimen of the American Cuckoo, Coccyzus Americanus, 
Bon,, recorded in the British Catalogue ; and showed its identity of 
species by comparing it with an American specimen exhibited for 
that purpose. 

He also exhibited one of the two specimens of the Noddy, Sterna 
stolida, Linn., noticed by him before the Linnean Society last year 
as having been obtained near the coast of Ireland. 

The exhibition was resumed of the previously undescribed species 
of Shells contained in the collection of Mr. Cuming, Those brought 
on the present evening under the notice of the Society were accom- 
panied by characters by Mr. G. B. Sowerby, and comprised the fol- 
lowing species of the 

Genus Pinna. 
Pinna rugosa. Pinna testa magna, rudi, trigond, longitudinaliter 
obtuse radiat'im costatd, postici lata, rotundatd ; costis postici 
- squamiferis, squamis magnis, elongatis, irregularibus, subrecurvis, 
foliaceis, tubujosis ; margine dor salt recto, antico ventrali sub- 
coarctato : long. 9', alt. {ad partem posticam) 6' poll. 
Hub. in Sinu Panamensi. (Isle of Rey.) 

One of the specimens obtained by Mr. Cuming measures eighteen 
inches in length. They were procured from sand banks. — G. B. S. 

Pinna maura. Pinna testa oblongd, tumidd, fusco-nigricante, lon- 
gitudinaliter radiatim costatd ; costis parvis, obtusis, suboblite~ 
ratis, postici squamiferis, squamis Jbrnicatis, subreflexis, ventra- 
libus minoribus ; margine dorsali rectiusculo, postico subrotun- 
dato, ventrali postico subventricoso, ventrali antico declivi : long. 
10'5, alt. {ad partem posticam) 5'5 poll. 

Hob. apud Panamam. 

Obtained from muddy banks. — G. B. S. 

Pinna tuberculosa. Pinna testa subtrigond, altd, fusco-nigri- 
cante squamulis pallidioribus, obsolete subradiatd, radiis squa- 
muliferis, squamulis foliaceis, brevibus, postice incurvis,fornicatis, 
tubercula simulantibus ; margine dorsali recto, postico subdeclivi, 
ventrali subrotundato ; angulis posticis rotundatis ; vertice sub- 
adunco : long. 8", alt. {ad partem posticam) 6' poll. 

Hab. apud Panamam. 

Obtained, like the last species, from muddy banks. — G. B. S. 

Pinna alta. Pinna testa trigond, flabelliformi, radiatim longi- 
tudinaliter costellatd ; costellis angustis, muricatis {postice prce- 
ciput), squamulis paucis, longioribus, ventralibus subobsoletis ; 
margine dorsali recto, postico alto rotundato, ventrali ventricoso; 
vertice subadunco : long. 5'5, alt. {ad partem posticam) 4:' 5 poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Honduras. 

Found on sand banks. — G. B. S. 

Pinna lanceolata, Pinna testa lanceolatd, superni radiatim Ion- 



85 

gitudinaliter costellatd, infra fere muttcd ; costelUs dhtantibus, 
muricatis, squamuliferis, squamulis dlstantibus, subrecurvis, lon- 
gioribus ; margine dorsali recto, postico rectiusculo, subdectivi, 
ventrali subventricoso : long. 7"75, alt, {ad partem posticam) 
3-5 poll. 

Hab. apud Puerto Portrero. 

Dredged from sandy mud at a depth of thirteen fatlioms. — G. B. S. 

Pinna squamifera. Pinna testa sublanceolatd, corned, costellis 
paucis squamiferis longitudinaliter radiatd, squamis subdistanti- 
bus, majoribus, latiusculis, subreflexis, rotundatis, hyalinis ; mar- 
gine dorsali recto, postico ventralique rotundatis, continuis ; area 
ventrali rugosd: long. &', alt. (ad partem posticani) Z' poll. 

Hab. ad Caput Bonae Spei. — G. B. S. 

Pinna Afra. Pinna testd lanceolatd, corned, subradiatim costel~ 
latd et fusco pictd ; costellis subobsoletis, postice squamuliferis, 
squamulis latiusculis, laxis, sjiarsis; margine dorsali ventralique 
cequalibus, postico brevi, subrotundato : long. Q', alt. {ad partem 
posticam) 2'5 poll. 

Hab. ad Caput Bonae Spei. — Communicavit Dom. Ed. Verreaux. 
— G. B. S. 

Mr. Gray exhibited specimens of two Corals, which he regarded 
as the types of two genera not previously distinguislied. He cha- 
racterized them as follows : 

Errina. 

CoralUum solidum, calcareum, durum. 

Cellule^ tubulares, promiuentes, superne longitudinaliter fissae, ad 
apices ramorum undique sparsce : fossa profunda minima ssepe 
sub basin cellularum sita. 
Polypus adhuc incognitas. 

The type of this genus is the Millepora aspera of Esper (Supp., i. 
t. 18. Lam., ii. p. 201.). 

It is probable that the Mill, tubulifera. Lam., and the Mill, pin- 
nata, Ej., are also referrible to it. 

Anthopora. 

CoralUum durum, lapidosum ; superficie granulosa, scabra, vix 

porosa. 
Cellules sparsae, subcylindricae, supra concavae G-radiatae, infra 
6-lamellos3e ; lamellis in centre stylifero coadunatis ; stylo vix 
prominente ; sulcis aliquibus minoribus inter radios. 
The outer coat of the coral is hard and stony, and the centre of 
its branches is cellular, and formed of six -rayed branching stars. 
The stars are elongate, tubular, and chambered, like those of Pocil- 
lopora. 

This genus agrees in the number of the plates of the cells, the 
central style, and the solidity of the coral, with M. de Blainville's 



86 

Sideropora, but differs from it in the rays of the stars not being 
produced. By the latter character, and by the number of its rays, 
it differs from the genus Stylasier, Gray. From Stylopora, Schweigg., 
it differs by the central style of the cells not being exserted, and by 
the coral being solid instead of porous. 

The form of the stars is best seen at the tips of the branches, their 
mouths becoming in the older parts so contracted as to obscure the 
central style. When the coral is worn, the style is distinctly visible. 

1. Anthopora cucuLLATA. Autli. coralUo soUdo, ramoso ; ramis 
compressis, suhpalmatis, ad apices dilatatis rotundatis compressis ; 
cellularum margine superiore producto, cucullato, {^Animal viri- 
descens, Ehr.) 

Millepora alcicornis, Forsk. 

Millepora digitata, Pall. 

Porites scabra, Lam. 

Pocillopora Andreogyni, Aud. 

Porites digitata, Ehr. 

Hah. 

The details of this species given by M. Savigny in the fourth 
Plate of the Polypes, forming part of the great work on Egypt, leave 
little to be desired for its elucidation. 

2. Anthopora elegans. Anth. coraUio soUdo, ramoso; ramis 
suhcylindricis rarissimi suhcompressis, attenuatis, ad apices ro- 
tundatis ; cellularum margine circulari, 

Porites subseriata, Ehr. ? 

Mr. Owen read a " Note descriptive of a new species of Tape- 
worm" discovered in the small intestines of the Flamingo, Phceni- 
copterus ruber, Linn., and to which he had given the name of Tcenia 
lamelligera when he first brought it, in 1832, under the notice of 
the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Society (Pro- 
ceedings, Part II. p. 143). His principal object in again adverting 
to the subject was to lay before the Meeting a series of drawings 
which he had prepared of this remarkable Intestinal Worm, which 
bears generally a superficial resemblance to the Annelidous Nereis 
lamelligera. Pall. 

Mr. Bell read a paper entitled " Observations on the Genus Cancer 
of Dr. Leach {Platycarcinos, Latr.), with Descriptions of three New 
Species." 

He commences by remarking on the subdivisions which the in- 
crease of our knowledge has rendered necessary in the genus Cancer 
as established by Linnaeus, and by giving his reasons for preferring 
the appropriation of that name, proposed by Dr. Leach, to the smaller 
group comprehending the large edible Crab of our coast, rather than 
the assigning to it the appellation of Platycarcinos, suggested by La- 
treille ; a name which, in fact, is objectionable, independently of the 
peculiar fitness of the other, on account of the shells of the animals 



87 

of this group not being flat, as would seem to be implied by it. He 
then characterizes and describes the genus as now restricted : and 
subsequently characterizes the several species referrible to it, in- 
cluding the one generally known in the markets ; a second, which 
was originally described by Say ; and three others, now for the first 
time noticed, which were obtained by Mr. Cuming on the coast of 
Chili, and which form part of the Society's Collection, having been 
presented to it, together with the whole of his Crustacea, by that 
gentleman : the new species are also described in detail. Mr. Bell 
calls particular attention to the fact, that nearly every one of the 
structural characters indicated by Dr. Leach in the common Crab 
as specific, are, in reality, generic marks ; all the known species 
agreeing, without exception, in the margin on each side having nine, 
or more properly ten, divisions (the last being obsolete) ; in the front 
being trifid ; and in the carapace being granulated. 
The characters of the species are as follows : 

Genus Cancer, Leach. 

1. Cancer longipes. Cane, testd leviter granulatd, sparsim punc- 
tatd; margine antico -later ali decem-lobato, lobis contiguis, ad 
marginem minute denticulatis ; manibus l(Bvibus, extus lineis quin- 
que impresso-punctatis ; pedibus longioribus ; abdominis articulo 
ultimo aquilateraliter triangulari. 

Long. 3-J-; lat. 6 unc. 
Hab. apud Valparaiso, Dom. Cuming. 

Supra pallid^ ruber flavo obsolete punctatus ; subttis flavescens. 
Chelarum apices nigrescentes. 

2. Cancer Edwardsii. Cane, testd granulatd ; margine antico- 
laterali decem-lobato, lobis latis, contiguis, profunde dentatis ; 
manibus suprh obsolete tuberculoso-carinatis j maris abdominis ar- 

, ticulo ultimo antice producto. 
Long. 54-; lat. 74- unc. 
Hab. apud Valparaiso, Dom. Cuming. 
Supra rufescenti-brunneus ; subtiis flavus rufescente varius. 

3. Cancer dentatus. Cane, testd granuloso-seabrd, hispidd; mar- 
gine antico-laterali decem-dentato, dentibus lanceolatis, denticu- 
latis ; manibus tuberculoso-bicarinatis , exths lineis quinque longi- 
tudinalibus granulatis ; pedibus pilosissimis. 

Long. 4 ; lat. 5i unc. 

Hab. apud Valparaiso, DD. Cuming et Miller. 
Supra saturate rufescenti-brunneus flavo (prsesertim in junioribus) 
varius ; subtus rufus flavo varius. 

4. Cancer irroratus. Say. Cane, testd leviter granulatd; mar- 
gine antico-laterali decem-lobato, lobis contiguis, quadratis, ad 
marginem dentictdatis ; manibus compressis, dentato-bicristatis. 

Hab. ad eras Floridarum, Say, et Americae Australis, DD. Cuming 
et Miller. 



88 

5. Cancer Pagurus, Auct. Caiic. testd granulatd ; margine an- 
tico-laterali deceni-lobato, lobis quadratis, contiguis, integris ; 
manibus Icevibus. 

Hab. ad oras Magnse Britaimise et Europse Occidentalis. 

In illustration of Mr. Bell's paper the several Crabs described in 
it were exhibited, and it was stated that drawings of them would be 
prepared. 

Mr. Bell subsequently read a paper " On Microrhynchis, a new 
Genus of Triangular Crabs." Its characters are thus given : 

MiCRORHTNCHUS. 

Testa subtriangularis, postice rotundata, antic^ rostro brevissimo 

terminata. 
Oculi pedunculo elongato multo crassiores, retractiles. 
Orbita suprk unifissa, extrorsiim unidentata. 
AntenncB exteriores ad latera rostri insertse, articulo basilari rostro 

vix breviore. 
AntenncB interiores in fossula integra antic^ aperta et ad apicem 

rostri fer^ attinente locatae. 
Pedipalpi externi caulis interni articulo secundo cordifonni, antice 

profundi emarginato. 
Pedes antici maris corpore vix longiores, reliquis multo crassiores, 

digitis arcuatis ; foeminse minimi : pedes octo posteriores subcon- 

similes, corpore fere duplo longiores, unguibus leviter curvis. 
Abdomen maris 7- foeminae 5-articulatum (hujus articulis tribus 

ultimis conjunctis). 
Genus Camposcics affine, et verosimiUter Camposciam inter et 7wa- 
chum collocandum. 

1. MicRORHYNCHus GiBBosus. Micr. tcstd gibbosd ; rostro bifida . 
Long, testae 6 ; lat. 5 lin. 

Hab. ad Insulas GaUapagos dictas. 
Flavescenti- albidus . 

2. MiCRORHTNCHUS DEPREssus. Mtcr. testd depressd, granulatd; 
rostro minuto, triangulari, integro. 

Long, testae 6 ; lat. itidem 6 lin. 

Hab. cum praecedente. 

Albidus cameo obsoletissim^ tinctus. 

The reading of the paper was illustrated by the exhibition of the 
specimens on which it is founded, and which form part of the same 
collection with the Crabs before referred to. Mr. Bell stated that 
he regarded it as part of a Descriptive Catalogue of the Crustacea of 
the western coast of South America, on Avhich he is now engaged, 
and the materials for which wiU be chiefly furnished by the collec- 
tion presented to the Society by Mr, Cuming. 



89 



June 23, 1835. 
Dr. Horsfield in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by Keith E. Abbott, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., dated Trebizond, February 14, 1835. It 
referred principally to a collection of skins of Mammalia and Birds, 
and of preserved Reptiles, Fishes, and Insects, formed chiefly in his 
neighbourhood by the -writer, and presented by him to the Society. 
It also referred to some living animals presented by him at the same 
time. A portion of the collection was obtained by Mr. Keith Abbott 
from the vicinity of Erzeroun, to which city he states his intention 
of proceeding shortly with the view of talking up his residence there 
for some time. 

The collection was exhibited. 

Among the Mammalia Mr. Bennett pointed out, as apparently 
hitherto undescribed, a " field Rat", for which he proposed the 
name of 

Mus LATiPES. Mus caudd corpore multo longiore ; supra plumbeo- 
niger, suhtils pallidior ; pedibus cinereis. 

Long, corporis cum capite 54- unc. ; cauda, 8; auricula, 8 lin. ; 
pedis postici cum unguibus, 1+ unc. 

He remarked that this new species appears to be most closely 
allied to the Mus Alexandrinus, Geoff., with which it nearly agrees in 
the comparatively great length of its tail. Its colouring is, however, 
much darker than that of the species referred to. The hairs over the 
whole of the body are very long and silky : the short rigid hairs on 
the tail, as is stated to be the case also in Mus Alexandrinus, are 
comparatively numerous. 

The other Mammalia comprised a Shrew, Sorex; a Hedgehog, 
Erinacevs ; a Marten, Mvstela Foina, Linn. ; and a Badger, Meles 
Taxus, Storr. The skin of the latter was remarked on as particu- 
larly interesting, not only on account of its eastern locality, but also 
for the softness and length of its comparatively dense fur ; for its 
greater paleness, depending on the extent of the whitish or fulvous 
tips of the separate hairs ; for the copiousness of the under soft 
woolly coat of fur with which the animal is covered at the base of the 
longer setaceous hairs ; and for the diminished breadth, as compared 
with ordinary European specimens, of the black marking of the under 
surface. 

A specimen of a Zorille, Mustela Zorilla, Desm., contained in 
the collection, is apparently scarcely different, notwithstanding the 
great difference of locality, from an individual obtained, by the kind- 
ness of Sir Thomas Reade, from Northern Africa. Respecting this 
animal Mr. Keith Abbott states, " It is called, in Turkish, Ghevrjen. 



90 

I had intended sending it to you alive, but it died a few days ago. 
It was sent to me from the neighbourhood of Erzeroun : I am not 
aware of there being any in this immediate neighbourhood. It was 
of a particularly savage nature, and although I had kept it for several 
months, I was never able to tame it in the least : it would bite when- 
ever it could." 

" I send you likewise," he adds, " a little Marmot alive in a small 
cage. It came from Erzeroun, in the neighbourhood of which, I un- 
derstand, there are vast numbers." It is apparently very nearly al- 
lied to Citillus concolor, Arctomys concolor, Teram., but may probably, 
Mr. Bennett remarked, be specifically distinct. It may be charac- 
terized as follows : 

Citillus Xanthopeymna. Cit. hrunneo-grisescens flavo irroratus, 
suhtils albescens ; prymnd cauddque rvfescenti-flavidis, hdc rotun- 
datd, brevi, pUosissimd ; pedibus linedque oculum cingente albis ; 
auricuUs inconspicuis. 

Long, corporis circiter 7 unc. ; caudae, 2. 

The Birds of the collection were brought under the notice of the 
Meeting, at the request of the Chairman, by Mr. Gould. He ob- 
served on each of them as regarded its geographical distribution, 
considering the exhibition as a continuation of those of June 24 
and November 25, 1 834. (Proceedings, Part II. pp. 50 and 133.) The 
following species, exhibited on the present occasion, were not com- 
prised in either of the former collections : and the total number is 
thereby raised to sixty-seven species obtained in the neighbourhood 
of Trebizond, a locality which is particularly interesting on account 
of its intermediate position between Western Europe and India. 

Alcedo Ispida, Linn. Inhabiting Europe generally, but not seen 
by Mr. Gould in collections from India or Africa. 

Turdus musicus, Linn. Not previously obser\-ed out of Europe. 

Curruca atricapilla, Bechst. Inhabiting Europe generally, but not 
met with in Indian collections. 

Curruca cinerea, Bechst. Similarly circumstanced with the last. 

Sylvia Trochilus, Lath. Inhabiting Europe generally, and the 
western portions of India. 

Regulus cristatus, Cuv. Mr. Gould had not previously seen this 
bird, except in European collections. 

Motacilla melanocephala. This is considered by some ornitholo- 
gists as a variety of the Mot. flava of continental vmters. It is never 
found in the western or northern parts of Europe. 

Anthus pratensis, Bechst. Common throughout the whole of 
Europe, and tolerably so in the western parts of India. 

Phanicura Suecica, Jard. & Selb. Inhabits Europe and India. 
Only two specimens of it have been taken in England. 

Querquedula Crecca, Steph. Dispersed over the whole of Europe, 
India, and the northern regions of Africa ; but not found in America. 

Colymbus Arcticus, Linn. Inhabits the whole northern hemisphere. 
The Trebizond specimen is young. 

Larus canus, Linn. Inhabiting Europe generally. 



91 

Larusfuscns, Linn. Inhabiting the European and American seas, 

Larus ridibundus, Linn. Inhabiting the whole of Europe, India, 
and North America. 

The Fishes forwarded by Mr. Keith Abbott are all from the salt 
water. They include twenty species. Respecting them he writes : 
" Had I received your letter sooner I might have collected a great 
many more fishes, but the season was gone by. There is no fish- 
market in this place, and the people are by no means expert in the 
art of catching them. The only kind of fish caught in any quantity 
just now is the Anchovy, of which there are two specimens in the 
jar of spirits : these are taken in astonishing quantities. The Her- 
ring, Mackarel, and Mullet (rerfand grey), are very abundant in this 
sea ; as likewise the Turbot, of which I send a specimen. Salmon 
and Sturgeon are likewise occasionally caught here." 

In bringing these Fishes under the notice of the Societ}% Mr. Ben- 
nett remarked that there were among them several which required 
a more careful comparison with Mediterranean species than he had 
been, at present, enabled to give to them ; but that the following ap- 
peared to him to be distinct from any which had hitherto been de- 
scribed. ^ 

Trigla pauciradiata. Trigla pinnd priore dorsali sex-radiatd ; 
sulco dorsali fortiter arniato : pinnis pectoralibus magnis, interne 
coeruleis,fasciis undulatis apicem versus maculdque infra medium 
saturatioribus, hdc albo guttulatd. , 

D. 6, 16. A. 15. 

Long. tot. 10+ unc; capitis, 2-^; capitis alt. 1-^; craniilat. 1. 

Caput leniter declive : ossa suborbitalia antice vix prominentia, 
dentibus tuberculisve parvis 4 — 5 munita. 

Dentex eivulatus. Dent, ovali-oblongus ; capite leniter proclivi ; 
oculo majusculo : suprH aureus, maculis prasertim ad lineam latera- 
lem nigrescentibus , vittis laterum argenteis flexuosis hinc et hinc 
cancellatis. 
D. 11 + 11. A. 3-1-9. P.15. 
Long. tot. 64- unc. ; alt. max. 1-J-. 

A Dent, tnacrophthalmo^ Cuv. et Val., difFerre videtur corpora 
magis elongato, capite vix tumido, oculo minore, pinna pectorali in 
medio magis elongato subrotundato, caudali magis bifurca ; necnon 
coloribus picturaque, qua Scolopsidem cancellatum, Benn., quodam- 
modo simulat. Maxillae inferioris, seque ac superioris, dentes antici 
quatuor majores. 

GoBius soRDiDus. Gob. pinnd dorsali secundd priore altiore ; 
caudali pectoralique rotundatis : corpore vario ; pinnis maculatis, 
"^ anali ventralibusque nigro {Hid late) marginatis. 
D. 6, 1 + 17. C. 13. A. 13. P. 17. 

Crenilabrus FRiENATus. Crcn. ovatus, guttatus punctatusque, 
fasciis quatuor nigrescentibus maxillam inferiorem cingentibus : 
pinnd caudali rotundatd. 

D. 14+10. A. 3 + 9. 



92 

Long. tot. 44- unc. ; alt. corp. 14-. 

Totus, praeter pinnis pectoralibus ventralibusque, varius ; sed ma- 
culis insignibus nullis notatus. Dentes subsequales, commissuram 
versus gradatim decrescentes. 

Alosa immaculata. Al. maxillis dentiferis, immaculatus ; pinnis 

ventralihus dorsalis initio paullh posterioribus. 
D. 17. A. 18. 

Long. tot. 104- unc. ; alt. max. 2-J-; long, capitis 2^; a rostro ad 
lineam initii pinnae dorsalis, 4^. 

Rhombus stellosus. Rhomb. subroUmdus, utrinque tuberculoso- 
muricatus ; oculis subdistantibus, intervallo vuv convexiusculo ; 
maxilla superiore vix uncd armatd. 

Long, (pinnis exclusis) 7i-unc. ; lat. 5. 

A latere sinistro squamis parvis adhserentibus vestitus ; tubercu- 
lisque osseis, magnis, acutiusculis, ad basin scabroso-dilatatis, sparsis, 
vix numerosis armatus : a latere dextro tuberculis itidem osseis, 
minoribus, acutiusculis, basin versus cute vaginatis, subnumerosis 
donatus. Capitis tubercula a latere dextro pauca, minima ; a latere 
sinistro numerosa, majora, prsesertim ad genam; inter oculos conferta. 
Pinna pectoralis rotundata, 12-radiata: caudalis etiam rotundata. 
Linea lateralis ad initium lat^ curva, dein recta. Os quadrato-promi- 
nulum. 

Corpus e latere sinistro unicolor, nigrescens ? Pinnae fuscae, hinc 
et hinc hyalescentes, nigrescente guttatse et punctatae. 

Stngnathus Typhloides, Syngn. pinnis omnibus pradiius ; cor- 
pore heptagono ,• capite compresso, elongato, suprh piano ; ano in 
medio. 
Long. tot. 84- unc. ; capitis, \^. 

A Syngn. Typhle, Linn., difFert situ ani, longitudine capitis, prae- 
sertim ante oculos, numeroque radiorum et scutorum. 

Syngnathus 

Typhle. Typhloides. 

Long, a rostro ad humerum 14 1-75 

ab humero ad anum 2'2 2-6 

ab ano ad pinnam caudalem . . 4"3 3 '9 

capitis ante orbitam -77 I'l 

Alt. rostri minima '15 -15 

Scuta ante anum 17 17 

post anum 36 33 

Radii pinnae dorsalis 43 35 

In addition to the collections already referred to, Mr. Keith Abbott 
presented at the same time to the Society a " cock and two hens of 
the Fowls of Herat in Khorassaun, a breed which is," he believes, 
" unknown in Europe. They are young birds of the real Herat race." 
These, it was stated, are apparently identical with the Kulm Fowl of 
Dukhun and the Malay Fowl, the Gallus giganteiis, Temm. 

A large collection of skins of Birds formed at Travancore by P. 



Poole, Esq., and presented by him to the Society, was exhibited. 
Mr. Gould, in bringing it, at the request of the Chairman, under 
the notice of the Society, remarked upon it as distinguished from all 
the collections which he had hitherto seen from India, by its pos- 
sessing not even one European species, and only three or four 
which occur in Africa; a peculiarity probably attributable to its 
having been obtained in so southern a locality. He subsequently 
called the attention of the Meeting to each species contained in the 
collection, and pointed out among them several which he regarded 
as beinsr hitherto undescribed. 



-■& 



A large drawing made in Madeira by Miss Young of the Fish de- 
scribed by the Rev. R. T. Lowe, in the Second Part of the ' Transac- 
tions' (page 123), under the name oiAlepisaurusferox, was exhibited. 
It was taken from a perfect specimen, and consequently showed the 
correct form of the caudal fin, a part which was mutilated in the in- 
dividual originally described : its form is very remarkable, the upper 
lobe being greatly prolonged and falciform. The drawing also 
showed correctly the form of the outline of the high dorsal fin, which 
differs from that originally represented. 

The exhibition was in illustration of a Paper entitled " Additional 
Observations on Alepisaurus : by the Rev. R. T. Lowe, Corr. 
Memb. Z.S." 

The exhibition was resumed of the undescribed Shells contained 
in Mr. Cuming's collection. Those brought on the present occasion 
under the notice of the Society were accompanied by chai-acters by 
Mr. G. B. Sowerby and by Mr. W. Lytellton Powys. They com- 
prised the following species. 

Genus Pandora. 
Pandora brevifrons. Sow., Species Conchyliorum, Part II. 
Tab. Pand. secund. figg. 25, 26. Pand. testd elongatd, tenuis- 
simd, hyalind, albd ; latere antico breviore, rotundato, superne 
subangulato ; latere postico longiore, rostrato, subtruncato ; mar- 
gine dorsali recto, ventrali rotundato ; dente in valvd planulatd 
unico, minimo : long. 0'9, lat. 015, alt. 0' 35 poll. 
Hab. apud Panamam. 

Obtained from a sandy bottom, at the depth of ten fathoms. — 
G. B. S. 

Pandora arcuata. Sow., Ibid., figg. 27, 28. Pand. testd ovatd, 
crassiusculd, opacd, margaritaced ; latere antico breviore, rotun- 
dato, postico rostrato ; margine dorsali arcuato, ventrali rotun- 
dato ; lined impressd obsoletd ex umbone ad marginem ventralem 
decurrente : long.V , alt. 0' 6 poll. 

Hab. apud Sanctam Elenam. 

Found on the sands. — G. B. S. 

Pandora discors. Sow., Ibid., figg. 29, 30. Pand. testd ellip- 
tied, depressd, albicante, opacd; latere antico breviore, postico 
altiore ; margine dorsali postico subarcuato, antico rotundato, ven- 



94 

trali rotundato postice ventricoso ; valvd sinistrd postice radiatim 
lineatd, carind prope marginem dorsalem jjosticum conspicud : 
long. 0'55, lat. 0'06, alt. 0'4 poll. 
Hub. 

Pandora Ceylanica, Sow., Ibid., figg. 20 — 22. Pand. testa 
elongatd, depressd, suhflexuosd, postice rostratd, margine superi- 
ore postico arcuato recurvo, antice dilatatd ; dentibus duobus vali- 
dis et lamind marginali in valvd planulatd, dente unico fornicato 
in alterd: long. Tl, lat. O'l, alt. 0' 6 poll. 
Hab. in Mari Ceylanico, et apud Insulam Muerte, Colombiae Oc- 
cidentalis. 

Mr. Cuming has a single specimen obtained, at the latter localitj', 
from a depth of eleven fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Pandora radiata. Sow., Ibid., figg. 23, 24. Pand. testd ovatd, 
depressiusculd, albd, margine superiore postico recto ; latere pos- 
tico longiore, subtruncato ; margine ventrali rotundato ; latere an- 
tico parvo ; valvd planulatd radiatim rufo-lineatd : long. 06, lat. 
015, alt. 0-35 poll. 

Hab. apud Insulam Muerte, Colombiae Occidentalis. 

Dredged from sandy mud, at the depth of eleven fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Genus Buccinum. 

BucciNUM MODESTUM. Bucc. tcstd ovato-fusiformi, albidd aut lu- 
teo-rufescente, strigis longitudinalibus confluentibus rubro-casta- 
neis ornatd, anfractu ultimo albo fasciato, basi sulcata ; anfrac- 
iibus 8, spiraliter striatis et superne lineis impressis bicingulatis ; 
aperturd elongatd ; labia externa varicoso, intils leviter striata : • 
long. 1-15, lat. Ob poll. 

Hah. ad oras Americse Centralis. 

Dredged from muddy gravel in the Bay of Montija, at a depth 
varying from seven to seventeen fathoms. — W .L. P. 

' Buccinum Cumingii. Bucc. testd ovata-elongatd, subturritd, tenui, 
rufo-stramined, maculis parvis saturatioribus striisque albidis ele- 
vatiusculis transversis ornatd ■ anfractibus 7 — S, longitudinaliter 
costatis, costis anfractfts penultimi evanescentibus, ultimi nonnul- 
lis ; columelld subrectd, infernt spiraliter plicatd ; labia externa 
tenui, intils leevi : long. 1-25, lat. 0-5 poll. 
Hab. ad littora insularum Oceani Pacifici. 

A single specimen of this very elegant and delicate species was 
collected by Mr. Cuming on the sands at Grimwood's Isle. — W. L. P. 

Buccinum catenatum. Bucc. testd avato-oblongd, tenui, roseo- 
albicante, spiraliter tenuissime striatd, basi sulcatd ; anfractibus 
6 — 7, convexis, snperioribus longitudinaliter costatis, tribus ulti- 
mis maculis parvulis nivosis per series transversas dispositis; aper- 
turdlcEvi, nitidd; labia externa subcrenulato : long. 0-75, lat.OZ 
poll. 

Hab. 



95 

I have only seen one specimen of this interesting species, which I 
have reason to helieve was brought from the Mauritius. — W. L. P. 

BucciNUM succiNCTUM. Bucc. tcstd ovato-pyramidali, tenui, spi- 
raliter costatd, inter castas tenuissime striatd, lacted ; anfractihis 
7 — 8, convexis, ultimo spird vis majore ; aperturd ovali ; colu- 
melld flexuosd ; labia externa inths sulcata : long. 0'75, lat. 0"3 
poll. 

Hab. ad littora Insulae Mauritii. — W, L. P. 

Genus Nassa. 

Nassa nodifeea. Nassa testd ovato-acuminatd, subturritd, albes- 
cente, longitudinaliter costatd, et spiraliter impresso-striatd ; an- 
fractibus sitpcrne angulatis, costis adangulum nodoso-tuberculatis ; 
aperturd alba, nitidd ; labia externa intus leviter striata : long. 
0-65, lat. 0-35 poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos et ad littora Panamse. 

Found in coral sand in from six to ten fathoms. — W. L. P. 

Nassa concinna. Nassa testd avata-conicd, peracutd, pallid"^ fulvd 
fasciis saturatiaribus cinctd, langituditialiter creberrime undatim 
plicatd, striis impressis contiguis eleganter decussatd ; anfractibus 
8 — 9, rotundatis, ad suturas granulis maniliformibus ornatis; aper- 
turd ovali ; calmnelld subrugosd ; labia extils marginata, intiis sul- 
cata : long. 0'8, lat. 0'4 pall. 

Hab. in Polynesia. (Toobouai.) 

Collected on the reefs.— W. L. P. 

Nassa dentifera. Nassa testd avatd, subventricosd, alivaced, an- 
fractu ultimo fascia pallidiare cinctd, longitudinaliter granoso- 
plicatd, decussatd ; aperturd fusco-violaced ; labia externa sinuoso, 
incrassato, basin vej'sus denticula unico instructo, intus leviter sul- 
cata : long. 0*85, lat. 0-45 pall. 

Hab. ad oras Americas MeridionaUs. 

Dredged in the Bay of Arica, in ten fathoms, from a muddy bot- 
tom.— W. L. P. 

Nassa festiva. Nassa testd ovata-globosd, coerulescente, punctis 
variis et antice lineis contiguis rubro-castaneis pictd ; anfractibus 
8, longitudinaliter costatis et spiraliter sulcatis, ultimo ventricaso, 
spird peracutd longiore ; aperturd albd, ratundatd ,• columella gra- 
nosa-pUcatd ; labia externa crasso, varicifarmi, intiis valde sul- 
cata : long. 0"85, lat. 0-6 pall. 

Hab. ad Panamam et ad Sanctam Elenam. 

Dredged from sandy mud at a depth varying from six to ten fa- 
lAoms.— W. L. P. 

Nassa exilis. Nassa testd ovato-conicd, basi subcompressd, oliva- 
ced obscure fasciatd ; anfractibus 7 — 8, convexis, spiraliter obsolete 
striatis, suturis granulis maniliformibus infra in costellas decur- 
reniibus arnatis, costellis et striis anfractds ultimi evanescentibus ^ 



96 

aperturd violaced ; lahio externa incrassato, intils sulsulcato : 

long. 0"65, lat. 0"3 poll. 
Hub. sub lapidibus ad Paytam, Peruvise. 

The anterior part of the last volution, towards the lip, is smooth 
and free from ribs. — W. L. P. 

Nassa pallida. Nassa testd ovato-conicd, sordide albd, canali 
fusco maculatd; anfractibus 8 — 9, superrie subangulatis, longitudi- 
naliter obliqui costatis, spiraliter sulcatis et rugoso-striatis ; labio 
externa intils striata ; calumelld arcuatd, callasd : long. 1'2, lat. 
0-65 poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

The ribs are not continued over the anterior part of the last volu- 
tion towards the lip. 

Dredged from sandy mud at a depth of six fathoms. — W. L. P. 

Nassa scabriuscula. Nassa testd ovato-conicd, acuminatd, fused 
luteo fasciatd, longitudinaliter plicatd, striis devatis asperis spi- 
raliter cancellatd ; aperturd rotundatd ; labio externa alba, antice 
fusco maculato, extiis marginato, intils valdi sulcata : long. 0*47, 
lat. 0-27 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Americse Centralis. 

Dredged in sandy mud at a depth of twelve fathoms in the Bay of 
Montija.— W. L. P. 

Nassa complanata. Nassa testd avatd, complanatd, olivacedfasciis 
luteis cinctd ; anfractibus superioribus utrinque granosis, ultimo 
varicibus lateralibus et plicis graniferis dorso evanescentibus ; 
aperturd avali; labia externa marginato, intiis sulcata : long. 0*35, 
lat. 0-22 poll. 

Hab. ad oras Colombiae Occidentalis. 

Found at Atacamas, under stones. — ^W. L. P. , 

Genus Purpura. 

Purpura t.sniata. Purp. testd obovato-ablongd, transversim te- 
nuissimi striatd, rufo-castaned fasciis fulva-luteis cinctd; spird 
brevissimd ; anfractu ultimo permagna ; aperturd elongatd, sub- 
equali, int^s lacted, peritremate castanea lineis albidis radiata ; 
columelld pland, pallidi castaned ; labio externa intiis denticulato .- 
long. 0-9, lat. 0-62 poll. 
Hab. in Oceano Pacifico. (Maldon Island.) 

I am not aware of this interesting shell having been hitherto de- 
scribed. It bears a considerable resemblance to the Purp. Vexillum 
of Lamarck ; but diflFers from that species in having a much shorter 
spire, in its very flat columella, and in the outer lip being more ex- 
panded and radiated. The bands also afford a ready mark of distinc- 
tion : in Purp. Vexillum they are of a reddish brown on a lighter 
ground ; whilst in Purp. taniata the ground colour is dark chestnut, 
and the bands yellow. — W. L. P. 



97 



July 14, 1835. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Ogilby exhibited several rare and undescribed species of 
Mammalia and Birds, brought from the Gambia, on which he made 
the following observations : 

" Through the kindness of Mr. Rendall, who has lately arrived 
from the Gambia, where his brother is lieutenant-governor of Fort 
St. Mary and the other British possessions in that neighbourhood, I 
am enabled to present the Society with the following account of a 
few new or rare species of Mammals and Birds ; forming, however, 
but a very small portion of the valuable collection which Mr. Ken- 
dall has brought home with him. The collection, it is true, contains 
very few Mammals ; these, however, are either altogether new to 
science or of very rare occurrence, and show how little we know of 
the zoology of the west coast of Africa. 

Genus Colobus, III. 

Colobus fuliginosus. This new and interesting species of a very 
obscure and imperfectly known genus, measures 2 feet 5 inches from 
the upper lip to the extremity of the tail, which organ is itself 2 feet 
8 inches long. All the upper parts of the body are of a light smoky 
blue colour, very similar to that of the common Mangabey, (Cercopi- 
thecus fuliginosus, Geoff.), rather darker on the shoulders than else- 
where, and copiously tinged with red on the occiput : the colour of the 
back descends some way down on the external face of the fore arms and 
thighs, and also a short distance, but more obscurely, on the upper 
surface of the tail. With these exceptions, all the rest of the extre- 
mities, the arms, fore arms, thighs, legs, hands, feet and tail, are of 
a uniform light or brick red, and a more intense shade of the same 
colour extends up the fore part of the shoulders, and spreads over 
the breast, throat and whiskers, which latter are long, directed down- 
wards on the cheeks, and backwards into long pointed tufts behind 
the ears, which are small, round, naked, and furnished with a di- 
stinct heliw, in all respects like that of the human subject. The belly 
and flanks are of a dirty yellowish white, and a circle of black stiff 
hair passes over the eyes. The face, palms of the hands and soles of 
the feet are naked and of a violet colour ; the callosities are of mo- 
derate size ; the thumbs of the anterior extremities are wanting, but 
their situation is marked by a small nailless tubercle ; the middle and 
ring fingers, both on the fore and hind hands, are of equal length, as 
are likewise the index and little fingers ; and it is to be observed. 

No. XXXI. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



98 

that the latter are united to the contiguous middle or ring fingers, 
respectively, through the greater part of the first phalanx, as in the 
Siamang, Pitkecns syndactylus, F. Cuv. The face is short, the head 
round, and the whole form and habit of the animal similar to those 
of the Semnopitheci. The teeth are of the usual form and number, 
and there are large and very distinct cheek pouches. I was the more 
particular in making this last observation, because the organs in 
question had not been previously recorded as existing in the Colobi, 
and because M. Geoffi-oy St. Hilaire in his valuable lectures, of which 
it is a matter of great regret that so small a portion has been given 
to the public, even doubts their existence. Of this, however, there 
can be no longer any reasonable doubt ; they are extremely appa- 
rent and rather capacious in the specimen now under description. 
The teeth of this specimen, a very old female, without even except- 
ing the canines, which do not appear to have been remarkably large 
at any time, are worn almost down to the gums.- Mr. Kendall pos- 
sesses a second and younger specimen which, however, differs in no 
respect from that just described. 

The arrival of these skins, probably the only perfect specimens of 
the genus Colobus in Europe, with the exception of that in the Ley- 
den Museum, and of the specimens recently brought from Abyssinia 
by Dr. Ri'tppell, naturally led me to refer to the imperfect skins no- 
ticed by Mr. Bennett in the ' Proceedings of the Committee of Science 
and Correspondence' of this Society for 1832, page 122, and to exa- 
mine generally the characters of the different species already described. 
The result of my investigation into this subject leads me to conclude 
that we at present possess sufficient indications of six distinct spe- 
cies of Colobi, which may be characterized as follows : 

1. Col. pohjcomos, Schreb., "with the head and shoulders co- 
vered with long, coarse, flowing hair, of a dirty yellowish colour, 
mixed with black ; body, arms and legs of a fine glossy blackness, 
covered with short hair ; tail of a snowy whiteness, with very long 
hair at the end forming a tuft." 

2. Col. Ur sinus, with very long glossy black hair over the whole 
body and extremities, and a long snowy white tail slightly tufted at 
the end : described from two imperfect skins, without head or hands, 
the same asthosenoticedby Mr. Bennett in the 'Proceedings' for 1832. 
Mr. Bennett considered these skins as referrible to the Col. poly- 
comos; and the general colour of the body and tail, as well as a slight 
appearance of grizzled or gray hair about the neck, where the head 
has been cut off, in both the specimens, would at first sight appear 
to justify his views ; but the words of Pennant, (the only original 
describer of the species,) as quoted above, imply that the " long 
dirty yellowish hair," which he compares to a full-bottomed perri- 
wig, grows from the shoulders and neck as well as the head, and 
expressly declare that the hair on the rest of the body, as well as on 
the legs, is short. Now in the specimens at present under consider- 
ation the very reverse of this is observable. The black hair of the 



99 

shoulders, as already observed, has a partial mixture of silvery white 
on the anterior face just where the head has been cut off; but it is 
not longer than the hair upon the rest of the body and limbs, which 
is moreover 5 or 6 inches in length, and in texture and appearance 
not unlike that of the Ursus labiatus. The whole animal in fact re- 
sembles a small Bear, and is covered with the same uniform, long, 
black, and glossy fur upon every part except the tail, which, at the 
root more particularly, is furnished with much shorter hair. Whe- 
ther or not this species, like the polycomos, has the head ofa differ- 
ent colour from the body, is a subject for further observation : the 
white or silvery hairs already mentioned as still remaining about the 
shoulders, render it extremely probable that it has, but in no case 
can it form the striking contrast in length, nor present the long flow- 
ing mane or wig-like appearance ascribed to the animal observed by 
Pennant, Mr. Gould, who procured these skins for the Society, re- 
ported them as coming from Algoa Bay ; we know enough of the 
zoology of that part of Africa, to render this account extremely 
doubtful, and the probability is, either that Mr. Gould was misin- 
formed, or that he may have mistalcen Delagoa Bay for Algoa, which, 
from the similarity of sound, might readily happen. If this conjec- 
ture should prove correct, it would follow that the Col. Ursinus was 
the analogue of the Col. polycomos on the opposite coast, and the 
conjecture receives further countenance from the fact of many other 
known species of Mammals having such analogues in the same loca- 
lities. 

3. Col. Guereza, Riipp., with the head, face, neck, back, limbs, 
and basal half of the tail, covered with short black hair; the temples, 
chin, throat, and a band over the eyes, white ; the sides, flanks from 
the shoulder downwards, loins and buttocks, clothed with long flow- 
ing white, which hangs down on each side like a loose garment ; the 
tip of the tail furnished with a tuft of dirty wliite. Described and 
figured by Dr. Ruppell in his ' Neue Wirbelthiere.' 

4. Co/. yerrwjrzwosMS, Geofl^., " with a black crown ; back of a deep 
bay colour ; outside of the limbs black ; cheeks, under part of the 
body, and legs of a very bright bay ; tail black." This species, ori- 
ginally thus described by Pennant, was, like the Col. polycomos, 
brought from Sierra Leone. 

5 . Col.fuliginosus. Smoky blue above, dirty yellowish gray beneath ; 
with the cheeks, throat, tail and extremities brick red. Brought 
from the Gambia. 

6. Col. Temminckii, Kuhl, " with the hands, face, and tail, purp- 
lish red ; rest of the members, clear red ; belly, reddish yellow ; 
head, neck, back, shoulders and outer face of the thighs, black." 
Habitat unknown : described from a specimen formerly in Bullock's 
Museum and now in that of Leyden. Notwithstanding some slight 
discrepancies, I agree with Mr. Bennett in referring to this species 
the two other skins of the Society's Collection, noticed by him 
in the Part of the ' Proceedings' eilready referred to. These skins 



100 

were procured at the same time, and most probably in the same lo- 
cality, as those of the Coi. Ursimts. They are equally imperfect ; 
the hair of the shoulders and back, dead black, and without the beau- 
tiful gloss of the Col. Ursinus ; on the flanks and over every part of 
the limbs the colour is a uniform maroon or clear purple red ; the 
head and hands are wanting, but the maroon of the tail is much 
deeper than that of the legs and flanks, approaching almost to black, 
and, in the older of the two specimens, actually replaced by that colour 
on the terminal half of the tail. If the conjecture already thrown out 
with regard to the derivation of these skins should turn out to be 
well founded, and if the animal here described eventually proves to 
be identical in species with the Col. Temminckii, of which I see no 
just reason to doubt, it follows that the hitherto unascertained ha- 
bitat of that species must be sought on the east coast of Africa. 
Fischer, probably induced to it by the authority of M. Temminck, 
has united the Col. Temminckii with the Col. ferruginosus or bay 
Monkey of Pennant ; the short descriptive characters above given in 
the words of their original describers, leave no doubt as to the spe- 
cific distinction of these two animals ; in which, indeed, though the 
colours are the same in both, their distribution is reversed, the bay 
or red of the one occupying the same situation as the black of the 
other. 

Genus Pteropus. 

Two undescribed Pteropi, brought over by Mr. Rendall, present 
some modifications of dentition which have not been observed in other 
species, and which appear to indicate a subgenus, probably repre- 
senting the common Asiatic forms on this coast of Africa. These 
animals have the incisors and canines of the same form and number 
as the rest of the genus, but there are only three molares in the upper 
and five in the lower jaw. The incisors are small and regular, the 
canines of intermediate size ; the first false molar in the lower jaw 
is small and of the normal form, but the second in this jaw and the 
first in the upper are of the same form as the canines, and very little 
inferior to them in size, so that when the mouth is opened there 
appear to be four canines in each jaw ; next follows in either jaw a 
tooth with a large fang upon the outer edge and a smaller one within, 
which is of intermediate form between the true and false molars; 
after which come two normal molars in the lower and one in the 
upper jaw. All the molars are separated from one another by a 
vacant space on each side ; this gap is particularly large between the 
real and spurious canines or first false molars in the upper jaw, the 
corresponding space in the lower having, in its centre, the small feJse 
molar already mentioned. 

Pteropus Gambiamis. 

Length from the nose to the centre between the thighs 64 in. 

Length of the head from the nose to the root of the ear. . 1-J- 

Expanse of the wings 1 f. 8 in. 



101 

The fur ib of a very soft woolly texture, and of a uniform reddish 
mouse colour over every part, only rather lighter on the sides of the 
neck and belly than on the superior surface of the body. The wings are 
ample, naked except upon the thighs and arms, and of a light brown 
colour ; there is no real interfemoral membrane ; but the whole pos- 
terior face of the thighs and body is margined with a narrow band of 
integument about half an inch broad, and covered above with the 
same description of hair as the back. The ears are small, naked, 
erect and elHptical, and the eyes placed much nearer to them, and 
consequently at a greater comparative distance from the muzzle, than 
in the ordinary Pteropi. 

Pteropus macrocephalus . The whole length of this species is 
barely 6 inches, the length of the head 2 inches, and the expanse 
of the wings about 1 foot 3 inches. The colour, form and appear- 
ance are much the same as in the last species, but the Pter. macro- 
cephalus is at once distinguished by the gi'eat size of the head, as well 
as by the colour of the flying membranes which are very dark brown, 
nearly approaching to black. The canine teeth also, as well as the 
head, are of much larger size, and the interfemoral margin is nar- 
rower. Dr. Horsfield, from the great length of the head, thinks that 
this species may approximate to the Macroglossus of M. F. Cuvier, 
the Pter. rostratus of his own ' Zoological Researches in Java.' 
It is to be observed, however, that it differs in dentition from that 
animal, as well as from all other Pteropi hitherto described ; and, 
with the Pter. Gamhianus, may furnish the type of a new genus to 
those who regard such modifications as amounting to generic cha- 
racters. Mr. Kendall's collection contains numerous specimens of 
both the species here described. 

The only other Cheiropter brought home by Mr. Kendall is the 
Mcgaderma Frons of Geoffrey, well described by Daubenton ; to whose 
account I shall only add, that the wings are of a deep orange colour, 
and the fur unusually long and soft. 

Genus Herpestes, ///. 

Mr. Kendall has brought over specimens of two Herpestes, one of 
which, the Herpestes Mongos of Linnseus, very well figured and de- 
scribed by Buffon (Hist. Nat., tom. xiii. tab. 19.), deserves to be 
noticed, for the purpose of correcting the habitat of the species, 
which, upon Buffon's authority, has hitherto been given as India, but 
which Mr. Kendall's specimens clearly show to be the west coast 
of Africa. The mistake originally arose from Buffon's having iden- 
tified the Mangouste a bundcs, the species at present under considera- 
tion, with the Mongos of Kfempfer, unquestionably an Indian s])e- 
cies (the Herpestes griseus of authors), and still commonly called 
by that name in Upper India, where many natives and Europeans 
keep it in a semidomestic state, for the purpose of destroying vermin. 
Under these circumstances, though there are few cases in which 



102 

such a change is advisable, or even excusable, perhaps it would be 
better to follow the example of M. Desmarest in the ' Dictionnaire des 
Sciences Naturelles,' and substitute the specific name oi fasciatus for 
that of Mungos, as regards this animal, reserving the latter name for 
the species to which it really belongs, and which is at present de- 
signated by the very vague term of griseus. 

The other species brought by Mr. Rendall, and which I propose 
to call Herpestes Gambianus, is new to science, but is in some degree 
allied to the Herp. vitticollis, characterized by Mr. Bennett at a re- 
cent meeting of the Society (page 66). It is, however, much smaller 
than that species, measuring only 1 7 inches from the nose to the 
root of the tail, whilst the Herp. vitticollis measures fully 23 ; the 
tail also measures 13 inches in the latter animal, and only 9^ in the 
former. The general colour of the body is that grizzled gray and 
brown, so common among the Herpestes, upon the upper parts, clearer 
upon the head, neck and shoulders, and copiously mixed with red 
upon the latter part of the back, hips and thighs, particularly upon 
the latter, which are nearly all red ; the tail has a copious mixture 
of black, and is terminated by a small tuft of pure black ; but this is 
only found at the extreme point, and does not extend over a consider- 
able portion of the organ, as in Herp. vitticollis. The throat and sides 
of the neck are pale silvery brown; the breast, belly, and interior of the 
limbs, red; the feet alone, not the whole legs as in Herp. vitticollis, 
are black, and a stripe of dark brown extends from the ear to the 
shoulder, along each side of the neck. The hair lies smooth and 
close to the skin. 

There are some peculiarities in the dentary system of these animals 
which Eire deserving of notice. 

Herp . fasciatus and Herp. Gamhiajms. Teeth -^ ■ -j—r ■■ jitt- The 

incisors small, simple, and regular ; the canines of moderate size ; 
the first two false molars of the normal form; the third, carnas- 
sier, of rather small size compared with its analogue in genera 
more decidedly carnivorous, and the last two, in both jaws, tubercu- 
lous. The rudimentary false molar, mentioned by M. F. Cuvier, is 
wanting in both these species ; nor can its absence be owing to the 
age of the specimens examined, as some were evidently young ani- 
mals, though arrived at adult age. Its entire absence is further con- 
firmed by the situation of the teeth respectively, in the reciprocal 
position of the jaws, the first inferior false molar filling up the entire 
vacant space between the corresponding superior tooth and the canine 
of tlie same jaw. 

This system differs considerably from that ascribed to the Herpestes 
byM. F. Cuvier (Dents des MammifSres, i. 99.), but agrees in all re- 
spects with the description of M. Desmarest. The following, however, 
is equally foreign to the accounts of both these authors, and, were 
not all the other characters so perfectly accordant with those of Her- 
pestes, would d«cidedly indicate a new genus. Indeed, it so stands 



103 

in my notes, under the name' of Mungos, but witli a note of interro- 
gation, as I have only been able to examine a single specimen. 

Mungos? vitticollis. {Herpestes vitticollis, Benn.) Teeth — .• 

-^11- : -^^. The incisors and canines have nothing remarkable either 
1—1 7—7 

in form or number. The first false molar in either javir is tubercu- 
lous ; the second and third consist of one large conical fang in the 
centre, and a smaller tubercle on each side of it ; then follows the 
camassier, and after it two tuberculous teeth in the upper and three 
in the lower jaw. The first of these in the upper jaw is large and 
triangular ; the second, short and broad, its latitudinal dimensions 
more than doubling its longitudinal ; the three of the lower jaw are 
email, simple, rather distant from each other, and of cylindrical form. 
This is a system of dentition which, as far as I am aware, is alto- 
gether peculiar, and if confirmed by the examination of other speci- 
mens, will undoubtedly form the type of a new genus. Perhaps fur- 
ther and more rigid examination may even detect different species 
from the diff'erent localities, as specimens have arrived for the So- 
ciety from Travancore and Bombay, and one from Madras, at the 
British Museum. 

Genus Sciurus, Linn. 

Sciurus Gambianus. This animal belongs to that subgenus of 
Squirrels which are distinguished by having round untufted ears 
and long cylindrical tails, covered with short hair, and not distichated. 
The upper surface of the body and root of the tail are uniform naouse- 
£Qloured br(i:^n, with a slight shade of yellowish red, and everywhere 
pmnted thickly with gray, from the hairs being separately annulated 
with black and yellowish white ; all the under parts are uniform 
dirty white. The tail is long, covered with short hair, towards the 
root of the same uniform colour as the back, but annulated or fas- 
ciated from thence to the tip with numerous alternate bands of black 
and light grayish brown, precisely like those which mark the back 
of the Ryzcena and the Herpestes fasciatus. The whole length of the 
animal is about 9l inches, and the tail about the same. The ears 
are very short and rounded. 

From Dr. Smith's description of his Sci. Pocnsis, I imagine it must 
approach this species in form, but is distinguislit-J by its smaller 
size, different colour, and unannulated tail. 

Of the numerous Bird-skins in Mr. RendaU's collection I shall 
only notice the two following, which appear to be new species, and 
■wliich derive an additional interest from their generic affinities. The 
first I propose to call, out of compliment to the gentleman to whose 
kindness we are indebted for the present exhibition and description, 

Nuinida Rendallii. This beautiful species, which Mr. Gould agrees 
with me in considering new to science, is of smaller size than the 



104. 

common Guinea Fowl, and in this resembles the Num. cristata. The 
head and upper part of the neck are bare, the former covered with a 
wrinkled scalp-like skin, gathered into a small keel-shaped ridge in 
the centre, about half an inch in length, and not more than a quarter 
of an inch high. The neck is black, naked principally on the throat 
and sides, and covered on the back with glossy black hair, or rather 
small feathers, with the beards so fine as to be perceptible only upon 
close examination. The lower part of the neck and breast are covered 
with feathers of a beautiful violet colour without spots, clearest on 
the breast, but with a bro%vner hue upon the upper surface. The 
back, shoulders, and rump are of the usual brown colour, speckled 
thickly with minute white spots, each surrounded with an intensely 
black ring, much smaller and more numerous than in the common 
species, and intermixed with an infinity of still more minute white 
points. The greater coverts of the wings and whole under surface of 
the body are black, with large white spots ; the quill feathers spotted 
towards the shaft, and barred transversely on the lower margin only, 
and the tail feathers light gray, with white spots in a black ring, 
and interspersed with numerous black dots or points. The white 
spots of the coverts, quills, and belly, are not surrounded by black 
rings like those of the back and tail. This appears to be the com- 
mon species on the banks of the Gambia. ^ 

Genus Gypogeranus, III. 

A Secretary in Mr. Kendall's Collection offers some peculiarities, 
when compared with the common Cape animal, which at first in- 
duced me to believe that it might be a distinct species, and in this 
opinion I was in some manner confirmed by the more experienced 
and concurrent belief of Mr. Gould; but I confess that a more 
attentive comparison of specimens from both localities has consi- 
derably shaken my original opinion. I may remark, however, that 
still greater differences are indicated by Sonnerat in his figure and 
description of the Secretary of the Philippine Islands, and which, as 
far as I am aware, has not been noticed by more recent naturaUsts. 
Whether or not the Secretaries of these three localities, the Cape of 
Good Hope, the Gambia, and the Philippines, may eventually turn 
out to be really distinct, or only varieties of the same species, must 
be left for future observation ; but it is at least useful to direct the 
attention of travellers, collectors, and zoologists to the subject, and 
with this intention I will here state the principal marks which appear 
to distinguish each, giving them provisionally specific names, derived 
from the localities which they respectively inhabit. 

1. Gyp. Capensis, with the plume of long cervical feathers com- 
mencing upon the occiput, spreading irregularly over the upper part 
of the neck, narrow throughout the greater part of their length as if 
the beard had been cut on each side close into the shaft of the quill, 
and spreading only at the point. Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. 



105 

2. Oyp. Gamhiensis, with the cervical crest commencing some 
distance below the occiput, arranged in two regular series, one on 
each side of the neck, with the intermediate space clear, and com- 
posed of long spatule-shaped feathers, much broader throughout than 
in the last species, though similarly decreasing in width towards the 
root. In both these species the two middle feathers of the tail are 
considerably longer than the others. Inhabits Senegambia. 

3. Gyp. Philippensis, with the cervical crest spread irregularly 
from the occiput to the bottom of the neck, the longest feathers being 
those situated the lowest, which is just the reverse of what we ob- 
serve in Gyp. Gamhiensis, and with the two exterior tail feathers the 
longest, so that the tail appears forked. This is apparent not only 
in Sonnerat's figure, but is expressly mentioned in his detailed de- 
scription, and, if confirmed by future observation, is clearly indicative 
of a specific distinction. Inhabits the Philippine Islands. Described 
and figured in Sonnerat's ' Voyage k la Nouvelle Guinee,' p. 87, t. 50. 

The colours of the three species or varieties here indicated do not' 
seem to be materially different in other respects." — W. O. 

A collection of skins of Birds, formed in Hayti by J. Hearne, Esq., 
Corr. Memb. Z.S., and presented by him to the Society, was ex- 
hibited. At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Gould brought the 
specimens severally under the notice of the meeting. They com- 
prised sixteen species, two or three of which appeared to be hitherto 
undescribed ; including a Humming Bird, which Mr. Gould believed 
to be the representative of a new species, allied to Trochilus pec- 
tor alis, Lath. 

There was also exhibited the skin of the Mammiferoiis animal 
recently described by M. Brandt, in the Transactions of the Imperial 
Academy of St. Petersburgh, as the type of his new genus Soleno- 
donta. It was obtained by Mr. Hearne in Hayti, where it is known 
as the Agouta. Respecting it Mr. Hearne writes, " The only qua- 
druped, I believe, found on the island on the landing of Columbus 
•wa.^ the Agouta, a little larger than, and somewhat resembling, s.Rat, 
with an equally long tail and with a longer snout; whose food is 
chiefly grain, although the animal is carnivorous also; its hair is red. 
I had one alive intended for the Society, but it received a wound 
from a cat of which it died, and the skin is too miserably preserved, 
I fear, to be of use ; but I shall bring it myself, or early send it ; 
and I shall endeavour to get another alive, and in such state to send 
it to you." 

^ The following note by H. Bruce Campbell, Esq., on a white va- 
riety of the Blackbird, Turdus Merula, Linn., recently presented by 
him to the Society and now living at the Gardens, was read. 

^ " ITie curiosity which 1 have the pleasure to present to the Zoolo- 
gical Society, (a bird of the common Blackbird kind, the Merle noir 



106 

of M. Temminck, entirely white, including the plumage, beiik, kgs, 
and feet,) was discovered in June, 1832, near a farmhouse in the 
occupation of Mr. Owkam at Bilsthorpe, Nottinghamshire. There 
were two other young ones in the nest, the plumage of which, as 
well as that of the parent birds, was of the ordinarj'- caste. The old 
birds made a second nest in the following month, near to the first 
one, in which four eggs were deposited ; one of these was entirely 
different from the rest, resembling in colour the egg of the common 
Duck ; this nest was unfortunately taken by some boys in the vil- 
lage ; it is probable if this had not been the case, that there would 
have been produced a second extraordinary freak of nature. 

" There is at the present time in the possession of the Rev. Joshua 
GreviUe at Weston Pavell, near Northampton, a pyebaUed male bird 
of this species, the white preponderating ; it is now six years old and 
an excellent songster. It was originally black, and when about two 
years old its plumage changed and became spotted black and white. 

" It is said that these birds have been occasionally found white on 
the Alps and other high mountains, which alteration in colour is 
ascribed to the continued cold in those places, an effect which it is 
known is produced in the case of the Ptarmigan, he. Albin men- 
tions having had a bird of tliis species " finely mottled," sent to him 
by Sir Robert Abdy out of Essex. BufFon makes mention of a white 
Nightingale, and in the Museum at Oxford, there is a Chaffinch com- 
pletely white. Many other instances of white varieties are furnished 
by authors and by collections. 

" The present is a male bird, but though he has the quickly re- 
peated chirp and all the habits of his kind, nature, when she altered 
her regular course and presented him with his snovs^y costume, seems 
therefore to have denied to him the usual vocal powers of his tribe : 
he is no warbler, but from his frequent fruitless attempts, it may be 
inferred, that he feels the dear price at wliich he has been permitted 
to wear his novel and attractive plumage." 

With reference to an observation in the preceding note, Mr. Yar- 
rell remarked that no inference could safely be drawn from the co- 
lour of the egg as to that of the bird to be produced from it : a de- 
ficiency of the superadded colouring, reducing the egg to its ground 
colour alone, being by no means an uncommon occurrence, and the 
product in such cases not deviating from the usual appearance of 
the race. 

Mr. Cox added that he had at present under his care a nest of 
the domestic Sparrow, Passer domesiicus, Briss., all of which, with one 
exception, exhibited the usual characters of their race : one, how- 
ever, was entirely white. He stated his intention of presenting to 
the Society this variety, as soon as the young bird was sufiiciently 
reared. 

The following note by Sir Robert Heron, Bart., M.P., Vice-Pre- 
sident, was read. 



107 

" My male blach Swan, Oygnus atratus, died yesterday (June 29, 
1835). He had been long going off, apparently through old age, 
though not more than fifteen ; yet he has left four young ones, not 
three months old. His widow is still healthy, and does not appear to 
grieve much ; nor did she pay any attention to him in his last days, 
probably because engaged with her young. They have hatched in 
all forty-four, and reared forty young ones. They were chiefly 
hatched in January, and always in an earthern wigwam built for them 
in a smaU island. Once there were two broods in a year, the next 
year only none." 



108 



July 28, 1835. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of eight species of Mice and Rats, col- 
lected in India by Walter Elliott, Esq. They were brought under 
the notice of the Meeting by Mr. Gray, who stated that five of them 
were hitherto undescribed. Of these he pointed out the distinguish- 
ing characteristics. Among them were three which, on account of 
their possessing a peculiarity in the structure of their molar teeth, 
he regarded as representing a section in the genus Mus, which 
might, perhaps, be considered deserving of generic distinction. 
The remaining species were the Mus oleraceus, Benn. ; the Mus pla- 
tythrix, Ej.; and the Mouse which Mr. Gray has figured, from Gen. 
Hardwickes drawings, in the 'Illustrations of Indian Zoology,' 
under the name of Arvicola Indica : it is, however, really a Mus. 

Mr, Gray stated that Mr. Elliott had made copious notes respect- 
ing the habits of the several species exhibited, and that it was his 
intention to communicate them to the Society. He added that Mr. 
Elliott's collection contained many other interesting specimens of 
Mammalia, as well as of other classes of animals ; and that selec- 
tions from it would be brought, from time to time, under the notice 
of future Meetings. 

Mr. Gray also exhibited specimens of two remarkable species of 
Partridge, Perdix, Mey., which he regarded as previously unde- 
scribed. They were brought from the Gambia by Mr. Rendall, a 
selection from whose collection had been exhibited at the previous 
Meeting by Mr. Ogilby. Mr. Gray pointed out the distinguishing 
characteristics of the birds exhibited. 

Mr. Gray subsequently exhibited, also from Mr. Kendall's col- 
lection, several Shells which appeared to him to be hitherto unno- 
ticed, including an undescribed species of Cryptostoma, Blainv. 

Among the Shells of the same collection was one that had been 
incrusted by a Coral, but in which the mouth had been preserved 
open in consequence of its having become the habitation of a Pa- 
gurus, the movements of which through the aperture had prevented 
that part of the shell from being involved in the general incrusta- 
tion. Mr. Gray exhibited other specimens of analogous incrusta- 
tions, some of which had been regarded by authors as constituting 
real species. The incrusting Coral is generally an Alcyonium, but 
in some cases it is a Cellepora, 



109 

The exhibition was resumed of the previously undescribed species 
of Shells contained in the collection of Mr. Cuming. Those brought 
on the present evening under the notice of the Society were accom- 
panied by characters by Mr. G. B. Sowerby. They comprised the 
following species of the 

Genus Pecten. 

Pecten subnodosus. Pect. testd subaquivalvi, aquilaterali, uu- 
riculis irKEqualibus ; striis radiantibus numerosissimis, radiisque 
decern, crassis, rotundatis, alternatim nodosa -vesicularibus vel 
subnodosis ; intus plerumque purpurea signatd: lang.5'25,lat.2'7o, '- "- 
alt. 5" poll. 

Variat a, colore rufo-fuscescente, striis albis. Hub. ad Sinum Cali- 
fornise. 

/3, coloribus subvariegatis pictd seu fused, maculis albis utplurimum 
notatd. Hab. ad Insulam Platse, Columbia Occidentalis. 

y, testd depressiore, colore aurantiaco nitente. Hab. ad Sinum Te- 
huantepec, Mexicanorum. 

Found in sandy mud and coral sand in from ten to seventeen 
fathoms.— G. B. S. 

Pecten magnificus. Pect. testd subaquivalvi, aquilaterali, auri- 
culis inmqualibus ; striis radiantibus exiguis numerosissimis, radi- 
isque tredecim, crassiusculis, rotundatis, nonnunquam subnodosis ; 
intus albd purpurea marginatd : long. 5 5, lat. 2", alt. 5' 5 poll. '' ^ 

Variat a, colore sanguineo nitente. Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

jo, testd fused, maculis albidis variegatd. Hab. ad Insulam Platse, I?. /7. 
Columbiae Occidentalis. 

A single specimen of var. a was found in coral sand at a depth of 
six fathoms : var. /3 was also found in coral sand in seventeen faliioms. 
— G. B. S. 

Pecten dentatus. Pect. testd valdi inaquivalvi, (cquilaterali, au- 
riculis aqualibus ; valvd planulatd sulcato-radiatd et striatd, alterd 
valdi convexd, lavigatd, radiatim sulcatd, tnargine ventrali pro- 
fundi dentato : long. 3'75, lat. 1'5, alt. Z' 5 poll. 
Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

Found among sand and stones in twelve fathoms. 
The flat valve is of a dark brown colour outside, white with a broad 
dark purple margin within ; it falls deeply into the convex valve, 
whose margin is deeply cut between the ribs ; this latter valve is of 
a brownish colour outside, and nearly white within. — G. B. S. 

Pecten tumidus. Pect. testd subincequivalvi, tequilaterali, auriculis 
magnis, subcequalibus ; valvd alterd turgidd, fusco rufescente al- 
bidoque variegatd, radiatim IS-costatu, costis superni planulatis, 
interstitiis transversim striatis, alterd turgidiore, albicante, radi- 
atim sulcatd, costis interstitialibus latioribus, planulatis, lateribus 



% 



110 

fusco-variis s marginibus ventralibus acute dentatis : hng. 1'75, 

lat. \', alt. 175 foil. 
Hah. ad Sanctam Elenam et ad Salango, Columbise Occidentalis. 
Found in sandy mud at from six to ten fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Pecten circularis. Pect. testd suborbiculari, tumidd, subcequivalvi, 
aquilaternli, fusco alboque varid, auriculis magnis, subtequalibus ; 
costis radiantibus octodecim interstitiis latioribus, arcuatim striatis; 
valvd alterd sulcis profundioribus : long. 1-5, lat. 0'8, alt. 1'4 poll. 

Hab. ad Sinum Califomise. (Guaymas.) 

Found in sandy mud at a depth of seven fathoms. — G. B. S. 

Pecten aspersus. Pect. testd suborbiculari, depressiusculd, sub- 
(Bquivalvi, cequilaterali, auriculis incequalibus, dextrd majusculd ; 
valvarum alterd radiatim costatd, pallescente seu albd, costis qua- 
tuordecim majoribus, rotundatis, leevibus, alterd radiatim costatd, 
costis quindecim acutioribus, fuscis, punctulis ccerulescentibus 
aspersis, interstitiis tenuissime transversim striatis , pallescentibus : 
long. 1'4, lat. 0'5, alt. 13 poll. 

Hab. ad Tumbez, Peruviae. 

Dredged in soft mud at a depth of five fathoms. This species has 
sometimes a fevi^ irregular blotches of white sprinkled over the darker 
coloured valve. — G. B. S. 

, Pecten spiNiFERtrs. Pect. testd subovatd, depressiusculd, suitequi- 
t*\. valvi, cequilaterali, auriculis inaqualibus, sinistrd majore ; valvis 
radiatim costatis, costis utriusque novem, latis, squamuliferis, 
squamulis fimbriatis ; valvae alterius marginibus dorsali, antico, 
posticoque spiniferis: long. 0'9, lat. 0'25, alt. 0'9. 
Hab. ad Insulam Lord Hood's dictam, Oceani Pacifici. 
A single specimen of this beautiful little shell was taken on the 
reefs in coral sand. — G. B. S. 

Pecten parvus. Pect. testd subovatd, depressiusculd, subcequivalvi, 
«, aquilaterali, albicante, auriculis incequalibus, graniferis ; valvis 

radiatim costatis, costis octo intequalibus, transversim striatis ; 

interstitiis radiatim sulcatis et transversim striatis : long. 0*7, lat. 

0-25, alt. OS poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Lord Hood's dictam, Oceani Pacifici. 
Found in coral sand on the reefs. — G. B. S. 

Genus Xylophaga. 

Xylofhaga globosa. Xyl. testd globosd, margine dorsali postico 
declivi, valvis accessoriis majusculis : long. 0'4, lat. 0"35, alt. 0'35 
poll. 
Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

Found in a piece of wood dredged from a depth of a hundred 
fathoms.— G. B. S. 



h 



Ill 

A paper was read comprising " Descriptions of a few Jn'oatebraied 
Animals obtained at the Isle of France," by Robert Templeton, 
Esq. It was accompanied by coloured drawings of the new species 
described in it, which were exhibited. 

Of these animals two belong to the Radiated division of the ani- 
mal kingdom. They may be characterized as follows : 

Actinia sanguineo-punctata. Act. Jlavescenti-rufescens, 
punctis sanguineis cotifertis pei- scries longitudinales numerosas 
dispositis ornata ; ore guttis cceruleis quinque circundato ; tenta- 
culis viridcscentibus, hyalinis. 

Hah. vix uncialis, super saxa. 

Xenia Desjardiniaka. Xen. pallide livido-ccertilea ; polypis 
8-, rariiis dradiatis. 

Hab. super lapides prope Black River. 

The mass from which the polypes arise is spread over the sur- 
face of the stones to the extent, in many places, of more than a foot. 
It is usually about an eighth of an inch in thickness, and appears to 
be composed of an infinite interlacing of tubular stems. From the 
sides of these stems are given off peduncles, each of which termi- 
nates in a disc having a central mouth and eight (rarely nine) rays. 
These rays are simple on their under or outer surface, pectinated 
along their edges, and furnished on the upper or inner surface with 
short processes, having cupped or sucker-like extremities. The 
discs are perpetually in motion, waving from side to side as though 
in search of objects ; and when anything comes in contact with 
their rays or tentacula, the suckers instantaneously close in upon it, 
and the tentaculum doubles itself up like a finger and conveys the 
prey to the mouth : if the object be large, two or three of the tenta- 
cula are employed. When the prey is so large as not to admit of 
its being swallowed, the tentacida relax their hold and allow it to 
escape. 

The remaining two belong to the Annulose type, "and appear to 
represent two genera among the Annelida, nearly allied to the 
SerpulidcB. 

Anisomelus. 

Os tentaculis simplicibus octo, per paria dispositis, filiformibus, 
prehensilibus instructum. 

Branchia? simplices, tentaculiformes, pedibus baud multo longi- 
ores, in segmentis corporis quatuor anterioribus sitae. 

Testa cylindrica, calcarea, erecta, ad basin in saxis immersa. 

Obs. Numero et symmetria tentaculorum, necnon branchiarum 
simplicitate?, a Terebelld caeterisque generibus affinibus distinguitur. 

Anisomelus luteus. 

Long, corporis vix 4^ unc. 

Hab. in saxis corallinis apud Black River. 



112 

Of the eight tentacula of this Annelide, one pair, that towards the 
ventral aspect, is short, and the opposite pair is long, being fully 
equal in length to the entire body : the intermediate pairs are inter- 
mediate also in length. When undisturbed, the animal projects 
from its tube or shell as far as the fifth or sixth segment, swinging 
itself from side to side, and moving its tentacida about. If anything 
is discovered suitable for food, the extremity of one or more of the 
tentacula is rolled around it, and by this means the substance is con- 
veyed to the mouth. The tentacula are numerously ringed, and 
have in their interior a tube in which oval globules are distinctly 
seen moving to and fro, as the motions of the tentacula affect a few 
contiguous rings. 

PiRATESA. 

Os tentaculis seu branchiis numerosis, longe ciliatis, subulatis, 
simplici serie dispositis, cinctum. 

Testa cylindrica, calcarea, erecta, e saxo parum prominente. 

Obs. Genus propter tentaculorum branchiferorum dlspositionem 
a Sabelld, Cuv., sejungendum, 

PiRATESA NIGRO-ANNULATA. Pir. brunnea, tentaculis pallidio- 
ribus nigra confertim interrupte annulatis. 

Hab. in saxis corallinis apud Black River. 

The cilia of the tentacida arise in a single row along each edge of 
the upper surface, and turn in upon any substance that is seized so 
as to embrace it tightly : when at rest, they are doubled up into 
little coils or knots, and are only expanded when the animal is 
searching for food. When engaged in this operation it elevates 
itself out of the tube, turns the disc down with very deliberate mo- 
tion towards the adjacent part of the stone, and apparently exa- 
mines the surface with minute attention ; the tentacula at this time 
being constantly moved about so as to ensure the entrapping of 
any animal that may rest within their reach. 



113 



August 11, 1835. 
Dr. Horsfield in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by J. B. Harvey, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., and dated Teignmouth, June 7, 1835. It 
referred to the writer's success in dredging over the rocky ground 
oft' Torquay, whence he anticipates that he shall obtain many in- 
teresting Corallines and Asferice, A selection from those already 
collected by him, including a specimen of the genus Comatula, 
accompanied the letter and were exhibited. 

Mr. Harvey states that the specimen of Caryophyllia Smithii, re- 
ferred to in a previous letter, (page 4,) is still living in his possession 
and is quite healthy. " The half one by the side of it, which was 
broken in forcing it from the rocks, is also alive, and has nearly 
reproduced the round shell : the cup was destroyed, at the time it 
came into my hands, for considerably more than half its circumfer- 
ence; in the course of the eight months which have since elapsed 
the reproduction has been such as nearly to complete the circumfer- 
ence of the cup. The Pyrgomata on the coralline are also alive." 

Mr. Burton, at the request of the Chairman, placed upon the 
table a specimen of the species of Ratelus originally described by 
Pennant as the Indian Badger, and by Shaw under the name of 
Ursus Indicus. To aid in its comparison with the Ratel of the 
Cape of Good Hope, from which Mr. Burton regards it as distinct, 
he describes it in considerable detail. 

" This animal, which evidently belongs to the last genus of Cu- 
vier's arrangement of the Plantigrades, measures from the tip of the 
nose to the extremity of the tail 3 feet 3 inches, of which the head 
and neck occupy IHinches, leaving 21^ for the length of the body. 
The anterior extremity is 8 inches long, exclusive of the nails ; the 
posterior about 6. The length of the head may be about 6'^ inchesj 
but the great thickness of the neck, the outline of which is con- 
tinuous with the vertex, renders the exact occipital termination of 
the head imperceptible. From the extremity of the nose to the 
inner angle of the eye is 2 inches : from the same point to the ex- 
ternal opening of the ear is 44-. From the comparative length of 
the body and limbs it results that the animal is very low on the 
legs (or, as the French authors term it, trapu), long in relation to 
its height, and necessarily higher before than behind. When 
standing, it cannot be computed at more than 9 or 10 inches high 
at the shoulder, and about 6 or 7 at the crupper. 

" The head is rather small for the size of the neck and body. 
The eye is likewise remarkably diminutive, the distance between 
the extreme points of the canthi being less than half an inch, an 
opening which leaves little space for the eyeball externally. There 

No. XXXH. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



114 

is no external ear : the rudiments of it may indeed be faintly traced 
in some parts surrounding the meatus externus ; but these are level 
with the surrounding skin. Below there is a hard low ridge, or ra- 
ther thickening of the integument, and on the opposite side of the 
opening, a small raised tubercle, which maybe considered as vestiges 
of the tragus and antitragus; but beyond these obscure indications 
there is nothing conformable to the character of an auricle. 

" The toes of the fore feet are five in number, and are armed with 
enormous claws or nails, of which the internal one rises so high on 
the foot that its extremity is parallel with the origin of the second : 
this last and the fourth are equal ; the length of their nails about 1^^ 
inch : the nail of the middle one is the longest of all, being about 
I4- inch in length : the length of the outer one is nearly 1 inch. 
The superior aspect of the nail presents a surface of some thick- 
ness, rounded off at the edges ; the under surface is concave, and 
the edge reduced to a mere line, except towards the point where 
the lamirKs separate. The lateral surfaces of these nails are per- 
fectly flat, so as to adapt them for accurate apposition to each 
other; and the toes being also short and flattened at their sides, it 
is to be concluded that the whole are closely approximated when 
the animal works in the ground, and that the foot is thus formed 
into a broad and powerful spathe. 

" The character of the hind foot is essentially different : the toes 
are less developed, and the nails very short, and comparatively feeble. 
On the under surface the lamincE of the nails are separated to such 
an extent, that a deep o\a\ Jbssa is formed between them. The 
plant of this foot protrudes so much that it is almost globular, in 
in consequence of which the short nails do not reach near the 
ground. 

" The dental formulary is that of Ratelus Capensis. The teeth 
are fewer than in any other genus of the same tribe, as might be 
expected from the abruptness of the head anterior to the eyes, and 
the shortness of the mouth. The four middle incisors of the lower 
jaw are the smallest and most feeble : the two external ones of 
this range and the four middle ones of the upper jaw are somewhat 
larger and stronger. In this last the two outer incisors differ essen- 
tially from all the others, and partake of the character of canines. 
They are at least three times as large as the adjoining ones, strong, 
round, and curved inwards. The true canines are powerful teeth : 
those of the lower jaw, when the mouth is shut, are imbedded in a 
space between the upper external incisor and canine ; the lower 
ones approximate closeljf to the external incisors. The front molar 
of the lower jaw is very small ; the others gradually increase in 
size to the last, which is long, has two points, and a tuberculated 
surface behind. The great carnivorous tooth of the upper jaw has 
a tubercle or heel projecting inwards : the breadth of the posterior 
tooth of this jaw exceeds its length ; so that in these characters it 
approaches the Miistelida. 

" The colour of the animal is black with the exception of the 
back and upper parts of the head and neck, although a few black 
hairs thinly scattered along the middle of the back give a faint gray 



115 

tint to the super-vertebral region, which, however, is soon lost in 
the white of either side. White also prevails along the dorsal 
aspect of" the tail to within an inch of its termination, where it is 
lost in the black of the point. The margin of the white colour forms 
a concave line across the face, whence, descending along the side of 
the neck, ribs, flanks, and rump', it meets the line of the opposite 
side on the tail. The remaining parts, including the extremities, 
are, as before stated, more or less black. 

" As the animal approaches the Ursine tribe in its form and planti- 
grade movement and the Weasels in its dentition, so with respect to 
its integuments it bears some analogy to the Porcine Pachydermata. 
The skin is tough, thick, and hard ; the hairs are long, loose, 
coarse, and scanty, without vestige of the finer wool which imme- 
diately envelopes the skin of so many other animals. They are, 
however, much thicker on the upper than on the lower surface 
both of the body and limbs. On the posterior parts of the thighs 
they are so long as almost to form tufts ; on the front of the fore 
legs they are also very long, and their course is here directly across 
the limb. On the sides of the neck the lay of the black hairs is 
precisely vertical, thus meeting the white ones, whose course is 
longitudinal, exactly at righc angles. Round the opening of the 
ears there is a peculiar circular ring of hairs, about half an inch in 
breadth, which bears a rude similitude to the feathered circles sur- 
rounding the eyes of the nocturnal birds of prey. The face and jaws 
are nearly naked, scarcely any traces of hair being observable in 
these parts .- the whole ventral aspect is also remarkably destitute 
of this covering. A few long black hairs are here and there met 
with on the chest, belly, and under surface of the extremities, but 
not in sufficient quantity to conceal the skin. There is also a line 
along the inferior surface of the tail entirely denuded of hair. The 
integuments round the anus are naked, and dilated into a kind of 
circular bag or pouch, though not to a considerable extent. The 
specimen from which this description is taken is a male. 

" It is impossible to examine this animal, even in the most cur- 
sory manner, without coming to the conclusion that it is wonder- 
fully adapted for making its way beneath the surface of the earth. 
The powerful fore leg, armed with enormous claws; the cuneiform 
head ; the face deprived of hair ; the minute and sunken eye ; the 
entire absence of external ear ; the strong and muscular neck and 
shoulder ; the comparative diminution of the posterior extremities, 
whereby the bulk of the hinder parts is lessened ; the naked abdo- 
men; — all unite to characterize it preeminently as a digger. And 
in fact, among the population of its native regions, it is said that it 
seeks its choicest food in the cemeteries, and such is its dexterity in 
tearing open the graves of the dead, that no tomb is sacred from 
its attacks. The latter part of this account is probably in some 
degree overstated ; but it has, at all events, in those parts obtained 
the appellation of tlie Gravedigge?: The generic term of Storr, • 
Mcllivora, although it may suit the African species, is consequently 
peculiarly inappropriate in reference to this. 

"It is a native of the upper provinces of Bengal, where, however. 



116 

it is said to be rare. The present specimen, which is in excellent 
condition, was brought from thence by Dr. Sandham, surgeon of 
the 11th Light Dragoons, by whom it was presented to the Museum 
of the Army Medical Department. It is brought under the notice 
of this Society with the sanctionof the Director General, Sir James 
McGrigor, Bart. 

" This animal has been almost entirely neglected by systematic 
writers. It was alluded to by Pennant, but in so short, vague, and 
unsatisfactory a manner, that it is impossible to form any distinct 
notion of it. Shaw followed and copied the few words of Pennant 
which relate to it, and termed it Ursus Jndicus. Lastly, the late 
General Hardwicke, whose talents and perseverance made him fa- 
miliar with the natural history of Northern India, published some 
account of it in the 11th volume of the 'Linnean Transactions'. 
But it does not appear that he considered it as different from the 
Rat. Capensis, or was sufficiently aware of its peculiarities to enable 
him to erect it into a distinct species. A specimen formerly living 
in the collection of this Society was understood to have been 
brought from Madras. 

" In the synopsis of Mamynalia, in Griffith's translation of the 
'Animal Kingdom', there is merely a note stating that the Ursus 
Indicus of Shaw is probably a variety of the Ratel. The French 
authors have entirely neglected it ; neither the Baron nor M. F. 
Cuvier makes any mention of it. M. Lesson, still later, asserts that 
there is but one species in this genus ; ' On n'en connait qu'une 
seule espece, — Ratel du Cap.' " — E. B. 

Mr. Burton subsequently exhibited a specimen of an Agriopus, 
Cuv., which he regarded as hitherto undescribed. He character- 
ized it as the 

Agriopus unicolor. Agr. brunneo-Julvus ; dentibiis setaceis 
maxillaribus ; radiis moUibus pinnce dorsalis quatuoj-decitn, 
analis decern. 

"This Jish bears a general resemblance to Agr. torvus, Cuv.& Val., 
the type of the genus. Its length is nearly similar, but the body is 
more slender and compressed, particularly towards the middle. 
The lower outline is sufficiently regular. The dorsal line from the 
eighth to the fourteenth spinous ray is somewhat concave, if, how- 
ever, this effect be not produced by imperfect stuffing. The eyes 
protrude less than in Agr. torvus. The profile furnishes one of the 
most marked distinctions between the two species : that part be- 
tween the eyes, instead of being vertical, slopes considerably ; and 
the line of the snout, in place of descending in an angle of about 
forty-five degrees, is very nearly horizontal, or in a line with the 
body. The mouth is somewhat deeper. 

" The next remarkable variation is in the teeth. The observation 
which Cuvier and M. Valenciennes have applied to those oi Agr. 
torvus — * c'est a peine si Ton sent aux machoires queiques petits 
dents en velours ' — is by no means applicable here. On the con- 
trary, they are very conspicuous, rather 'en carde' than 'en 



117 

velours ', and are irregularly crowded on the maxillaries. Those 
towards the angle of the mouth are somewhat longer. The lines of 
ossific granulations, which, passing forwards from the superciliary 
ridges, unite in an angle on the forehead, are much more distinct : 
the appearance of those clustered on the posterior suborbitary and 
temporal bones is much the same in both species. The upper divi- 
sion of the border of the operculum approaches nearer to a semi- 
circular form. 

" The attachment of the pectorals and ventrals, as well as their 
general form and number of rays, is also alike. The dorsal presents 
some valuations ; the height of the first spine being only two fifths 
of that of the second, the latter and the fourth equal, and the third 
somewhat the longest of all. The emargination in the membrane be- 
tween the second, third, fourth, and fifth spinous rays is obviously 
deeper. The number of soft rays exceeds that of Agr. torvus by 
one, being fourteen in number. The anal has also one additional 
ray. 

D.21 -i- 14; A. 1 -f 10; P. 1 4- 8; &c. 

The caudal has nothing worthy of note, unless its termination is 
more lunated ; but this distinction must be received with caution, 
as the injury commonly sustained in this part by dried specimens 
renders its character equivocal. 

" The skin is smooth, equally free from scales, warts, tubercles, 
or protuberances of any kind, with the exception of the granulations 
on the head before mentioned. It is of a yellowish brown colour 
throughout, darker on the upper part of the head, and above the 
lateral line ; lighter below, the lightest part being immediately 
posterior to the operculum. This description is taken from the 
dried specimen ; what variations occur in the fresh subject I have 
no means of ascertaining. Towards the superior edge of the dorsal, 
and over the ventrals and caudal, the colour becomes yet darker : 
the pectorals incline to blackish. The black bars and blotches 
which prevail throughout the dark ground co\oar oi Agr. torvus are 
entirely absent in this species. The lateral line is nearly straight, 
marked as it passes along the anterior part of the body by distant 
and obscure tubercles, all traces of which disappear at the com- 
mencement of the soft dorsal. These are the principal distinctions 
between this fish and Agr. torvus, with which it has probably hi- 
therto been confounded. 

"A remark of Cuvier and M, Valenciennes in the ' Histoire Na- 
turelle des Poissons,' supposes the existence of other species, al- 
though the little there said is not applicable to this: ' Parmi nos 
individus, il s'en trouve un dont la peau est toute brune,' (so far only 
it accords with our description) ' mais relevee partout en petites 
bosselures arrondies, comme des vermes peu saillantes. Nous ne 
Savons s'il appartient a une espece differente, ou si ce n'est qu'une , 
variete.* It may not unreasonably be assumed from the above 
description that this is a distinct species, under which impression it 
has been brought under the notice of this Society, 

" It is an inhabitant of the Cape seas, from whence the presertt 



118 

specimen, which forms part of the collection of the Army Medical 
Department at Chatham, was brought." — E. B. 

Mr. Gray exhibited various species of the Linnean genus Venus, 
in illustration of the subdivisions into other generic groups which 
appeared to him to be, in the present state of the science, valid. 
He pointed out the characters of these several genera ; referred to 
the types of each ; and noticed many hitiierto undescribed species 
contained either in his own collection or in that of the British Mu- 
seum. 

Mr. Bennett called the attention of the Society to a Paradoxure 
now living at the Gardens, which he regarded as previously unde- 
scribed. He characterized it as the 

Paradoxurus Grayi. Par. vellere denso, subcequali ; olivaceo- 
Jhlvescens cinereo tinctus, subtus pallidior ; facie, auriculis , pedi- 
busque nigris, illius vitta nasali, Ja&cid abbreviata suboculari, . 
Jronteque cinereis. 

Long, corporis cum capite, circiter 20 unc. ; caiidcB paullo major. 

Hab. in India. 

The fur of the animal, unlike that of Par. Ti/pus, F. Cuv., and 
some other closely related species, is nearly of equal length, and is 
dense and in some degree woolly. Its colour above is a light ful- 
vous brown, showing in certain lights a strong cinereous tinge, 
owing to the black tips of many of the hairs. Beneath it is lighter, 
and has a more cinereous tinge. The limbs are ash-coloured and 
deeper in intensity towards the feet, which are black. The tail is 
throughout of the same colour with the body. The ears are 
rounded, covered with hairs, and nearly black. The face is black, 
with the exception of the forehead, of a longitudinal dash down the 
middle of the nose, and of a blotch-like short oblique band under 
each eye ; these markings being grey. There are no traces of lon- 
gitudinal bands or spots on the body. 

The separate hairs are dusky at the base and pale yellowish in 
the middle : they are tipped with black. 

The tail is constantly twisted in the manner in which it is occa- 
sionally borne by Par. Typus, and cannot be rendered straight. 

As the specimen was purchased of a dealer, the precise part of 
India in which it was captured cannot be ascertained. 



Hi) 



August 25, 1835. 

William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by Captain Manby, 
R.N., dated Yarmouth, Aug. 22, 1835, and announcing the strand- 
ing of an enormous whale, near Southwold in Suffolk, on the 19th 
of August. Captain Manby states that it is of the species denomi- 
nated by Linneeus, Balcena Physalus. 

Drawings were exhibited of three Fishes captured at Port Praya, 
by Capt. P. P. King, R.N., Corr. Memb. Z. S. They were commu- 
nicated by Mr. Broderip. They comprised representations of Ser- 
ranus tceniops, Cuv. &Val. ; Sargiis Jasciatus,'Eo'c.; and an Acan- 
thurus, apparently hitherto undescribed, the 

AcANTHURUs KiNGii. Ac.purpureo-virescens, supra lineis azureis 
undulntis interruptis numerosis longitudinnliter notatus ; oper- 
culorum margine, pinnce pectoralis macnld, dorsaiis bast, macu- 
luqiie ovali spinam caudalem cingente nifescenti-Jlavis : pinnd 
caudali lunatd. 

D. JO + 27. A. 3 + 25. P. 17. V. 1 -|- 5. C. 16. 

Long. tot. 121- unc, alt. corporis, 4|-; \ong.radiorum piniice dor- 
saiis, H; lat. inter oculos, 1, ad pinnas pectorales, 1|. 

Besides the markings enumerated, there is a blue line at the 
lower part of the soft portion of the dorsal fin, separating it from 
the reddish yellow streak of its base. The branchial rays are red- 
dish yellow. 

The teeth are eighteen above and sixteen below : they are cre- 
nated and closely set. The scales are small, ovate, square at the 
outer margin, and minutely serrated. 

The following Notes, by Mr. Owen, on the anatomy of the Kin. 
Icajou, Cercoleptes caudivolvidus , 111., were read. 

" The anatomy of an animal which is the sole representative of its 
genus, and which, in its external form and habits, manifests a rela- 
tionship with genera belonging to two different orders of its class, 
must always be a desirable addition to zoological science. The 
death of the KinJcajou, which has been for the last two or three 
years in the Menagerie, has afforded the opportunity of determining 
the natural affinities of a somewhat anomalous form, and of thus 
compensating in some degree the loss of a living specimen, by the 



120 

additional facts contributed in consequence to the science which 
it is our object to advance. 

" It is not in my province to enter upon an external description 
of the Kinkajou, nor is such an account now required, since it has 
already been given, with more or less of detail, by the best syste- 
matic zoologists of the last half century. Its interest, as an 
osculant form, may be gathered by a simple reference to the modes 
in which it has been considered and classified by different authors, 
and to the synonyms indicative of the different degrees of import- 
ance attributed by them to its outward peculiarities. Classed 
among the Viverridce by Shaw, under the name of the prehensile 
Weasel, and raised to the Quadrumana by Pennant, as the yelloxu 
Macauco, it holds a somewhat intermediate station in the system of 
Cuvier, who places it in the Plantigrade family of Carnivora, under 
the generic name Cercoleptes, applied to it by llliger. 

" In the following description of the anatomy of the Cercoleptes, 
I shall therefore consider it with reference more especially to the 
Lemures and the Plantigrade Carnivora. 

" The specimen measured in length, from the end of the nose to 
the root of the tail, 1 foot 4 inches ; and the length of the tail was 
1 foot 5 inches. 

" There were no clavicles, not even in a rudimentary state. The 
clavicular portion of the sterno-mastoideus arose from the cartilage 
of the first rib, and the corresponding portion of \he deltoid itom the 
transverse processes of the lower cervical vertebra. 

" The abdominal viscera were protected by a large omentum 
streaked with fat. The cesophagus was continued about an inch 
into the abdomen, and entered the stomach about an inch from the 
left extremity. The pyloric extremity of the stomach was bent up- 
wards abruptly, and suddenly became narrow. 

" The duodenum made a large semicircular sweep downwards, 
backwards, and to the left, being loosely connected by a wide du- 
^Mcatare o^peritoneu7n for the greater part of its course; it was also 
connected with the colon by a fold of peritoneum continued from it. 
The remainder of the intestinal canal was disposed in rather large 
folds, connected to a mesentery about 2 inches broad, in which the 
mesenteric vessels formed only a single series of arches. The dia- 
meter of the small intestine was about half an inch, becoming 
somewhat less towards the colon. There was a slight constriction 
indicating exteriorly the commencement of the large intestine, and 
better marked within by a sudden thickening of the muscular coat, 
and the commencement of a few narrow longitudinal folds of the mu- 
cous membrane, but there was no cacum. 

" The whole length of the intestinal canal was 6 feet 6 inches ; 
the length of the large intestine was only 5 inches. At its termi- 
nation it became very muscular, and the lining membrane was 
thrown into irregularl}'^ transverse ruga;. In the rest of the intes- 
tinal canal, with the exception of the longitudinal folds above men- 
tioned, the mucous membrane was smooth and uniform. 



121 

<« The liver was composed of three principal divisions, of which 
the left had a small appendix at its under surface. The middle or 
cystic division was deeply cleft into three lobes, the round liga- 
ment passing into the left notch, and the gall-bladder being lodged 
in the right, with its Jundus on a level with the upper convex sur- 
face of the gland. The right division of the liver was also cleft into 
three lobes, which were again further subdivided by shallower fis- 
sures, the smallest lobe occupying the usual place of the lobulus 
Spigelii, viz. the lesser curvature of the stomach. 

" The gall-bladder had an entire investment of peritoneum, and 
two of the primordial ccEca had been dilated and retained in their 
original simple condition to form this receptacle: one of them was, 
however, much less than the other, appearing as a small vesicle ap- 
pended to the origin of the cystic duct. I have met with similar 
structures in other animals: in the Hyrax Capensis there were two 
accessory gall receptacles; and in a preparation in the Hunterian 
collection, three hepatic ccBca have been almost equally developed 
to form the biliary reservoir (this is from some small quadruped, 
species unknown. No. 820, Gallery Catalogue). I dwell more par- 
ticularly on this circumstance, because it is an anomaly which has 
not, so far as I know, been described, and because it throws some 
light on that part of the structure of the liver which is generally al- 
lowed to be still left in the most uncertain state, viz. the ultimate 
disposition of the biliary ducts. It obviously accords best with the 
opinion of Miiller, that the tubtdi biliarii terminate in, or rather 
commence from, blind extremities. 

'* The pancreas consisted of a transverse and circular portion, 
the latter following the curve of the duodenum; the duct termi- 
nated, with the ductus choledochus, 2 inches from the pylorus. 

" The spleen occupied the usual situation ; was 4 inches long, 
H inch broad, and \ an inch thick ; its weight 13^- drachms ; it was 
of the usual elongated trihedral shape. 

" The kidneys were situated high in the loins, the right higher 
than the left, of a somewhat elongated form, with a smooth simple 
exterior, neither notched nor painted with arborescent veins, as in 
the typical Carnivora. The tubuli uriniferi terminated on a simple 
elongated mamilla, formed by the union of five lateral processes. 
The ureters entered, as usual, behind the neck of the bladder. 

" The supra-renal glands were very small, reddish coloured, and 
healthy, although imbedded in a dense strumous mass which occu- 
pied the interspace of the kidneys. 

*' The ovaries were a little larger than peas, with a smooth ex- 
terior, enveloped in a loose serous capsule having only a small open- 
ing turned towards the horn of the uterus, and in which the head of 
a probe could be with difficulty admitted. They were suspended 
by a duplicature o^ peritoneum continued from the lower end of each 
kidnev. 

" The length of the corpus uteri was 1 inch ; of each cornu 2 
inches ; of the true vagina ^ of an inch ; of the urethro-sexual 
canal 1 inch. A well-marked transverse fold divides this from the 



122 

vagina. There were no anal scent-bags, but merely superficial fol- 
licles. In this respect Cercoleptes has a nearer affinity to Ursus, in 
which the anal bags are very small and shallow, than to the Weasel 
tribe, in which they are largely developed. 

" The tongue was long, smooth, flat, and slightly emarginate 
at the tip. It had seven fossulate papilla ; the three nearest to the 
epiglottis, and forming the apex of the triangle, were the smallest. 
There was a long and large elastic l^tta, ligamentous anteriorly, 
cellular posteriorly, surrounded by a muscular sheath of circular 
fibres. 

" The tonsils were large and oblong. There was no uvula. The 
epiglottis was well developed, with a pointed apex. There were 
two narrow, shallow slits in place of laryngeal sacculi. The thy- 
roid glands were separate, oblong, pointed at their lower extre- 
mities. There were more than twenty-five tracheal rings, which 
were incomplete behind. 

" The brain of the Kinhajou is characterized by convolutions dis- 
posed as in the Carnivora generally ; but the anterior transverse an- 
fractuosity (marked No. 1. in Plate XX. of the 'Zoological Society's 
Transactions') runs more obliquely from within, outwards and for- 
wards, and there is a greater proportion of brain anterior to it. 
The general form of the brain is longer and narrower than in the 
Cat. The cerebellum is separated from the cerebrum by a strong 
bony tentorunn. 

"The morbid appearances in the parts examined by me were 
small firm tubercles studding the liver, spleen, and kidneys ; a 
large tuberculous mass between the kidneys ; and a similar mass 
occupying the place of the mesenteric glands: both these masses 
were of scirrhous hardness, and of an irregular fibrous structure in 
the middle. 

" In the note-book of our medical superintendent, Mr. Youatt, is 
the following record of the illness of the Kinkajou: 

" ' May I7th. Has not been well for some days ; dull, and of? 
its food. A little castor-oil operated well. 

" < May 23rd. Dismissed well. 

" ' May 26th. Again off its food. 

" 'June 3rd. No symptom of serious illness. 

"' June 7th. Spirits and appetite gonej sad heaving at the 
flanks. There is deeply seated organic mischief. 

" ' June 10th. Sinking. 

" « June 1.5th. Died.' 

" In his description of the morbid appearances, Mr. Youatt ob- 
.serves : ' When I attempted to cut through the diaphragm, in order 
to bring the lungs into view, I met with a hardness which I could 
with difficulty cut, and which creaked under the knife. When I 
got the contents of the thorax fairly out, I found adhesions under 
the diaphragm, but not a vestige either of pericardium or mediasti- 
num ; in lieu of them was a hardened, almost cartilaginous mass, 
presenting a convex surface superiorly, adapting itself to the form 
of the thorax, with a hollow formed in it, which contained the 



123 

heart; and a prolongation on either side becoming thinner and thin- 
ner, until at the base was some vestige of membrane. The heart 
was contained in this cavity, but its vessels, both pulmonary and 
arterial, were apparently lengthened in order to reach the lungs. 
The lungs, pressed out of their place by this unnatural body, were 
diminished in size ; the substance softened, half pultaceous, and, 
when squeezed, a purulent matter escaped. There were also nu- 
merous minute tubercles in the substance of the lungs. The animal 
had wasted almost to a skeleton.' 

" We may therefore regard the complaint of the KinJcajoii as 
being a long-continued strumous disease, in which some of the tu- 
berculous deposits, instead of suppurating, had become partially or- 
ganized, and the cellular septa rendered ligamentous. 

" I conclude with a few observations on the affinities of the genus 
Cercoleptes, as they are elucidated by the preceding anatomical ac- 
count. 

" Besides the differences of outward form which the Kinkajou 
presents, as compared with the Lemur, in the shorter muzzle, the ab- 
sence of the hinder thumb, and the presence of the prehensile tail, 
as well as in the quality of the hair and the dentition, the following 
important discrepancies occur in the internal anatomy of these two 
genera : 

" In Lemur the intestinal canal is above six times the length of 
the animal's body ; in the Kinkajou it is scarcely five. In Lemtir 
it is also complicated by a cacum of considerable length (measur- 
ing 15 inches in the riiffed Lemur, according to Mr. Martin, and 
which I found of 7^ inches in length in a Lemur nigrifrons). The 
colon also in the Leinures, is largely developed, (measuring upwards 
of 2 feet, ) and is sacculated at its commencement. In the Kiii' 
kajou the large intestine, as in the Raccoon, is separated from the 
small by a slight internal circular projection of the mucous mem- 
brane, and measures only 6 inches in length. The stomach is also 
narrower at the pyloric end, and more bent upon itself than in 
Lemur. 

" With respect to the digestive glands, there are no material dif- 
ferences. In both animals the liver is much subdivided, and the 
Spleen is large. The kidneys are of a simple exterior in the Kin- 
kajou, as in the Raccoon ; not lobulated, as in the true Ursi : in 
this respect they resemble Lemur, but the form is so usual as not to 
authorize any deduction from it. In the generative organs, how- 
ever, the Cercoleptes recedes from the Quadrumanous type further 
than the Lemur, in the extent to which the uterus is divided, and 
the consequently greater length of the cormia, and Fallopian tubes. 
Its nearer affinity to Procyon is also manifested in the disposition of 
the serous capsule about the ovarium, which leaves only a small 
orifice sufficient to admit the end of a probe; while, in Lemur, the 
ovaria are situated, like those of the Q,uadrumana, almost as in the 
human subject. 

" In the osseous system it may be noticed that the Cercoleptes de- 



124 

viates from Lemur, and approximates Procyon and its congeners, in 
the absence of a clavicle and the presence of a bony tentorium. 

" Thus all the more important parts of its anatomy show that its 
true position is in the Carnivorous order, and that it has the closest 
affinities with the Ursijbrm Plantigrada, making, however, the 
nearest approach to the Quadnimanous type in that fantjily." 



125 



Septembers, ISS.'J. 
Thomas Bell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A living lacchus Monkey, lacchus penicillatus, GeofFr., was ex- 
hibited, which had recently been presented to the Society by Mrs. 
Moore of Rio de Janeiro. It was accompanied by a note, in which 
it was stated to have been obtained from the province of Bahia. 
*' Like most monkeys, it will eat almost anything; but its chief and 
favourite food, in its wild state, is the Banana. It is a very delicate 
animal, and requires great warmth ; and its very beautiful tail is, in 
this respect, eminently conducive to the comfort of the little crea- 
ture, who, on all occasions when he requires warmth, rolls himself 
in the natural boa with which Providence has, in its wisdom, en- 
dowed him." 

A note by Mr. William Smith, relative to the animal of the /ir- 
gonauta Argo, Linn., and forwarded through Mr. Gray, was read. 
The most important statement adduced in it, with reference to the 
question of the parasitic nature of the Cephalopod so frequently found 
in the shell, is thus expressed : " It seems pretty evident that the 
animal found in the Argonauta is a parasite, because, in the Bay of 
Naples, where it is very abundant, the shell is but rarelj' found; 
whereas the Octopus itself is constantly to be met with, and indeed 
is daily to be seen in the common market as an article of food. To 
give some idea of its comparative scarcity in union with the shell, I 
shall merely mention that the usual price of the animal alone is about 
fourpence ; while a specimen inhabiting the shell cannot be obtained 
under five shillings." 

The following Notes, by Mr. Martin, of the dissection of a spe- 
cimen of the small Nocturnal Lemur, Microcebus murinus, Geoffr., 
which lately died at the Society's Gardens, were read. 

" The animal was a male, and doubtless adult, as was sufficiently 
indicated by the development of the sexual organs. Its length 
from the nose to the insertion of the tail was 5 inches ; that of 
the tail, 6 ; the ears were large and naked ; the head was rounded ; 
the muzzle short and pointed ; the eyes were not so large, in pro- 
portion, as in the slender Loris, Loris gracilis, GeoftV., but were 
evidently of a nocturnal character, being extremely resplendent, 
the glare of the tapetum lucidum showing very bright through the 
round dilated pupil. 

" The penis was furnished with a slender bone extending from 
\\\&glans for nearly half an inch. 'The glans was compressed, with 
a lunar-shaped elevation, inclosing a small depression on its an- 

No, XXXIII. — Procekdings of thk Zoological Society. 



126 

terior aspect. The testes were of considerable magnitude, and in- 
closed in a pendent scrotum, which was very conspicuous. 

" On opening the abdomen, two portions of the liver covering the 
stomach, the spleen with its upper end also lying upon tlie stomach, 
the left kidney, a section of the great curvature of the stomach, 
and the convolutions of the intestines, were presented to view. 

"The liver consisted of a middle and a left lobe having an ante- 
rior aspect, and of a right lobe having a dorsal aspect, covered en- 
tirely by the right portion of the middle lobe. This middle lobe 
had two fissures ; that to the left for the insertion of the %awzra;M>?« 
latum ; that to the right, admitting the gall-bladder to appear; the 
bladder itself being situated near the edge, on the under side of 
the lobe, in a continuation of the fissure. On opening the abdomen, 
the gall-bladder as well as the lobe in which it is situated, cannot 
immediately be seen, owing to its dorsal inclination. The gall- 
bladder was very small, being about 3 lines in length : what 
struck me, however, as being very remarkable, was that, contrary 
to the general rule, its neck, or apex, was on the edge of the liver, 
ilsjundns being inwards ; so that the duct made an acute turn at 
its commencement, and then proceeded along the body of the 
bladder ; leaving this, it continued for half an inch, and then re- 
ceived two or thi-ee auxiliary hepatic ducts ; and after a further 
course of the third of an inch, it entered the duodenum little more 
than a quarter of an inch below the pylorus. 

" The spleen was long and slender, measuring 1 inch by a quar- 
ter : it was attached pretty closely to the stomacli. 

*' Of the intestinal canal the duodenum was the largest in cir- 
cumference ; it gradually diminished to the average measure, which 
was rather more than half an inch, that of the large intestines, if 
we may so call them, being scarcely so much. The length of the 
small intestines was 1 foot ; that of the large, 8 inches. The 
stomach was somewhat oval, and the oesophageal and pyloric ori- 
fices were distant only 3 lines ; the measurement of the greater 
curvature was 2^ inches; die circumference, when moderately dis- 
tended, 2^. The ccBcum, somewhat enlarged at its base, was about 
H inch in length, and terminated in a blunt apex. 

The kidneys were compressed in form, and half an inch in length ; 
the tuhuli converged in one large distinct conical papilla. The 
supra-renal glands were closely attached to their upper and inner 
part, and were of the size of small peas. 

" The lungs consisted of two lobes on the left, and three on the 
right side. The heart was pointed ; its length being half an inch. 

" The tongue was pointed, and 1 inch in length : its surface 
was velvety, with soft, small, delicate papillcB. 

" The thyroid glands were oval, and little larger than pin. heads. 

" The submaxillary glands were large. 

" The cesojjhagus was smooth on its internal surface. 

" The trachea consisted of nineteen or twenty rings. 

" The sexual organs were next examined. The length of the penis 
from the piibes was 1 inch ; the erectores muscles were large and 



127 

long ; the testes were oval, and as large as sparrows' eggs, being 4 of 
an inch in length, in breadth 1 an inch, in thickness 3 lines; the 
epididymis, 3 lines in length, was somewhat club-shaped; the cre- 
master muscle was very strong ; the length of the cord to the ab- 
dominal ring was -i of an inch ; the total length of the vasa deferen- 
tia, H inch ; they terminated internally at the root of the vesiadce 
seminales, that is, between them and the bladder; the vesiculce 
seminales were small and tubular, with a turn at the extremity ; 
from their entrance to the bulb of the urethra -j- an inch. 

" Being desirous to ascertain whether the arteries of the extre- 
mities manifested any approximation in their arrangement to what 
obtains in the Lor is gracilis, Geoffr., and the Sloth, Bradypus tridac- 
tylus, Linn., I injected the subclavian and femoral with mercury. 
The distribution was found to be similar to that of other Quadru- 
mana, and without the slightest approach to the plexiform condition 
which was observed in the Loris. The arterial trunks were in fact 
simple, giving off muscular branches in the usual manner, as they 
proceeded. 

" The muscles of the limbs, and especially those of the thighs, 
were remarkably large and firm, conveying an idea of far greater 
strength than would be suspected in so small and delicate an ani- 
mal." 



128 



September 22, 1835. 
William Yarrell, Esq,, in the Chair. 

Some extracts were read from a Letter addressed to the Secre- 
tary by M. F. Cuvier, For. Memb. Z. S., and dated Paris, Septem- 
ber 15, 1835. Among other zoological notices contained in it were 
some remarks on the dentary systems of the three approximating 
genera of Herbivorous Rodentia, Ctenomys, Blainv., Octodon, Benn., 
and Pcephagomys, F. Cuv. M. F. Cuvier states that the teeth of the 
former are destitute of true roots. 

A Letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by J. B. Harvey, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., and dated Teignmouth, September 9, 
J 835. It accompanied some dried specimens of the animal of Ser- 
pula tubularia of Dr, Turton, which were forwarded by the writer 
with the view of demonstrating that the Patella tricornis, Turt., is in 
reality an appendage to that animal, serving as an operculum to its 
shelly tube — a fact which, subsequently to his description of the 
supposed new species of Patella, Dr. Turton appears himself to have 
suspected. The appendage described as the Pat. tricornis is in 
reality the covering of the dilated extremity of the single developed 
tentaculum in the Serpulidous animal forming the shell characterized 
by Dr. Turton as the Serp. tubularia : a similar covering is met with 
in the animals of all the species of Vermilia, Lam., and Galeolaria, 
Ej. ; but not in those of the genus Serpula as restricted by Lamarck. 

Mr. Harvey states that " Two days ago an industrious young 
naturalist, Mr. H. Glossop, of Isleworth, who has accompanied me 
on many dredging excursions, noticed an unusual, as he thought, 
horny substance upon the worm of a Serpula tubularia, which was 
adhering to a shell in salt water, and on examination it proved to be 
the Patella tricornis of Dr. Turton. We have since pulled out and 
examined above a hundred of these Serpulce, all living specimens, 
and have found an operculum upon each of them. I am going to sea 
again on Saturday, and in a iew days it is my intention to send you 
several living specimens, that you ma}' satisfy yourself and the So- 
ciety on this subject : I will forward them by the mail, with a bottle 
of sea-water in the basket, that you may preserve them alive for a 
day or two." 

Mr. Bennett called the attention of the Meeting to a specimen of 
a Crocodile which he had regarded, while it was living in the Soci- 
ety's Gardens, as referrible, on account of the length of its head and 
the extent of the shielding at the back of its neck, to the Crocodibis 



129 

cataphractus , Cuv. A more close examination of it, however, sub- 
sequently to its death, had shown him that its head was still more 
prolonged than that part is described to be in Croc, cataphractus, its 
length being to its breadth as 3 to 1, instead of as 2^ to 1 : it is also 
deficient of the second post-occipital series of four small plates no- 
ticed as occurring in Croc, cataphractus. On these accounts princi- 
pally he stated that he considered it as representing a previously 
undescribed species, which he characterized as 

Crocodilus leptorhynchus. Croc, rostro elongato , capitis la- 
titudine longitudinis partem tertiam aquante ; scutis post-occipi- 
talibus ovalibus parvis duobiis, iiuchalibus per paria quatuor ca- 
taphractis, cum dorsi seriebus continuis. 

Long. tot. 27 unc. ; cranii, 41 ; cranii, ad maxillarum commissu- 
ram, lat. 1|^. 

Hab. apud Fernando Po. 

Denies in maxilla superiore quatuordecim, in inferiore quindecim. 

Notwithstanding the approximation of this species to the Gavials 
by the elongation of its jaws and by the extent to which the back of 
the neck is protected by bony plates, it has all the essential generic 
characters by which the Crocodiles are distinguished. The two pos- 
terior pairs of nuchal plates are much smaller than the two pairs an- 
terior to them. 

The animal having been anatomically examined subsequently to 
its death, the following notes were prepared by Mr. Martin of his 
dissection of the Crocodilus leptorhynchus. 

" The length from the anus to the nose was 1 foot 2 inches; from 
the anus to the tip of the tail, 1 foot 1 inch ; that of the ramtcs of the 
lower jaw, 54- inches. 

" The musk-gland described by Mr, Bell was very small ; and the 
peculiar muscle embracing it and running to the os hyoides was so 
deUcate and slender that it was only to be followed with extreme 
care : the gland contained a small portion of creamy matter scented 
very strongly of musk. 

"The serous cavities (of which, in his account of the Croc, 
aciitus, Mr. Owen gives a detail,) may be described as follows. 
A serous membrane constitutes a sort of pericardium, to which 
the heart is secured at its apex by the membrane reflected from its 
own surface : from this pericardiac membrane is reflected an ex- 
pansion, forming a distinct serous cavity on the anterior surface 
of each lobe of the liver : the pylorus and gall-bladder are in a 
separate serous cavity : and so is the anterior part of the sto- 
mach, the membrane passing from ih.e jmrietcs of the abdomen on 
the left side, uniting with the under part of the stomach, and being 
reflected over its surface. Besides the cavities on the liver alluded 
to, there is another on the right lobe at \ts dorsum, very exten- 
sive, and formed by a process of the pleura : but the pleura is not 



130 

continued to the left lobe. The intestines occupy their own serous 
cavity : but below the pubes a distinct serous cavity contains the 
anterior part of the cloaca or genito-urinary reservoir. The perito- 
neal or serous membrane does not invest the kidneys, but is reflected 
over tlieir anterior (abdominal) surface. 

" The peritoneal canals were very easily made out. They opened 
on each side of the base of the penis, by two orifices capable of ad- 
mitting the point of a fine blow-pipe. In the Croc, acutiis Mr. Owen 
found them to allow barely of the passage of an eye-probe; but in 
the present animal, small as it was, they were far larger; still it 
appeared to me that they could not serve the purpose suggested 
by M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire. Can they be intended to allow of the 
escape of any gaseous secretion, any aeriform fluid, which may fill 
the abdominal serous cavity, and be expelled under certain circum- 
stances, as, for instance, when the animal seeks the deep bed of the 
lake or river? 

" The stomach was globular and flattened, with a glistening ten- 
dinous patch on each side, as large as a shilling, or nearly so. The 
entrance of the oesophagus and the pyloric appendix were close 
together, the appendix being about as large as a good-sized horse- 
bean : from this the duodenum, emerging, formed a double fold; that 
is, a fold formed by two lengths of intestine put together, and bent 
upon themselves, embracing within the outer line, as in Birds, the 
pancreas, a long thin gland, one portion of which was continued a short 
distance along the free portion of the intestine, where it became 
more thick, and ended abruptly. Further to the right, but in close 
contact with this duodenal fold, lay the spleen, a grey flattened 
rounded cake ; it was touched by the lower edge of the right lobe of 
the liver, and was totally surrounded hy peritoneum, which attached it 
by a narrow riband or slip to the duodenum, below the entrance of 
the biliary ducts : along this riband ran a large vein, going from 
the spleen to the vena porta : a small artery was also visible. The 
gall-bladder, of an oval shape, and 1 inch long, entered the duode- 
num at the termination of the outer folded layer, just where it be- 
gan to be free, bj' a duct half an inch in length. The pancreatic duct 
I could not succeed in tracing, but it certainly did not enter with 
the biliary. In the Croc, acutus it enters a quarter of an inch beyond 
that duct. 

" It may be remarked that the stomach contained no pebbles or 
stones, but merely a little mucus. In a specimen ot Croc, acutus 
subsequently examined the stomach was distended with undigested 
lumps of flesh, and a vast quantity of Indian corn, swallowed most 
probably in lieu of pebbles: the grains were hard, and quite unal- 
tered. 

" The liver consisted of two distinct masses or lobes, of a trian- 
gular figure; and it was between them, but on the edge of the right, 
that the gall-bladder was situated. 

" The duodenum was rather larger in circumference than the rest 



131 

of the small intestines, which were in a worm-like range of convolu- 
tions, on a process of peritoneum that expanded like a fan from the 
spine : at the root of this raesenterj' I found the gland described by 
Mr. Owen, but of moderate size, and dark coloured; its diameter 
about half an inch. The total length of the small intestines was 4 feet 
8 inches. They entered the rectum (for to this were the large intestines 
' reduced,) by a valvular or sphincter like aperture, the parietes of 
which were firm, thick, and muscular. The rectum suddenly enlarged 
on the reception of the small intestines, the length of this viscus 
being barely 2 inches ; its internal membrane was longitudinally 
plicated. The portion which I have denominated rectum entered into 
a large cloaca, or genito- urinary cavity, its entrance being surrounded 
by a large fleshy sphincter, similar to that around the entrance of the 
small intestine into the rectum. 

"The cloaca was itself divided into two chambers, by a valvular 
fold : the upper division was large ; the anal one small. The breadth 
of the meso-rectum, 1 inch. Tlu; ureters entered just above the val- 
vular fold alluded to. The urine opake and white, as in Birds. 

"The/)enw was small, being only half an inch in length ; it lay 
curled up, and its apex was cleft horizontally, one point being elon- 
gated, and bending over the other, so as to produ.ce a resemblance in 
miniature to the flower commonly known as the Snap-dragon, — 
Antirrhinum majus. 

" The kidneys consisted of two oval bodies, with flattened sur- 
faces, having their venous ramifications symmetrically disposed, 
runniug horizontally across from a median line, so that each kidney 
had no unapt resemblance to some of the fossil fern leaves : the 
ureters emerged from a cleft in the centre of the lower apex of eacli 
kidney, and were of considerable circumference ; their length was 
1 inch. 

" At the upper ajiex of the kidneys, and partly upon them, lay the 
testes, two red elongated slender bodies, of a tolerably firm consist- 
ence. In length they were about 1 inch, and each extremity was 
pointed. 

" Over the yellow wrinkled skin which covered the tongue or 
muscular expansebetween the rami of the lower jaw, numerous small 
glandular orifices were thickly dispersed, whence exuded a viscid 
saliva or mucus. 'V\xe pharynx was closed by the cartilaginous ex- 
pansion of the OS hyoides described by M. Geoffrey Saint Hilaire in 
the 2nd volume of the ' Annales du Museum,' which, by its arrange- 
ment, forms a gular valve, its free edge pressing against a sort of 
velum pendulum, or semilunar fold of the palate, which advances 
anterior to the posterior nares. Considerably behind this gular 
valve is situated the glottis, the rima of which, like that of a Bird, 
is unfurnished with an epiglottis ; unless, indeed, the gular valve be 
considered in this light, its use being to prevent the ingurgitation of 
water both into the tracheal tube and the oesophagus; so that the 
animal can breathe, provided the nostrils are just above the water, 



132 

though the jaws be open beneath the surface. The trachea is a 
straight simple tube ; it was found in this animal to consist of fifty 
rings before its bifurcation, its length being 3+ inches. A little 
below the bifurcation, on each side, was a small glandular body, 
similar to that seen in Birds, just where the trachea enters the thorax. 
The bifurcations were observed to run a considerable distance into 
the substance of the lungs before they blended into it. 

"Though differing in a few minor points, the visceral anatomy of 
this species bore, on the whole, a close resemblance to that of the 
Croc, acutus, of which the details given by Mr. Owen are already 
published in the ' Proceedings of the Committee of Science and 
Correspondence' of this Society, Part I. pp. 139 and 169." 

A specimen was exhibited of the Stanley Crane, Anthropoides pa- 
radisceus, Bechst. ; and Mr. Yarrell called the attention of the Meet- 
ing to the conformation of its trachea, which corresponded perfectly 
with the one figured by him in the ' Linnean Transactions.' He 
remarked, that as the present Bird had lived for upwards of three 
years in the Society's Menagerie, it seemed probable, from this co- 
incidence of form, that no increase in the extent of the fold of the 
trachea is occasioned by increasing age. 

The reading was concluded of an anatomical description, by Mr. 
Reid, of the Patagonian Penguin, Aptenodytes Patachonica, Forst. 

" The specimen, an adult male, whose dissection forms the sub- 
ject of the following paper, was captured at East Falkland Isle, 
in latitude 51° 32' south, by Lieutenant Liardet, R.N., and was 
brought to England in H.M.S. Snake, and presented by (hat gen- 
tleman to P. C. Blackett, Esq., by whose kind permission I was al- 
lowed to examine it in detail : the results of this dissection I now 
beg respectfully to lay before the Society. Owing, however, to the 
length of time which had elapsed subsequently to its capture, and 
to the manner of its preservation (in rum), — together with a wound 
on the inferior part of the neck, and others in the mouth, added to 
several bruises, — part of my description will not be so perfect as 
could be desired. 

" The bones are very hard, compact, and heavy, having no aper- 
tures for the admission of air; but they contain, especially the bones 
of the extremities, a thin oily marrow. Thejbramina for the trans- 
mission of the blood-vessels of the bones are small. The periosteum 
is thick and fibrous. 

" The cranium is short and broad, and is united into a single bone, 
with very little appearance of suture or harmony ; superiorly it is 
flattened ; posteriorly, towards the occiput, it is rounded; it declines 
obliquely forwards; and when it attains the front of the orbits it is 
suddenly truncated to meet the superior mandible. 

" The orbits are large, and separated only by membrane. Above 
each orbit there is ajbssa, which is deeper and broader behind than 



133 

in front, and which ends suddenly at its union with the orbitar pro- 
cess of the temporal bone. External and inferior to the termination 
of the transverse ridge of the occipital bone there is a process. The 
temporal bone has two processes : the tympanic, situated imme- 
diately anterior to the last-named process ; and the orbitar, situated 
immediately behind the posterior part of the orbit. The basilar pro- 
cess of the occipital bone is short, ending posteriorly in a single 
round, prominent condyle, which articulates with the atlas. The 
body of the sphenoid is lengthened, and its pterygoid processes 
form separate bones. The tympanic bones have the internal pro- 
cess much produced. The Jugum is very long and thin, attached as 
usual to the tympanic and superior maxillary bones. The palatine 
bones are long and thin, meeting posteriorly the pterygoid, and an- 
teriorly the superior maxillary bones. 

" The upper jaw is immoveable : the superior mandible long, 
slender, and a little arched at the point. The apertures for the 
nostrils are long and narrow. The bones of the superior mandible 
are of the usual form. The superciliary bones are wanting. The 
lachrymal bones are small, and fixed to the cranium. The turbi- 
nated lamince are small, soft, and cartilaginous. 

" The lower jaw is long and slender, and composed of three 
pieces, viz., the body of the bone and its two articulating portions. 
The coronoid processes are very small. The condyloid process is 
not elevated above the body of the bone. There is a process pro- 
duced posteriorly for the attachment of the pterygoid muscles. 

" The OS liyoides has the lateral cornua much lengthened, passing 
upwards posteriorly to the occipital bone, then curved forwards for 
a short distance upon the temporal bone. 

" The vertebral column consists of 

Cervical vertebra 13 

Dorsal ■ 9 

Sacral ■ • 12 

Caudal 8 

In all 42 

" The atlas is of the usual shape. The processus denta^us of the 
second vertebra is flattened laterally ; the posterior spinous process 
short, and the anterior long. The articulating processes are infe- 
riorly produced, as are those of all the cervical vertebrce : in the 
lower of them the processes diverge less than in the upper ones. 
The posterior spinous process of the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and 
thirteenth vertebrce is long : in the remainder this process is short. 
The transverse processes are short in all except the twelfth and 
thirteenth vertebrce, in which they more nearly correspond with the 
processes of the dorsal series. The articulation of the bodies of the 
\)ertcbrce is effected as usual. Tiie sixth vertebra has the transverse 
processes extended downwards as much as they may be without the 



134 

free motion of the neck being impeded : in the seventh, eighth, 
ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth these processes gradually shorten, 
and in the twelfth and third can hardly be said to be produced : 
they lengthen in the fourth and fifth, and in the sixth reach the 
maximum. In the sixth vertebra we notice the commencement of 
two processes proceeding from the superior part of the anterior face 
of the vertebrce, a little external to the median line, which give firm 
attachment to the muscles of the neck : in the succeeding vertebrce 
these processes are more fully developed till they reach the tenth, 
after which we observe no trace of them ; but instead of them, in 
the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth we have a very prominent an- 
terior spinous process: in the two last it is bifid. In the last (the 
thirteenth) the transverse processes are extended laterally, and are 
curved acutely backwards, leading immediately to the shape of the 
dorsal vertebra. 

" These are nine in number. The first has verj; extensive motion : 
in the second the motion is much diminished: and the diminution 
of motion is continued as far as the seventh vertebra, the last two 
having no motion whatsoever. The posterior spinous processes have 
less development than is usual in most Birds. The anterior ones are 
very little produced. The transverse processes do not overlap each 
other. The oblique processes strongly resemble those of the neck. 
In the first vertebra the anterior spinous process is most prominent, 
and in the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth the process is bifid 
and less prominent. 

" The sacral region is composed of twelve bones, all anchylosed 
together, of which the upper four might almost be regarded as lum- 
bar, for they are unconnected to the ilia, except by ligament. The 
canalis vertebralis is broadest in the tenth of these vertebra'. 

" There are eight caudal vertebrce, each furnished with transverse 
and spinous processes, and also, on their anterior face, with two 
processes arising one on each side of the median line, measuring in 
length, on an average, 6 lines. The eighth, or last, is in length 2 
inches, conical, with the base towards the body, and having the tip 
scabrous, for the insertion of muscle : on the superior part of the 
anterior face there is a groove extending about one third of its 
length. About half an inch from the tip there is a thickening of sub- 
stance, giving the appearance of the tip having been originally se- 
parate. The canalis vertebralis extends a short way down the bone. 
The seventh vertebra is united to the eighth by anchylosis. 

" The ribs are nine in number, and of the usual form : the two 
upper ones are not connected with the sternum. The oblique pro- 
cesses are situated halfway between their vertebral and sternal ex- 
tremities. They commence cartilaginous at the inferior margin of 
each rib, and are about 5 lines broad at their origin : towards their 
termination they spread laterally to the width of 1 inch. As they 
approach the lower rib they get gradually thinner. In the first and 
last rib they arc totally wanting. The last rib, at its centre, has a 



135 

surface concave externally, produced by the action of the thigh. 
The sterno-costal bones are seven in number : the last one curved 
suddenly at its costal end. 

" The body of the sterymni is long. The keel is nnuch developed 
at its top, and forms a very acute angle posteriorly, terminated by 
a small line. The space for the attachment of the middle pectoral 
muscle is considerably larger than that for the attachment of the 
great pectoral. On each side of the keel there is a large space, ter- 
minating inferiorly in one, owing to the shortness of the middle 
layer compared with the lateral ones. The keel terminates abruptly 
inferiorly. The ensiform process has a ridge in the middle, along 
which and the inferior edge of the keel a membrane was attached 
(which separated in maceration). The external layers of the bone 
are, as has been already incidentally noticed, much longer than the 
middle one: they curve inwards toward each other, and are tipped 
with cartilage. The sternal ybwa is large and very distinct. The 
sternal apophyses are very large. 

" The coracoid bones are long, strongly formed, and smooth an- 
teriorly ; the margin much produced at the superior internal edge, 
and the ends furnished with long hamuliform processes, extending 
upwards and downwards. The superior one is attached to the cla- 
vicle by the intervention of ligament. The upper part of the os 
coracoides is bent upon itself at an angle greater than a riglit angle. 
They are larger at their inferior ends, the inner ends being pro- 
duced and curved forwards. The glenoid cavity of the bone is 
situated on the exterior {)osterior part, and is formed by this bone 
and the scapula, about three fifths of the cavity being formed by the 
OS coracoides . 

" Each clavicle is turned downwards, and is broader near the 
coracoid bone, and tapering to the front, where there is a protu- 
berance formed by the junction of the clavicles : this protuberance 
does not touch the sternum. Posteriorly they give off a flat conical 
process, which goes down internally to the coracoid bone, and is 
united to the process situated on the posterior part of the scapula, 
immediately inferior to its head. 

" The scapula is remarkably broad and thin : its neck and head 
rounded. There are three articulating processes in this bone: one 
with the Jurculum ; another with the coracoid bone; and the third 
with the humerus. 

" On comparing the sternum and adjacent bones with the sterna 
of some nearly allied Birds, we find less development of the keel 
in the Loon, and less development of the lateral wings in the 
Auk, and more in the Spheniscus. The differences will be best shown 
by the follov/ing tables : 



136 



Colymbus 
Glacialis. 


Atca 
Tarda. 


Spheniscus 
demersa. 


Aptenodyles 
Patachonica, 


inch. Hn. 

5 3 


inch. lin. 

4 10 


inch. 

5 


lin. 

10 


inch. lin. 

7 


3 9 
5 
In. 
3 


4 

5 4 
3 
2 


6 
G 




5n. 

5 

3 
9n. 


8 
8 
1 2n. 
1 


1 6 


10 


1 


7 


2 4 


In.O 


1 4n. 


1 


8 


1 9 


3 


8 


1 


3 


2 


2 

2 3 


1 8 

2 10 


3 
6 


3 
5 


.5 10 

7 7 


3 


2 





7n. 


8 


3n. 


2 


1 


9n. 


2 In. 



Length of the body of the 1 

sternum j 

Length of the lateral wings. . 

Length of its keel 

Length of the ensiform process 
Length of the sternal apophysis 
Half the breadth of the bone 1 

at its superior margin . . j 
Height of the keel at the su- 1 

perior part j 

Projection of the keel, su-T 

perior to the body of the > 

sternum J 

Length of the os coracoides. 

Length of the scapula 

Breath of the scapula at its 

neck 

Breadth near its inferior angle 

or, in integral parts, the length of the centre of the sternum being 
taken as unity : 

Length of the middle of the"! 

sternum j 

Length of the lateral wings. . 

Length of the keel 

Length of the ensiform process 
Length of the sternal apophysis 
Breadth of the superior margin 

Height of the keel 

Projection of the keel above 1 

the body of the bone . . j 
Length of the os coracoides . . 

Length of the scapula 

Breadth at its neck 

Breadth at its inferior angle. 

" The humerus is much flattened. On its posterior aspect there 
is a \a.vge foramen, situated under, and occupying the whole of the 
internal part of its head, which is in form crescentic from before 
backwards : over the internal and posterior part of it a groove 
passes. The distal end of the bone has two tubercles for articula- 
tion. There are two prominent trochlece on its posterior surface, on 
which work the two sesamoid bones of the elbow-joint. The form 
of the larger of these is flattened, and of the smaller trapezoid, with 
truncated edges. 



Colymbus. 


Alca. 


spheniscus. 


Aptenodytes. 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 3_ 


n 


lAn. 


u 


4^ 


IijV 


liVn. 


It 


A n. 


TrVn. 


■sVn. 


TVn- 


^V 


•^v 


J. 


\_ 


t\ 


5 


fn. 


xV 


■rVn. 


8 


2 


TT 






3 




TT 


u-^ 


IT 


T 


ttV 


n 


^n. 


1^ 


tV 


■Hr 


l.V 


ItV". 


irVn. 


W 


-.Vn. 


rVn. 


t\- 


tV 


fn. 


f n. 



137 

" The ulna is very thin and flat, not quite so long as the humerus, 
rounded slightly at its upper extremity, and still less at its lower 
one. Its head has a cavity, which receives the posterior tubercle of 
the humerus. Immediately inferior to this is a prominence on the 
posterior margin, to which is attached the ligament of the two sesa- 
moid bones. The superior ulno-radial joint admits of little motion, 
being composed of a convex and plane surface. Near the distal ex- 
tremity of the bone there are several rough lines for the attachment 
of muscles. The distal articulating surfaces are three : one with 
the radius anteriorly ; another with the first carpal bone inferiorly ; 
and the third with the second carpal bone posteriorly and obliquely 
downwards. 

" The radius much resembles the ulna in shape. At its head it 
has two articulations : one superiorly, with the anterior tubercle of 
the humerus ; and the other posteriorly, for articulation with the 
ulna. There are likewise two articulations at its distal extremity : 
posteriorly one for the ulna; and inferiorly there is another with the 
first carpal bone. Near its neck is situated a process for the attach- 
ment of muscles. On its superior anterior part a groove runs ob- 
liquely, from before backwards, and from above downwards. At 
the distal extremity there is a similar one, but running in a con- 
trary direction, i. e. fi'om behind forwards. 

" The first carpal bone has the form of a trapezium, with three 
articulating surfaces : a superior one for the radius ; a posterior one 
for the ulna ; and an inferior one for the metacarpus. The shape 
of the second carpal bone is triangular, with articulating processes, 
and a notch on its inferior edge : one anteriorly for the ulna ; the 
other inferiorly for the metacarpus. 

" The metacarpus is composed of a single bone, formed by the 
union of two. The anterior of the two metacarpal bones supports 
two phalanges of the first finger, and is twice the size of the posterior 
one, which supports the single phalanx of the second finger. The 
upper end is crescentic, articulated with the first carpal bone an- 
teriorly, and with the second inferiorlj'. There is a sulcus between 
the ends of the two bones, at their inferior extremity. 

" The first phalanx of the first finger is a long, broad, and flat 
bone, tapering gradually from above downwards, united to the me- 
tacarpus by a flat surface, and connected with the second phalanx 
by a similar articulation. The other phalanx is broad and flat, ta- 
pering from above downwards. By a similar articulation is attached 
to the posterior metacarpal bone a phalanx, which is flat, long, and 
tapering from above downwards, superiorly giving off a process 
which passes upwards for a short distance on the posterior part of 
the metacarpal bone. 

"The bones o{ the pelvis are so much shortened behind that they 
throw the centre of gravity in a perpendicular line with the ver- 
tebrte. The length of the ilia behind the cotyloid cavity is one third 
of the length of the body in a Gull (Larus); one half in the Loon; 



138 

and not quite one fourth of the length of the trunk in the Patago- 
7iian Penguin. The sacro-sciatic notch is a com^\eie foramen. The 
pubic bones are long and feeble ; they are turned forwards and 
tipped with cartilage. The cotyloid cavity is a perfect yora mew, 
with a large process at its postero-inferior part tipped with carti- 
lage, and articulated with the trochanter major. The thyroid fora- 
vien is not complete, except by the intervention of a ligament which 
separates it from the obturator Jbr amen. As there is no iliacus in- 
ternus, the superior part of the os ilium extends upwards, and lies 
close to the ribs. 

'•' The OS femoris is formed as usual, the head being flattened an- 
teriorly, the neck short and thick, the trochanter major smooth on 
its superior posterior surface, and articulated with the process on 
the ilium. Besides the posterior there is also an anterior linea 
aspera. There is a process external to the external condyle, having 
its inferior surface tipped with cartilage, which acts as a pulley. 
On its infero-external surface there is a sharp edge. The condyles 
are not much everted. 

•' The shape o( the patella is peculiar. There are two articulating 
surfaces posteriorly : one which would form part of a large crescent, 
and which has a prominence for the condyles of the femur in its 
centre ; the other, inferior, is likewise crescentic ; it is very narrow, 
and articulated by ligaments to the tubercle of the tibia. 

" The superior surface of \!i\& femur has a crista in its centre, of 
an ovoid form : the posterior edge truncated. The internal surface 
is perfectly flat : the oblique slightly marked with a ridge, and looks 
downwards. There is a groove on the centre of the anterior edge 
which also passes obliquely downwards on the external side : these 
two sides are truncated at their junction. 

" The tibia is nearly twice the length of the/e»7«r : the tubercle is 
elevated above its head, and forms a broad short conical truncated 
process. On the anterior part of the head there is a large groove, 
deepest at the top, and passing obliquely downwards and inwards : 
the outer side is here smooth for articulation with the fbula. It 
has inferiorly two condyles, articulated with the metatarsus, having 
a foramen above and between them for the transmission of tendon, 
&c. 

" The fbula is in the form of a lengthened cone, and is attached 
to the outer surface of the tibia : for about two thirds of its length it 
is anchylosed to that bone inferiorly. It has the usual quantity of 
surfaces for the attachment of muscles. 

" There is no tarsus. 

" The metatarsus has two articular depressions on its posterior 
surface for the reception of the condyles of the tibia. It represents 
three pullies for articulation with the phalanges. On the inner part 
of the superior face is situated the metatarsal bone of the first toe, 
connected by ligaments to the large bone. There is afossa on the 
superior surface, between the first and second, and second and third 



139 

bones of the metatarsus : this gradually decreases in size and in- 
creases in depth, till it perforates the bone, and joins ihejbsste on 
its inferior surface, where, immediately anterior, internal, and infe- 
riorlj' to the outer depression on its head, there is a large protu- 
berance forming the inner boundary to a groove. The phalangeal 
end is formed as in most Birds. The first toe, which is the smallest 
in the foot, has three bones, all of which are flattened, and have 
simple articulations, the last one having a nail. The metatarsal bone 
is only connected to the others by muscle: the whole length of the 
toe is 1 inch : the second toe has three phalanges : the third has four : 
and there are five belonging to the fourth toe. All are formed as 
is usual in this class. 

" The ligaments of the head and trunk are of the usual form. 

" In addition to these a ligament arises from the sesamoid bones 
of thr> elbow-joint, which passes to the external or dorsal side of 
the carpus, where it is tied down ; it again passes forwards, and is 
attached by separate slips to the joint and head of the first part of 
the metacarpus and to the first phalanx of the first finger ; and is in- 
serted into the second about 3 lines from its head. 

" The ligaments of the hip-joint are as usual. 

" Besides the usual ligaments of the knee-joint there is one which 
arises together with the crucial, and is attached to the patella half- 
way down the central line. The form of the semilunar cartilages is 
crescentic, with prolonged horns. 

" The ankle-joint has semilunar cartilages of the usual form. 

" There are superior and inferior annular ligaments belonging to 
the metatarsus, 

" In no other instance is there any deviation from the usual form. 

" There is a very large bursa situated within the knee-joint. 

" The muscles were of a dark red colour, very tough, and having 
a great deal of cellular membrane amongst them. Thejascia were 
vevy thick and strong. In no instance did I observe any tendency 
to ossification in the tendons. In the tendons of the perforatus of 
the first and second toes there was a sesamoid bone, scarcely 
equalling in size a mustard-seed. 

" The paimiculus carnosus is very thick and strong, and is divided 
into three pieces. The first division arises muscular from the lateral 
parts of the skin of the shoulder, back, and under the wing ; from the 
fascia of the muscles of the back ; tendinous along the superior 
edge of the furculiim ; tendinous from the fascia covering the mus- 
cles of the shoulder; muscular from the blubber over the shoulder- 
joint ; and by a small head from the inferior part of the cervical 
fascia: it passes upwards, uniting anteriorly and posteriorly to its 
fellow, and is attached, muscular, into the superior transverse ridge 
of the occipital bone, and to the posterior third of the sides of the 
lower jaw. The second portion arises from the dorsalya^aa by five 
irregular fleshy slips : it passes downwards, and is attached to the 
blubber covering the back and sides, sending forwards a membra- 



140 

nous slip, which is attached to the skin of the abdomen. The last 
portion arises fleshy from the tubercle of the tibia, and from the 
peroneal fascia : and, covering the abdominal muscles, is attached 
very firmly to the skin of the abdomen, sending off two slips, which 
unite with their fellows over the central line. 

" The occipito-Jrontalis is small, arising posteriorly from the pan- 
niculus carnosus, and inserted anteriorly into the frontal bone, just 
above its junction with the superior maxiUa. The orbicularis palpe- 
hrariim arises from the anterior part of the orbit, immediately an- 
terior to the situation of the lachrymal bones, and is inserted into 
the orbitar process of the temporal bone, from the inferior half of 
which a muscle arises, passing downwards under the eye, and at- 
tached to the inferior part of the o'pUc foramen, sending off a slip, 
which is attached immediately anterior and internal to the orbitar 
process of the temporal bone. There is most motion in the inferior 
eyelid. 

" Round the entrance of the external meatus of the ear there are 
some muscular fibres observable, but as the part was much bruised, 
1 was unable to separate them : they seem to act as a sphincter. 

" The masseter, temporalis, and pteri/goideus arise as usual, as does 
also the zygomatic. 

" On the fore part of the neck there are two muscles : one arising 
from the superior edge of the forculum, near its union with the os 
coracoides, and from the recurved portion of the coracoid bone, and 
inserted into the temporalfoscia ; the other arising tendinous from 
the superior internal part of ihejiirculiim, and attached to the outer 
and posterior part of the tympanic bone. 

" The tongue has a hyoglossiis and lingualis, as usual. 
" The muscles of the os hyoides and lower jaw are as usual. 
" There is only one pair of muscles of voice. 
" The recti postici and antici, obliqui capitis, splenii capitis et colli, 
complexi, intertransver sales, interspinales, transversalis colli, spinnles 
dorsi et colli, trapezius, cucullaris, rhomboideus, biventer cervicis, tra- 
chelo-mastoideus, longus colli, and scaleni muscles are large and well 
defined, arising and attached in the same manner as in most short- 
necked Birds, but especially resembling the muscles of the neck of 
the Loon; as do also the abdominal muscles, and those for the mo- 
tion of the dorsal vertebrce, ribs, and tail. 

" The muscles connecting the scapula to the trunk resemble those 
of the Loon, but have broader attachments, in proportion as the 
scapula of the Penguin is broader than that of the Bird referred to. 
" The principal differences are in the muscles of the wing and 
leg. 

" The muscles of the wing I shall now describe. The pectoralis 
major arises from the superior part of the crista and the external 
part of the body of the sternum, from the Jascia of the pectoralis 
minor, from the cartilages of the ribs, and from the anterior part 
of the coracoid bone ; over the crista it unites with its fellow of 



HI 

the opposite side ; it is inserted, muscular, into the anterior su- 
perior part of the humerus. The pedoralis minor arises from the 
lower part of the crista and the interior part of the body of the 
sternum, and from the inferior part of the Jurculum and coracoid 
bone ; its tendon passes over the union of the three bones of the 
shoulder-joint, moving freel)' over them, and is inserted, tendinous, 
into the scabrous surface on the posterior part of the external side 
of the humerus , just below its head. The coraco-brachialis arises 
from the lateral angle of the sternum and base of the coracoid bone, 
and is inserted immediately posterior and a little superior to the 
pectoralis minor. The siibclnvius occupies the usual place, but is 
small. A muscle arises from the outer and upper fourth of the mem- 
brane between the /t<r«; /am And OS coracoides ; it passes upwards, 
but internal to the capsular ligament of the joint; and is inserted, 
tendinous, immediately above the insertion of the pectoralis miliar. 
Another muscle arises from the external inferior third of the os co- 
racoides, from the angle and costal part of the sternum, and from 
the Jascia of the pectoralis major for about the length of an inch j 
passing upwards it forms a round tendon about 4 of an inch from 
the shoulder, which passes over the joint and under the supra-spi- 
natus, and is inserted into the external edge of the Jbramen at the 
head of the humerus. The supra-spinatus is small, and arises fleshy 
from the superior edge of the scapula, near the glenoid cavity ; it 
passes round and constricts the ligament of the joint, and is in- 
serted, tendinous, into the humerus, immediately anterior to the 
muscle last named. 

" I will here notice, before proceeding to the remaining muscles, 
a loop through which several of the muscles pass. It arises flat from 
the infero-anterior edge of the scapula, just below the glenoid ca- 
vity, and passing upwards and outwards for about an inch, is then 
doubled upon itself, and attached to the same part from whence it 
arose: there is no admixture of its fibres. 

" A muscle arises from thejascia which covers the last rib and the 
outer edge of the external oblique, passes upwards and through the 
loop, and is inserted into the lower part of the external edge of the 
Jbramen situated at the posterior part of the head of the humerus. 
The latissimus dorsi arises from the last cervical and first five dorsal 
vertebras, and forms a tendon, which passes through the loop and is 
inserted immediately below the preceding muscle. The infraspi- 
natus arises fleshy from the whole external surface of the scapula 
below the upper third, and is inserted into the large tubercle ot the 
humerus. A muscle arises from that part of the inner edge of the 
OS coracoides which is produced ; it passes obliquely upwards and 
outwards behind the 05 coracoides, to which it is attached ; and is in- 
serted tendinous into the anterior tubercle of the humerus. The 
deltoides arises from the posterior part of the projecting edge of the 
scapula, and from the scapular process of the clavicle ; passing over 
the shoulder-joint, it is inserted into the anterior part of the middle 



142 

tubercle of the humerus. The subscapular is arises from the internal 
surface of the scapula ; it passes upwards, and is inserted into the 
posterior part of the middle tubercle of the humerus. The teres minor 
arises from the whole width of the posterior surface between the 
glenoid cavity and the end of the upper third of the scapula ; it passes 
in the groove, and is inserted into the inferior part of the large tu- 
bercle of the humerus. Of the triceps extensor cubiti the long head 
arises immediately above the origin of the teres minor, and passing 
down on the external side of the humerus, it is joined by the second 
head, arising from the internal part of the \arge foramen ccecum of 
the humerus ; these two unite about the middle of the arm, and are 
joined by the third head, which arises from the two inferior thirds of 
the posterior edge of the humerus till within 8 lines of the joint : it 
is now attached to the sesamoid bones of the elbow-joint, and to 
the Jbssa on the inferior parts of the posterior surface of the os 
humeri. 

" The anconeus arises from this muscle, and from the part of the 
bone below the origin of the third head, and is attached to the sesa- 
moid bones anterior to the triceps extensor cubiti. Instead of a biceps 
and brachialis internus, there is a triceps flexor cubiti, the long head 
of which arises, tendinous, from the antero-interior part of the su- 
perior angle of the Jurcuhan, and, passing over the joint, is joined, 
at the union of the upper with the middle third of the humerus, by 
the fibres of the middle head, which arises fleshy from thejiirculum 
immediately behind the foramen formed by the union of the three 
bones of the shoulder passing on to join the long head ; at the head 
of the humerus it is joined by the short head which arises from the 
anterior part of the foramen ccecum ; when it reaches the superior 
part of the middle third of the humerus, it joins the other tendons, 
and then forms an aponeurosis over the elbow-joint, and is attached 
to the middle part of the radius. A muscle arises from the anterior 
superior edge immediately below the arterial groove on the lower 
part of the humerus ; it passes directly downwards and is inserted 
into the radial extremity of the metacarpal bone and into the edge 
of the carpal ligament. The flexor communis arises from the inter- 
nal side of the humerus, from the ligament of the elbow-joint, and 
from the superior part of the radius and idna ; it divides into two 
tendons, which go down in the interosseal space, passing under the 
ligamentum carpi annulare posterius, and are attached to the first and 
each succeeding joAfl/a?2a: of the two fingers about 5 lines below their 
articulations. The extensor communis has the same situation and 
number of attachments on the external or dorsal side of the Aawerw^. 
There is a pronator quadratus arising as is usual in this class. There 
is also a muscle which arises from the anterior part of the radius at 
its distal extremity, and is inserted into the projection of bone 
formed by the phalanx of the second finger, and also, by a slip, into 
the internal part of the first phalanx of the first digit. 

" The muscles serving for the motion of the inferior extremity 
may be described as follows. 



143 

'" The rectus arises by ajascia from tlie spinous processes of the 
last three dorsal and two lumbar vertebrce, and muscular from the 
lower half of the external part oi the dorsum z7?7andsacro-iliac «/>«- 
physis; and, passing over the neck of the thigh-bone, is inserted 
into the lower edge of the groove on the anterior part of the patella. 
The tensor vagincejemoris arises by afoscia from the sacral vertehrcE, 
passes over the cotyloid cavity and trochanter major, and turning to the 
anterior part of the thigh is joined by another bead which arises im- 
mediately anterior to the cotyloid cavity ; after this union they are 
inserted into the Jascia of the thigh about halfway down. The gtu- 
taus medius at its origin occupies that part of the dorsum which ex- 
tends between the origin of the acetabulum and the ridge situated in 
the centre, and passes downwards and is inserted into the trochanter 
minor and the ridge which joins it. The glutaus minimus arises from 
the whole of the dorsum ilii unoccupied by the other glut cd except 
its crista, and is inserted into the anterior part of the trochanter 
major. The glutaus maximus arises from the prominent ridge on the 
OS ilium below the acetabulum; it passes on the posterior surface of 
the thigh-bone; and when it has passed below the head of the tibia 
it forms a round tendon and passes through a loop situated on the 
external posterior part of the tibia ; continuing its course obliquely 
downwards, it is inserted into the scabrous ridge on the posterior 
surface of the tibia near its head. A muscle arises from the trans- 
verse processes of all the caudal vertebrce except the last, goes for- 
wards, and is attached to the postero-internal edge of the tibia just 
below its head. Another muscle arises from the anterior part of the 
last caudal veiiebrce, and is inserted into the external part of the 
linea aspera after its bifurcation. The piriformis arises from the an- 
terior oblique processes of the caudal vertebra, from the tip of the 
ischium, and from the internal part of the os pubis ; the fibres con- 
verge downwards, and are inserted into the intero-anterior ridge of 
the tibia iust below the tubercle. The semitendinosus arises from 
the ridge immediately anterior to the glut eeus maximus, and is inserted 
immediately inferior to the bifurcation of the linea aspera on its ex- 
ternal division. The gemini arise from the ischium immediately pos- 
terior to its spine, and are inserted into the cavity posterior to the 
trochanter major. A muscle arises from the ischium anterior to the 
gemini, and is inserted into the intero-anterior ridge of the tibia, just 
below the pyriformis. Of the triceps adductor femor is the first head 
arises from the extero-inferior part of the pubis; the second head 
arises immediately above the first ; and the third above the second, 
and from the interosseous ligament which unites thepubis and ischium: 
they join on the upper third of the thigh, and are attached to the linea 
aspera on its internal side and division. The obturator internus arises 
fleshy from the internal part of the jmbis, from part of the obturator 
foramen, and from the ischium; it forms a tendon which passes through 
the thyroid Jbramen, is tied down to the joint, and is inserted into 
the anterior part of the great trochanter. A muscle arises from tho 



14.-1. 

outer edge of the cotyloid cavity, passing outwards and a little 
upwards, and is inserted behind the trochanter major. Another 
muscle arises from the anterior part of the acetabulum, passing 
directly outwards, and is strongly attached to the ligament of the 
joint ; it is inserted into the thigh-bone just below its neck. 

" A muscle arises from the interior and a small part of the anterior 
and posterior surfaces of the thigh-bone, from near its neck to the 
condyles, and forms a tendon which is inserted into the ridge at the 
anterior internal part of the tibia immediately below its head. The 
cruralis arises fleshy from all the superior and external parts of the 
bone not occupied by the former ; one part is inserted into the whole 
of the superior surface of the patella, the remainder passes over the 
internal part of the patella and is attached to the internal side of the 
head of the tibia. A muscle arises by four heads : the first, tendi- 
nous, from the ridge behind the external condyle which formed the 
loop through which the gluteus maximus passed ; the second, fleshy, 
from the internal side of the triceps ; the third, from the inferior por- 
tion of the intero-anterior ridge of the tibia ; the fourth, from the in- 
ferior internal edge of the patella ; these two last join just below the 
origin of the third, and passing down tendinous are united to the two 
other tendons a little above the ancle-joint : it expands and flattens 
at the joint, and just below it divides into two tendons, the internal of 
which is inserted into the internal edge of the groove on the plantar 
surface of the metatarsal bone, while the external tendon is inserted 
into the external head of the same bone. Another muscle arises 
from the postero-inferior part of the cotyloid cavity, passes forwards 
on the exterior part of the thigh and over the groove on the patella, 
and is attached on the interior part of the head of the tibia. The 
tendon of the Jlexor perforatus is composed of four muscles, which 
unite just above the ancle-joint. The first arises by two heads, one 
fiom the outer surface of the external, and the other from the inner 
side of the internal condyle ; about the end of the upper third of the 
tibia this forms a tendon, which passes down to the place of junction 
with the others : the second has also two heads, one from the pos- 
terior part of the head of thejibula, and the other immediately be- 
low the attachment of the glutmis maximus ; the muscle forms its 
tendon just below the middle of the bone, and passes forwards and 
joins that of the first muscle : the third has one origin between the 
two condyles, and forms its tendon at the middle of the leg, passing 
on and joining the two former: the fourth muscle arises immedi- 
ately above the third, and forms its tendon like the rest, joining them 
above the ancle : after the tendons are united they are distributed 
as usual. The Jlexor perforans consists of two heads ; the first arises 
from the back part of both condyles ; the second arises from the 
superior and posterior third of the tibia, fibula, and interosseous liga- 
ment : they unite about halfway down the bone and form a tendon, 
which passes in the groove of the plantar surface of the metatarsal 
bone, and is distributed in the usual manner. A muscle arises from 



145 

tlie scabrous surface situated on the internal part of the posterior 
face of the tibia about halfway down that bone, and forms a tendon 
which is attached to the upper part of the internal edge of the groove 
in which runs the tendon of the /7er/oraws. Another muscle arises 
from the external condyle, from the patella on its anterior surface, 
and from the fibres of the rectus Jemoris ; it covers the tibia and fills 
up the space between it and the Jibula, and forms a tendon which 
passes through the foramen situated at the anterior surface of the 
tibia between its condyles, under the capsular ligament of the ancle- 
joint, and is attached to the prominence situated between the second 
and third portions of the metatarsal bone near its tibial extremity. 

" A muscle arises from the anterior and external parts of the head 
of the^6M/a; it becomes tendinous about halfway down the leg, 
passes under the annular ligament, and is inserted into the external 
side of the metatarsal bone near its postero inferior angle: another 
slip goes under the foot and forms the plantar ^ia'a. Another 
muscle arises from the anterior inferior surface of the patella, and 
from the whole of the fossa and its edges on the head of the tibia, 
passes downwards, and is tied down by the annular ligament ; and 
has the same distribution as in the Locn and Gull, except that the 
tendon is more closely tied down, smaller, and not so round. An- 
other muscle arises fleshy from the whole anterior part o( the Jibula, 
interosseous ligament, and part of the external side of the tibia ; it 
forms its tendon near the ancle-joint, and is attached to the pos- 
tero-external angle of the metatarsus on its plantar surface. There 
are also four muscles arising from the metatarsal bone, one on each 
side, and one in the foosstB between the three portions of the meta- 
tarsal bone : they all arise near the tibial end on its superior surface, 
and are attached to the phalanges of the first, second, and fourth 
fingers. The thumb has three muscles: an extensor, on its superior 
surface; ajlexor, on its inferior j and an abductor, on its internal 
surface; all attached to the tibial end of the metatarsus as usual. 

" The diaphragm consists of twelve narrow fleshy slips, which 
arise, six on each side, from the internal surface of the ribs : near 
their angle they pass upwards, and are inserted tendinous into the 
thin transparent membrane covering the lungs. The blood-vessels 
pass in front of ic. 

" The circulatory system corresponds exactly with that of the 
Loon, except in the origin and distribution of the arteries of the 
stomach. The cceliac artery comes oft' on a level with the fifth rib ; 
it passes a little forwards, and divides into the coronaria ventriculi, 
the hepatic, and the splenic. The coronaria ventriculi, just after its 
origin, divides into the superior and inferior coronaries : the superior 
passes round the large curvature of the stomach, and near the pylo- 
rus gives off" the superior pyloric and left hepatic; the inferior passes 
down the right side of the stomach, and disappears at the pylorus, 
being here minutely ramified upon it. The hepatic gives ofl' the 
right gastro-epiploic, which goes on the inferior angle of the sto- 



146 

mach, and the right gastric, which goes on the pylorus and superior 
part of the stomach, anastomosing with the superior pyloric and 
inferior coronary arteries. The splenic gives off a small artery dis- 
tributed on the cardiac portion of the stomach, and some vasa 
brevia, which are distributed to the left portion of the stomach. 

«' Not wishing to mutilate the skeleton, 1 did not exaniine the 
brain J but from the number, size, and situation of the Jbramina in 
the base, and the whole contour of the cranium, the brain must be 
presumed to be very nearly similar in proportional quantity and 
structure to those of the Loon and Gull. 

" The nerves are distributed as usual. The brachial plexus is 
composed of the last cervical and first two dorsal nerves, and of a 
filament from the last spinal nerve but one in the cervical region. 
The sciatic is composed of the five superior or anterior pairs of pel- 
vic nerves. 

" The nose is organised similarly as in others of this class. The 
cartilaginous lamina' of the turbinated bone are concentric, and 
thirteen in number. 

" The eye has six muscles, which arise and are attached as usual. 
The lachrymal gland is placed at the postero-superior part of the 
orbit, and is large in proportion to the globe of the ej'e. It sends 
off several ducts; I think seven ; but the part being much injured, I 
found it impossible to ascertain their precise number and origin : 
one, however, opened immediately under the anterior part of the 
membrana nictitans. Two other ducts also opened below this mem- 
brane, passing from the Harderian gland, which was situated at the 
inferior part of the orbit. The nasal gland occupied its usual situ- 
ation, partly in the anterior and superior portion of the orbit, and 
partly in the Jossa of the frontal bone: its duct passed forwards 
under the bridge of bone, and then bifurcated, one division of it end- 
ing on the cartilaginous lamince of the ossa turbinata, and the other 
going forwards^ and lying on the bone : I was not able to trace it 
further. 

" The membrana nictitans is large and strong : it is moved by a 
pyramidalis and a quadratus muscle. 

"The globe of the eye is large, as compared with the cranium. 
The sclerotic is less osseous than I have yet found it in any Bird. 
The optic nerve enters at the postero-inferior part of the sclerotic. 
The cornea is small, owing to the large space occupied by the scle- 
rotic. Under the cornea lies the membrana aquatica, consisting of a 
thin membrane, adhering to the edge of the iris. This membrane 
was first observed, together with the tunica celhdaris, by Mr.Blackett, 
in 1802, in the eye of the Cat, the preparation of which was sold in 
the first part of Mr. Brookes's Museum. The tunica cellularis in this 
animal is rather pulpy, but, on the application oi liquor potassce , 
it dissolved, and displayed a cellular structure. Mr. Blackett de- 
monstrated this membrane to me in 1832, since which time 1 have 
observed it in all the eyes I have examined; but, owing to the diffi- 



147 

culty in obtaining specimens, I have not been able to make suffi- 
ciently extensive researches to justify the demonstration of the mem- 
brane as one of the proper tunics of the eye. There appears to be 
a marsupium nigrum. The retina is very thick and strong, 

" The absorbent system is more perfect than in most Birds. Of 
the thoracic ducts, the left is the largest. There are a femoral and 
two axillary glands ; also an extra pair of bronchial glands more 
than in the Loon or Gull. The coccygeal glands are 2 inches 3 
lines long, and 9 lines broad. 

" There is a gular pouch, which measures in length 4 inches, 
and in breadth 8 lines. 

" The tongue is set with cartilaginous /japzY^fa" directed backwards. 

" There is only one pair of salivary glands ; the submaxillary. 

" The structure and proportion of the lungs are the same as in 
the Water Birds generally. The air-cells are few in number, and 
small, and are filled by openings from the lungs, or from one cell to 
another. They consist principally of the internal air-cells ; one above 
the Jlirculum; and the axillary, abdominal, and femoral rows. 

" The liver, spleen, andi pancreas are large. 

" The oesophagus is straight, and 1 inch and 5 lines in width. It 
is infundibuliforni, so that when it reaches the stomach it is 2 inches 
and 4 lines wide : the injundibulum contained the beaks of cuttle- 
fishes and gravel. 

*' The stomach is muscular, small, and glandular, and of the shape 
of an egg. The duodenum \shroaA. at its origin, and at about .S-i- 
inches from its commencement the biliary and pancreatic ducts enter. 
The gall-bladder is 6 inches long and 2 inches in circumference ; it 
is attached to the under side of the liver, and, gradually diminishing 
in diameter, it passes over the stomach, and is inserted into the in- 
testine, without the intervention of any duct. 

" The testes were large, as were the supra-renal glands and kid- 
neys. 1 did not observe any difference from the usual structure and 
proportions in any other parts. 

" The small intestines measured 22 feet 6 inches in length, and 
were about the thickness of the little finger. There were attached 
to them two cceca, each measuring about 1 inch 3 lines in length, 
which were of the same diameter as the intestines. The great intes- 
tines were somewhat larger than the small. The measurements of 
the stomach and the intestines were as follows: 

Feet. Inches. Lines. 

Length of the oesophagus 10 

Breadth at the pharynx 1 6 

injiindibulum 2 4 

"Lengih oi the infiindibulum 10 

Breadth at the junction of the infundibulum with 

the stomach 6 

Length of the stomach 4 

Width of ditto 2 6 



148 

Feet. Inches. Lines. 

Length of the duodenum 1 3 

Circumference of ditto 4- 

Length of the small intestines, inclusive of the 

duodenum 22 6 

Lei.gth of the cceca 1 3 

Circumference of the cceca and the small intes- 
tines 2 6 

Length of the large intestines 6 

Circumference of ditto iJ 9 

" The total length of the individual examined, measured over the 
back, was 3 feet 2 inches and 6 lines; the length of the neck, 11 
inches and 9 lines; that of the trunk, 1 foot 1 inch and 9 lines." 

The reading of Mr. Reid's communication was illustrated by the 
exhibition of the skeleton of the specimen o( the Patagonian Penguin 
described by him, and of preparations of many of the viscera, the 
whole forming part of the collection of Mr. Blackett. 



M9 



October 13, 1835. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Bennett called the attention of the Meeting to a Pteropbw 
Bat which had recently been obtained from the neighbourhood of 
the river Gambia, and which was exhibited. He directed especial 
notice to two large tufts of white hairs placed upon its shoulders 
and forming a very conspicuous feature in its appearance. These, 
he remarked, might probably cover cutaneous glands destined for the 
preparation of a secretion fitted to defend that part of the animal in 
its passage through the air, or perhaps to attract the opposite sex. 
It could scarcely be conceived that they have any influence in in- 
creasing the buoyancy of the animal ; although the backward posi- 
tion of the wings might seem to render necessary such a supple- 
mental aid : their position in advance of the ordinary alar membranes 
gives them, in fact, some resemblance to supplementaiy wings. 

He stated that on account, chiefly, of the position of the wings so 
far backward as almost to seem to be placed behind the centre of 
gravitj', he was disposed to consider that the Bat exhibited might 
be regarded as the type of a new genus, to which the name of Epo- 
mophoriis might be given. But the genus would, he conceived, rest 
almost entirely on this single character, and he hesitated to propose 
it definitively until he had an opportunity of examining a specimen 
preser^'ed in spirit, and consequently not liable to that distortion to 
which the individual skin exhibited might have been subjected. In 
one of the two other species of Pteropi previously obtained from the 
same country by Mr. Kendall, and brought under the notice of the 
Society on July 14 (page 100) by Mr. Ogilby, the same backward 
position of the wings exists. In dentary characters the new spe- 
cies agrees with those just referred to, the only exception being in 
the presence of a third abnormal incisor on the left of the upper 
jaw. 

Regarding it as a form of some interest to zoologists, Mr. Bennett 
stated his intention to describe it more fully in a paper which he pro- 
posed to prepare on the subject. He characterized it as the 

Pteropus epomophorus. Pter. pallide brunneus, postici pallidior ; 

ventre albido ; scopd humerali alhd magnd. 
Long. tot. 64 poll. ; capitis, 2^; expansio alarum, 12. 
Hab. in regione Gambiensi. 

Professor Agassiz, at the request of the Chairman, explained his 
views of the affinities and distribution of the Fishes of the family 
CyprinidxB. 

No. XXXIV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



150 

He commenced by remarking that among the genera referred by 
Cuvier to this family there were several, such as Poecilia, Lebias, &c., 
which possessed maxillary teeth and a large number of branchio- 
stegous rays. These genera, he conceived, ought to be excluded 
from the Cyprinidce ; and the family be considered as limited to fishes 
with mouths destitute of teeth, and having few branchiostegous 
rays. 

To the family thus reduced the nearest affinities appeared to him 
to be the genera Atherina and Mugil. In internal organization 
the Cyprinida agree nearly with those genera ; and this considera- 
tion, M. Agassiz conceives, is of much higher importance in the natu- 
ral arrangement than the external character founded on the presence 
or absence of spinous rays in the dorsal and other fins. The affinity 
of the CyprinidcE to the Silurida he regards as extremely doubtful : 
and although from the bearded Carps to the bearded Siluri there 
appears to be a natural transition by means of the bearded Loaches, 
it is important to distinguish that in these latter, as well as in the 
Carps and other CyprinidtB, the beards, as they are called, are merely 
processes of the skin ; while in the Siluri, the cirri of the angles 
of the mouth are actually prolongations of the maxillary bones, 
becoming gradually cartilaginous and tapering into thread-like ex- 
tremities. 

In the subdivision of the Cyprinida, M. Agassiz regards the form 
of the fins, and especially of the dorsal and anal, as furnishing indi- 
cations of the highest value ; and the form of the pharyngeal teeth 
as affording the characters next in importance. He first distinguishes 
the group comprising the genera Anahleps, Cobitis and Botia, the 
latter established by Mr. Gray for the reception of those Loaches in 
which the suborbital bone is armed with a moveable spine. He then 
distinguishes another group comprising four genera : 1 . Cyprinvs, 
in which the pharyngeal teeth are large, and, when worn, resemble 
the molars of some Rodent Mammalia, such as the Hare ; 2. Bay-bus, 
in which there are three rows of lengthened conical hooked teeth on 
each side of the pharynx; 3. Gobio, in which the pharyngeal teeth 
have the same form as those of the Barbels, but are more slender, 
and constitute only two rows ; and 4. Tinea, the pharyngeal teeth of 
which are club-shaped, rounded at the end, and placed in a single 
row. In the genus Levciscus, which M. Agassiz limits to Levc.Al- 
burnus and three allied species, the mouth is cleft obliquely, and the 
teeth, consisting of elongated cones, are disposed in four rows. 
From these the Cyprinus Nasus is to be generically distinguished as 
possessing six rows of pharyngeal teeth : its mouth is transverse and 
inferior, with the edges cutting. A third genus, containing many 
species, also requires to be distinguished, as having only two rows 
of teeth, one of which is hooked : in these the opening of the 
mouth is rounded. There remains the genus Abramis, distinguished 
by its long anal fin, in which the teeth are bevilled off and have 



151 

a cutting edge : of this genus eight species are known to Pro- 
fessor Agassiz. 

In this enumeration of the genera of Cyprinida M. Agassiz limited 
himself to the European forms, and scarcely adverted to any but 
European species. 

In illustration of his views preparations were exhibited of the pha- 
ryngeal teeth of Cyprinus, Barbus, and other genera, from the col- 
lection of Mr. Yarrell. 



152 



October 27, 1835. 

William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Burton exhibited, with the 
permission of Sir James M'Grigor, Bart., specimens of many Birds 
which had recently been presented to the Museum of the Army 
Medical Department at Chatham. He particularly pointed out 
among them the following which he regarded as hitheito undescribed, 
and for which he proposed the names and characters subjoined. 

NocTUA Brodiei. Noct . brunnea ; capite fascidque gulari pallidi 
rufo strigatis guttatisque, dorso, alls, pectore, ventreque pallidi 
rufo fasciatis ; mento, collo, et regione postauriculari albis ; fascia 
cervicali latd nigra albo rufoque varid ; secundariis maculd albd 
notatis ; caudd brunned, subtils palUdiore,fasciis septem rufis ati- 
gustis ornatd ; femoribus albis brunneo variis. 
Long. tot. 6-J- poll. ; corporis 4^ ; cauda 24 ; tarsi 1 . 
Rostrum album. 

Hab. apud Montes Himalayenses. 

The colouring of this bird bears a general resemblance to that of 
Noct. Cuculoides, Gould ; but the peculiar cervical collar, the dimi- 
nutive size, and some other characters forbid its being identified with 
that species. 

It is dedicated to Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., V.P.R.S., &c., in 
token of high respect and ancient friendship. 

Phcenicura MacGrigori^. Phcen. capita, collo, dorso, scapularibus, 
rectricumque pogoniis externis saturate cceruleis ; fronte, regione 
superciliari, uropygioque cceruleis ; remigibus rectricumque pogo- 
niis internis brunneis } mento regioneque praeoculari nigris ; collo 
utrinque maculd caruled belli notato ; pectore ventreque brunneis, 
hoc pallidiore. 

Long. tot. 5-^ poll. ; corporis, '6\ ; caudce, 2 ; tarsi, 4^, 

Rostrum nigrum ; pedes brunnei. 

Hab. apud Montes Himalayenses. 

This graceful bird is named in honour of the only daughter of Sir 
James M'^Grigor, Bart., M.D., F.R.S., Director General of the Army 
Medical Department. 

Stlvia.'' castaneo-coronata. Sylv. corpore suprd, alis, cauddque 



loS 

olivaceis ; capite genisque castaneis ; subths flavo, oUvaceo tincto, 
guld nitidi flavd ; alts cauddqiie subtiis remigumque pogoniis in- 
ternis brunneis ; caudd minimd. 
Long. tot. 31^ poll. ; corporis, 2y ; tarsi, 1 . 
Mandibula superior nigra, inferior alba ; pedes pallidi. 
This bird is provisionally retained in the genus Sylvia ; but the 
imperfect development of the tail, and the length and strength of the 
toes, more particularly of the posterior one, will probably at some 
future time render it the type of a new genus. 

SylviaBurkii. Sylv. corpore supra flavescenti-viridi, subtiis flavo ; 
capite maculis elongatis irregularibus nigrescentibus duabus nebu- 
loso ; alis prope flexuram seriebus duabus punctorum flavorum 
obsoletorum fasciatis ; remigum pogoniis internis brunneis ; caudd 
brunned prceter rectricum externarum duarum pogoniis internis 
albis. 
Long. tot. 5 poll. ; corporis, 3 ; caudce, 2 ; tarsi, 4. 
Mandibula superior nigrescens tomio apiceque albis, inferior alba ; 
pedes albescentes. 

Hab. apud Montes Himalayenses. 

This bird is named in honour of Dr. Burke, Inspector General 
of Hospitals, Principal Medical Officer of the King's Army in In- 
dia, by whom these birds were presented, and who has enriched the 
Museum with an extensive collection in ornithology from Northern 
India. 

.^GiTALus FLAMMiCEPS. ^g . capite flammeo ; dorso scapulari- 
busque Jfavescenti-viridibus ; uropygio viridescenti-flavo ; alis flavo 
viridi brunneo albidoque variis ; remigibus rectricibusque brun- 
neis, pogoniis internis viridescentibus, ad apices albo ciliatis ; guld 
flammed, in flavum ad pectus transeunte; ventre flavescenti albido ; 
alis subtiis albis, nisi externe. et inferne. 
Long. tot. 3-1 poll. ; corporis, 24-; caudce, I4-; tarsi, 1. 
Rostrum nigrum, mandibulse superioris tomio nisi ad apicem albo ; 
pedes nigri. Alee caudam longitudine subaequantes ; remigibus 2da 
Stiflque longioribus. Caput subcristatum. 
Hab. apud Montes Himalayenses. 

Two species of this genus are already known and described, ^g. 
Smithii and ^g. pendulinus : the present therefore forms the third 
of M. Boie's subdivision. 

Genus Sylviparus. 

Rostrum parvulum, brevissimum, compressum nisi ad basin ; man- 
dibulte aequales, superior paululum ad apicem arcuata ; nares plumis 
setaceis tectum. 



154 

Pedes ut in genere Paro. 

Ala longiores, fere ad extremam caudam extensse, remige Im^ vera 
breviore, 2nda, 3tia, et 4ta sequalibus et longissimis, 5ta his paulo 
breviore, 6ta primam sequante. 

Cauda mediocris, sequalis. 

Sylviparus modestus. Sylv. corpore suprd, brunnescenti-mridi, 
subtils viridescenti-alhido ; remigibus rectricibusque brunneis, po- 
goniis externis flavescenti-viridi ciliatis. 

Long. tot. 4 poll. ; corporis, 24-; cauda, I4; tarsi, \. 

Rostrum pedesque nigrescentes. 

Hub. apud Monies Himalayenses. 

It is reluctantly proposed to institute a new genus in a family 
already sufficiently complicated ; nevertheless, as this bird combines 
the characters of Sylvia, Regulus, and Parus in its wing, tail and 
bill, it is deemed necessary to make it the type of a genus of which 
more species will probably be discovered as our intercourse with the 
remote regions from whence it is derived becomes more extended. 

PicuMNUs iNNOMiNATUS. Pic. corporc supra flavescenti-viridi, 
subtils sordid^ alba maculis nigris conspicuis infascias ad ventrem 
lateraque confluentibus notato ; f rente nigro aurantiacoque ohscurh 
fasciato ; remigibus brunneis, pogoniis externis flavescenti-viridi 
ciliatis ; rectricibus intermediis nigris, cateris albo nigroque fas- 
ciatis ; colli lateribus brunneis, lined albd supra oculum oriente 
alterdque sub oculum et inde ad scapulam ductis ibique confluen- 
tibus. 

Long. tot. 4 poll. ; corporis, 2-^ ; Cauda, I4-; tarsi, -J-. 

Rostrum nigrum albo basin versus varium ; pedes brunnei. 

Hab. apud Montes Himalayenses. 

This is the only species of Picumnus yet discovered in tlie Old 
World. 

Mr. Burton also exhibited a fine specimen of that splendid bird, 
Eurylaimus Dalhousii, Wils,, likewise from the Chatham collection, 
of which only two other specimens are knovpn to exist in Europe. 

Various specimens of Fishes and other marine animals, collected 
by J. B. Harvey, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., on the south coast of 
Devonshire, were exhibited : and Mr. Yarrell called the attention of 
the Meeting to them, and to the Fishes in particular, remarking on 
their characters and habits, and on the peculiarities of their internal 
structure. 

A note by Mr. AUis of York, forwarded through Mr. Bell, was 
read. 



155 

It referred to the statement made by Mr. Martin at the Meeting 
on February 10, 1835 (page 17), that in the Adjutant, Ciconia 
Argala, Vig. and Childr., and in the common Heron, Ardea cinerea, 
Linn., no less than in the Pelicans, the os furcatum is united by bone 
to the anterior apex of the keel of the sternum. After remarking 
that this statement is at variance with his experience, Mr. AUis pro- 
ceeds thus : — " I have prepared a skeleton of the Adjutant; two of 
the purple Heron ; two Storks ; three of the common Heron ; one 
common Bittern ; one little Bittern ; one American small green Heron ; 
a British Crane ; and a Polish Crane. Among all these the Cranes are 
the only birds where there is true osseous union between the furcu- 
him and the keel: and in the Cranes the furculum is rather a forked 
elongation of the keel than a distinct bone. Out of more than two 
hundred birds' skeletons which I have mounted, the Pelican is the 
only other bird where the furculum and sternum form one bone. 
The Cormorant and the Gannet have the furculum resting on the 
apex of the keel like the Adjutant and the Herons, but there is no 
bony junction. I think the specimens of Mr. Martin must have 
been extremely old birds, or that the bone must have been injured 
at the point of union, and that the osseous union was formed in con- 
sequence of that injury. The Heron's skeletons which I have my- 
self prepared are by no means young birds ; but I suppose extreme 
old age would be very likely to form a bony junction between bones 
pressing so close to each other as they do in this case. 

" It may be thought singular that I should prepare duplicates of 
the skeleton of so common a bird as the common Heron. The reason 
is, that two of the skeletons exhibit curious specimens of nature's 
reparation of broken limbs, and the third is a singular instance of 
malformation. The sternum of the Heron is united to the vertebral 
column by four short ribs which are attached to four of the largest 
of the long ribs : this specimen has the usual number of short ribs ; 
but one of them is placed so far forward on the sternum as to be 
quite out of the reach of any of the vertebral or long ribs ; and the 
last of the four long ribs which is usually attached to one of the short 
or sternal ribs, wanting its usual support, is attached by cartilage to 
the rib immediately preceding it." — T. A. 

A Note from Mr. Martin, on the same subject, was subsequently 
read. 

Mr. Martin admits the incorrectness of his previous statement as 
regards the Adjutant and the common Heron ; but remarks that the 
union, although not effected by bone, is yet so close as probably to 
have nearly the same physiological consequence as if anchylosis had 
actually taken place. When considering the sternum and os furcatum 
of the Pelican as structurally bearing upon the bird's powers of flight, 
he looked for analogies of the structural point in question among 



156 

birds of ample wing, and of slow but untiring flight. Observing 
them in the birds to which he had before referred, he did not accu- 
rately draw the line of distinction between anchylosis, and a firm and 
close attachment with only thin cartilage intervening between the 
bones. With regard to the effects produced upon aerial progression, 
he conceives that, ceteris paribus, it is immaterial whether the union 
be that of anchylosis or not, provided the junction be firm and in- 
timate. 

Mr. Martin thinks it, however, probable that in the Adjutant, when 
old, a bony union may take place ; the junction between the osfur- 
catum and the sternum in the Society's skeleton of this bird being 
so close as almost to admit of its being regarded as a kind of suture. 
In an adult example of the Stanley Crane, Anthropoides paradiscBus, 
Bechst., where the anchylosis between these bones is fairly perfected, 
he finds traces of the obliteration of a similar mode of union. 

Referring to Mr. Allis's remark that in the Cranes the os furcatum 
is rather a forked elongation of the keel than a distinct bone, Mr. 
Martin observes that the anchylosis which takes place in those birds 
does not render the os furcatum less a distinct bone in reality than 
where its union is by cartilage or suture ; for in these latter cases it 
is only by an arrest of the process of ossification — a natural arrest, 
it is true — that anchylosis has not been effected. 

Mr. Gould, at the request of the Chairman, exhibited drawings of 
ten species of Ramphastidce which had become known to him since 
he published, in 1834, his ' Monograph ' of that family. Several of 
these birds had already been brought under the notice of the So- 
ciety. He now named and characterized the remaining ones as 
follows. 

Ramphastos citeeopygus. Ramph. tectricibus caudte superioribus 
sulphur eis. 

Long. tot. 20 poll.; rostri, bf, ala, di ; caudae, 6 ; tarsi, 2. 

Hab. in Brasilia .'' 

Descr. Rostrum (pro corporis ratione) minus, nigrum, fascia basali 
culmineque prope basin flavis. Pectus albidum flavescente tinctum. 
Torques pectoralis coccinea latiuscula. Orbitae tarsique plumbei, hi 
saturatiores. 

Ramphastos osculans. Ramph. rostro nigra, culmine fascidque 
basali stramineis ; pectore in medio aurantiaco. 

Long. tot. 18 poll.; rostri, 4-5-; alte, 7-i-; caudce, 6^; tarsi, 1^. 

Hub. in Brasilia. 

Descr. -Rff»?/?A. cw/miwff/o, Gould, quamproximfe accedit. Pectus 
aurantiacum, latera versus in flavum transiens; gula regioque paro- 
tica albse. 'lorques pectoralis subangustata. 



157 

Pteroglossus pluricinctus. Pter. gastrao flavo, fascidpectorali 
nigrd, alterdque subventrali antice nirjrd postici coccined. 

Long. tot. 20 poll. ; rostri, 4^ : ala, 6-f ; caudte, 8-i-. 

Hab. in Brasilia. 

Descr. Pter. regali, Licht., affinis. Rostrum ad basin lineA 
elevate flava cinctum : maxillae svxperioris culraen, linea intrabasalis. 
tomiique pars posterior nigrse; latera aurantiaco-flava apicem versus 
pallescentia: maxilla inferior nigra. Caput coll umque nigra; fceminae 
regio parotica castanea, fasciaque guttur postic^ cingens coccinea. 
Pectus et venter maculis indistinctis sparsis coccineis notati. Femora 
olivacea. 

Pteroglossus HuMBOLDTii, Wagl. Pter. gastrceo Jlavo ; mandi- 
buld inferior e nigrd, superiore flavescente, culmine, apice, lined 
props basin, serraturarumque maculis transversis nigris. 
Long. tot. 16-17 poll.; rostri, 4; alee 5^; caudce, 6^; tarsi, li. 
Hab. in Brasilia. 

Descr. Pter. inscripto. Swains., maxime affinis, sed major. Ros- 
trum majus, magisque productum : mandibulse superioris liturae 
omnes angustiores. 

Pteroglossus Nattereri. Pter. ventre flavo,femoribus castanets, 
crisso coccinea ; rostro rubra, culmine, maculd prape basin utrius- 
que mandibulcE, plurimisque subtransversis ad serraturas nigris. 
Long. tot. 18-J-poll.; rostri, 2^ ; alee, S-f; caudce, 5; tarsi, 1-i-. 
Hab. in Brasilia. 

Descr. Pter. maculirostri, Licht., admodum affinis, in sexu 
utroque. Rostri colores toto ccelo diversi : sicut et ventris femo- 
rumque. 

Pteroglossus Reinwardtii, Wagl. Pter. ventre aurantiaco cas- 
taneo tincto, crissa coccinea ; culmine rastrique dimidio apicali 
nigrescenti-brunneis , basali rufescente . 

Long. tot. 12-13 poll. ; rostri, 24- ; alcB, 5 ; caudce, 54; tarsi, l-^. 

Hab. in Brasilia. 

Prsecedenti vald^ affinis. Rostrum magis elongatum, coloribusque 
maxime diversum: prope basin mandibulse superioris tomium nigro 
trimaculatum. Rectrices intermedise quatuor brunneo apiculatfe : in 
Pter. Nattereri et Pter. maculirostri, rectricum sex intermediarum 
apices similiter notati sunt. 

Pteroglossus Langsdorffii, Wagl. Pter. ventre castaneo, crisso 

coccineo ; rostra nigrescenti-brunneo basin versus pallescente. 
Long. tot. 13+ poll. ; rostri, 24; al(B, 5|; tarsi, 1-f. 
Hab. in Brasilia. 

Descr. Pter. Culik, Wagl., affinis. Rostri ad basin ventrisque 
color alius. (Rectricum apices desiderantur.) 



158 

Pteroglossus pavoninus, Mus. Mun. Pter. suprh prasinus , sub- 
tils paliidior, crisso rectricumque apicibus brunneis ; rostra in- 
ferne et ad basin nigro. 
Long. tot. 13-14 poll.; ros^ri, vix 3^; ala,5i; caudeE,5^; tarsi,\i. 
Hob. in Mexico. 

Desck. Tier, prasino, Licht., propemodo affinis. Rostrum ni- 
grum, ad basin linea aurantiaca cinctum ; mandibula superior 
pro maxima parte apicem versus flava in coeruleo-viridem supernfe 
transiens. 

Mr. Gould concluded by stating that it was his intention imme- 
diately to publish, as a supplement to his ' Monograph of the Ram- 
phastidcE,' the drawings which he had laid before the Meeting. 
Of that family thirty-three species are now known to him, which 
may be distinguished by the following Synoptic Table of the spe- 
cies of 

RAMPHASTIDiE. 

I. Cauda breviore, quadratsl : rostro maximo. Nigri ; gutture cau- 

dceque tegminibus discoloribus . — Ramphastos. 

Caudse tegminibus superioribus flavis vel flavescentibus. 
Pectore albo. 

Rostro ut plurimum nigro, lateri- 

bus compressis 1. culminatus. 

convexis 2. Cuvieri. 

rubro. . . 3. erythrorhynchus. 

Pectore pallide lutescente . . . .4. citreopygus. 

flavo 5. osculans. 

Caudse tegminibus superioribus albis. 

Pectore albo 6. Toco. 

flavo. 

Rostro pluricolore 7. carinatus. 

■ obliqufe dimidiatim flavo . 8. Swainsonii. 

Caudse tegminibus superioribus coccineis. 
Rostro nigro. 

Auribus albis 9. vitellinus. 

pectori concoloribus, 

(sc. flavis) 10. Ariel. 

Rostro viridescente 11. dicolorus. 

II. Cauda longiore, gradata : rostro majore. Vii-idescentes ; capite, 

gastrao, tegminibusque caudee superioribus in plm-imis dis- 
coloribus. — Pteroglossus. 

Gastrseo bi- vel pluri-colore, coloribus discretis. 
Pectore ventreque flavis, fasciatis. 
Fascia ventrali coccinea, lata. 



159 

Maxillee superioris lateri- 

bus sordid^ albis . . 1. Aracari. 

obliqu^ 

dimidiatis nigris ... 2. castanotis. 
Fascia ventrali antice nigra pos- 
ticfe coccine^. 
Pectore macule nigra notato . 3. regalis. 

—torque lata nigra cincto. 4. pluricinctui. 

Pectore coccineo. 

Torque pectorali vel nulla vel an- 

gustii, fiava 5. hitorquatus. 

latissimd, nigra . 6. AzarcE. 

Pectore ventreque flavis, baud fas- 
ciatis. 
Maxilla superiore dimidiatim flav& 

et aurantiaca 10. viridis. 

flava, nigro in- 

scripta. 

Maxilla inferiore nigra . . . . 11. Humholdtii. 

superior! concolore 12. inscriptus. 

Pectore gutturi concolore, ventre 
discolore. 
Maxilla superiore nigro maculata, 

albescente 13. maculirostris. 

ut plurimum rubra. 

apice concolore . . . . 14. Natter eri. 
nigrescente . . . 15. Reinwardtii. 
Maxillis nigris, 

basin versus rubris . . , , 16. Culik. 
paullum cinerascentibus . . 17. Langsdorffii. 
Gastraeo unicolore, vel subunicolore. 
Gastrseo stragulo discolore. 

Gastraeo flavo, rubro intermixto . 7. ulocomus. 

ccEruleo-cano .... 8. hypoglaucus. 

flavo 9. Bailloni. 

Gastraeo stragulo subconcolore. 

Crisso discolore. 

Mandibulse superioris basi fla- 

vescente 18. prasinut. 

ni- 
gro \d . pavoninus . 

Crisso concolore. 
Uropygio concolore. 

Rectricum apicibus concolo- 

ribus 20. sulcatus. 

intermediarumdua- 

rum apicibus castaneis . 21. Derbinnus. 
Uropygio coccineo . . . . 22. heematopygus. 



160 

The latter five of the above species are referrible to the genus 
proposed by Mr. Gould, on December 23, 1834, (Proceedings, Partii. 
p. 147,) under the name of Aulacorhynchus . 

The following " Observations on the Habits, &c. of a male Chimpan- 
zee, Troglodytes niger, Geoff., now living in the Menagerie of the 
Zoological Society of London, by W. J. Broderip, Esq., V.P.Z.S., 
F.R.S., &c.," were read: — 

" The interesting animal whose habits in captivity I attempt to 
describe, was brought to Bristol in the autumn of this year by 
Capt. Wood, from the Gambia coast. The natives from whom 
he received it, stated that they had brought it about one hundred 
and twenty miles from the interior of the country, and that its 
age was about twelve months. The mother was with it, and, ac- 
cording to their report, stood four feet six inches in height. Her 
they shot, — and so became possessed of her young one ; and those 
who have seen our animal will well understand what Dr. Abel 
means, when, in his painful description of the slaughter of an Asi- 
atic Orang (Pithectis Satyrus, Geoff.), he observes that the ges- 
tures of the wounded creature during his mortal sufferings, the hu- 
man-like expression of his countenance, and the piteous manner of 
his placing his hands over his wounds, distressed the feelings of those 
who aided in his death, and almost made them question the nature 
of the act they were committing. During the period of his being 
on ship-board, our Chimpanzee was very lively. He had a free range, 
frequently ran up the rigging, and showed great affection for those 
sailors who treated him kindly. 

" I saw him for the first time on the 14th instant, in the kitchen 
belonging to the Keeper's apartments. Dressed in a little Guernsey 
shirt, or banyan jacket, he was sitting child-like in the lap of a 
good old woman, to whom he clung whenever she made a show of 
putting him down. His aspect was mild and pensive, but that of a 
little withered old man ; and his large eyes, hairless and wrinkled 
visage, and man-like ears, surmounted by the black hair of his head, 
rendered the resemblance very striking, notwithstanding the de- 
pressed nose and the projecting mouth. He had already become 
very fond of his good old nurse, and she had evidently become at- 
tached to her nursling, though they had been acquainted only three 
or four days ; and it was with difficulty that he permitted her to go 
away to do her work in another part of the building. In her lap he 
was perfectly at his ease ; and it seemed to me that he considered 
her as occupying the place of his mother. He was constantly reach- 
ing up with his hand to the fold of her neck-kerchief, though when 
he did so she checked him, saying " No, Tommy, you must not pull 
the pin out." When not otherwise occupied, he would sit quietly in 



161 

her lap, pulling his toes about with his fingers, with the same pensive 
air as a human child exhibits when amusing itself in the same 
manner. I wished to examine liis teeth ; and when his nurse, in 
order to make him open his mouth, threw him back in her arms and 
tickled him just as she would have acted towards a child, the carica- 
ture was complete. 

" I offered him my ungloved hand. He took it mildly in his, with 
a manner equally exempt from forwardness and fear ; — examined 
it with his eyes, and perceiving a ring on one of my fingers, sub- 
mitted that and that only to a very cautious and gentle examination 
with his teeth, so as not to leave any mark on the ring. I then offered 
him my other hand with the glove on. This he felt, looked at it, 
turned it about, and then tried it with his teeth. His sight and his 
ordinary touch seemed to satisfy him in the case of a natural surface, 
but, as it appeared to me, he required something more to assure his 
senses when an artificial surface was presented to him ; and then he 
applied the test of his teeth. 

" At length it became necessary for liis kind nurse to leave him ; 
and after much remonstrance on his part, she put him on the floor. 
He would not leave her, however, and walked nearly erect by her side, 
holding by her gown, just like a child. At last she got him away by 
offering him a peeled raw potato, which he ate with great relish, 
holding it in his right hand. His keeper, who is very attentive to 
him, and whom he likes very much, then made his appearance, and 
spoke to him. Tommy (for by that name they call him) evidently 
made an attempt to speak too, gesticulating as he stood nearly erect, 
protruding his lips, and making a hoarse noise " hoo-hoo " somewhat 
like a deaf and dumb person endeavouring to articulate. He soon 
showed a disposition to play with me, jumping on his lower extremi- 
ties opposite to me like a child, and looking at me with an expression 
indicating a wish for a game of romps. I confess I complied with 
his wish, and a capital game of play we had. 

" On another occasion, and when he had become familiar with me. 
I caused, in the midst of his play, a looking-glass to be brought, and 
held it before him. His attention was instantly and strongly ar- 
rested : from the utmost activity he became immoveably fixed, 
steadfastly gazing at the mirror with eagerness and something like 
w^onder depicted on his face. He at length looked up at me — then 
again gazed at the glass. The tips of my fingers appeared on one 
side as I held it — he put his hands and then his lips to them — then 
looked behind the glass — then gazed again at its surface — touched 
my hand again, and then applied his lips and teeth to the surface of 
the glass — looked behind again, and then, returning to gaze, passed 
his hands behind it, evidently to feel if there was anything substan- 
tial there. A savage would have acted much in the same way. 



162 

judging from the accounts given of such experiments with the un- 
tutored natives of a vi'ild and newly discovered land. 

" I broke a sugared almond in two, and, as he was eating one half, 
placed the other, while he was watching me, in a little card-box 
which I shut in his presence — as soon as he had finished the piece 
of almond which he had, I gave him the box. With his teeth and 
hands he pulled off the cover, took out the other half, and then laid 
the box down. He ate the kernel of this almond, rejecting the 
greatest part of the sugary paste in wliich it was incased, as if it had 
been a shell : but he soon found out his error ; for, another almond 
being presented to him, he carefully sucked off the sugar and left 
the kernel. 

I then produced a wine-glass, into which I poured some racy sherrj% 
and further sweetened it with sugar. He watched me with some 
impatience, and when I gave him the glass he raised it with his 
hands to his lips, and drank a very little. It was not to his taste, 
however, for he set down the glass, almost as full as he had taken 
it up ; and yet he was thirsty, for I caused a tea-cup with some 
sugared warm milk and water to be handed to him, and he took up 
the cup and drained it to the last drop. 

" I presented him with a cocoa-nut, to the shell of which some of the 
husk was still adhering: the tender bud was just beginning to push 
forth — this he immediately bit off and ate. He then stripped off some 
of the husk with his teeth, swung it by the knot of adhering husk- 
fibres round his head, dashed it down, and repeatedly jumped upon 
it with all his weight. He afterwards swung it about and dashed it 
down with such violence that, fearing his person might suffer, I had 
it taken away. A hole was afterwards bored through one of the 
eyes, and the cocoa-nut was again given to him. He immediately 
held it up with the aperture downwards, applied his mouth to it, and 
sucked away at what milk there was with great glee. 

"As I was making notes with a pencil, he came up, inquisitively 
looked at the paper and pencil, and then took hold of the latter. 
Before I gave it up, I drew the pencil into the case, foreseeing that 
he would submit the pencil-case to examination by the teeth. Im- 
mediately that he got it into his possession, he put the tip of his 
little finger to the aperture at the bottom, and having looked at it, 
tried the case with his teeth. 

" While his attention was otherwise directed I had caused a 
hamper containing one of the Pythons to be brought into the room 
and placed on a chair not far from the kitchen dresser. The lid 
was raised, the blanket in which the snake was enveloped was 
opened, and soon after Tommy came gamboling that way. As he 
jumped and danced along the dresser towards the basket, he was all 
gaiety and life. Suddenly he seemed to be taken aback, stopped — 



163 

then cautiously advanced towards the basket, peered or rather craned 
over it — and instantly with a gesture of horror and aversion, and the 
cry of Hoo ! hoo ! recoiled from the detested object, jumped back 
as far as he could, and then sprang to his keeper for protection. He 
was again put down, his attention diverted from the basket, and, 
after a while, tempted to its neighbourhood by the display of a fine 
rosy-cheeked apple, which was at last held on the opposite rim of 
the hamper. But no — he would evidently have done a good deal 
to get at the apple ; but the gulf wherein the serpent lay was to be 
passed, and after some slight contention between hunger and horror, 
off he went and hid himself. I then covered up the snake, and after 
luring him out with the apple, placed it on the blanket — No. I then 
shut down the lid — still the same desire and the same aversion. I then 
had the hamper, with the lid down, removed from the chair on which 
it had been placed to another part of the room. The apple was again 
shown to Tommy and placed on the lid. He advanced cautiously, 
looking back at the empty chair and then at the hamper : he ad- 
vanced further with evident reluctance, but when he approached 
near he peered forward toward the basket, and, as if overcome by 
fright, again ran back and hid himself under his cage. 

" I now caused the hamper with the serpent to be taken out of 
the room. Our friend soon came forward. I showed him the apple 
and placed it on the chair. He advanced a little, and I patted his 
head and encouraged him. He then came forth and went about the 
room, looking carefully as if to satisfy himself that the snake was 
gone — advanced to the chair more boldly, — looked under it — and 
then took the apple and ate it with great appetite, dancing about 
and resuming all his former gaietj^ 

" We know that there are large constricting serpents in Africa ; 
and as the animal must have been very young when separated from 
its parent, I made this experiment in particular to try his instinct : 
it succeeded to the entire satisfaction of the witnesses who were 
present. 

" He manifested aversion to a small living tortoise, but nothing 
like the horror which he betrayed at sight of the snake. I was in- 
duced to show him the former by the account of the effect produced 
by Testudinata on the Asiatic Orang, whose habits are so admirably 
described by Dr. Abel and Captain Methuen, who brought the ani- 
mal to England. 

" Tommy, among other exercises, is very fond of swinging. He 
places himself on the swing, generally in a sitting posture, holding 
on each side with his hands. He not unfrequently puts up his feet 
and grasps the cord on either side with them too, appearing more at 
home on his slack rope than II Diavolo Antonio himself. 

" James Hunt, one of the keepers, has observed him frequently 



164 

sitting and leaning his head on his hand, attentively looking at the 
keepers when at their supper, and watching, to use Hunt's expres- 
sion, " every bit they put into their mouths." Fuller, the head 
keeper, informs me that our Chimpanzee generally takes his rest in a 
sitting posture, leaning rather forward with folded arms and some- 
times with his face in his hands. Sometimes he sleeps prone, with 
his legs rather drawn up, and his head resting on his arms. 

" Of the blaek Orangs which I have seen. Tommy is by far the 
most lively. He is in the best health and spirits, and is a very diff- 
erent animal from the drooping, sickly Chimpanzees that I have 
hitherto seen. A good deal of observation made on the Asiatic 
Orangs which have been exhibited in this country, satisfies me that 
the intelligence of the African Orang is superior to that of the Asiatic. 
This intelligence is entirely different from that of a well-educated 
dog or a mere mimic, and gives me the idea of an intellect more re- 
sembling that of a human being than of any other animal, though 
still infinitely below it. 

" The Pygmy of Tyson and the black Orang dissected by Dr. 
Traill, and so well described by him in the ' "Wernerian Transactions,' 
are both stated to have progressed generally by placing their bent 
fists on the ground and so advancing : indeed Dr. Traill says that 
the individual which he saw never placed the palms of the hands on 
the ground. The progression of Dr. Abel's red or Asiatic Orang is 
described to have been after the same fashion. Whether it is that 
our Chimpanzee is in better health and more lively, I know not, but 
he certainly passes a great deal of his time in a position nearljr ap- 
proaching to erect, nor does he, generally, place the bent knuckles 
to the ground. He will often stand on the top of his cage and 
apply the palms of his hands to the smooth surface of the wall against 
which it stands. It is said that a spectator who saw him thus em- 
ployed, with his back to the company, dressed in his little banyan 
jacket and woollen cap, was told by a companion to look at the 
monkey, as he profanely called him. " Where is he ?" was the re- 
ply. " Why there on the top of the cage," was the answer. " What ! " 
said the first, "that little man who is plastering the wall?" 

" Tommy does not like confinement, and when he is shut into his 
cage, the violence with which he pulls at and shakes the door is very 
great, and shows considerable strength ; but I have never seen him 
use this exertion against any other part of the cage, though his 
keeper has endeavoured to induce him to do so in order to see 
whether he would make the distinction. When at liberty he is ex- 
tremely playful, and, in his high jinks, I saw him toddle into a 
corner where an unlucky bitch was lying with a Utter of very 
young pups, and lay hold of one of them, till the snarling of the 
mother and the voice of his keeper, to which he pays instant respect, 



165 

made him put the pup down. He then climbed up to the top of the 
cage where the Marmozets were, and jumped furiously upon it, evi- 
dently to astonish the inmates, who were astonished accordingly, and 
huddled together, looking up in consternation at this dreadful pother 
o'er their heads. Then he went to the window, opened it and looked 
out. I was afraid that he might make his escape : but the word* 
" Tommy, no ! " pronounced by his keeper in a mild but firm tone, 
caused him to shut the window and come away. He is in truth a 
most docile and affectionate animal, and it is impossible not to be 
taken by the expressive gestures and looks with which he courts 
your good opinion, and throws himself upon you for protection 
against annoyance. 

" It must be remembered that though I have not obsei-ved our Chim- 
panzee to progress with his bent knuckles touchingthe ground, as I have 
seen the Asiatic Orangs move, there is no reason for doubting the ac- 
curate descriptions of Tyson and Dr. Traill. I consider it as my pro- 
vince to relate faithfully what I saw, and I have only seen our Chimpan- 
zee, as yet, in a small room, where a very few paces will bring him to a 
chair, a leg of a dresser, or some other piece of fumitiu-e which en- 
ables him to call into action his prehensile hands and feet, so admi- 
rably adapted to his arboreal habits. The narrowness of the pelvis, 
the comparatively inferior development of the glutai * and gastro- 
cnemii muscles, and other peculiarities of conformation so ably pointed 
out by Tyson, Dr. Traill, and others, but more particularly by Mr. 
Owen, show that the erect, or, more properly speaking, the semi- 
erect position, is not the natural one ; though my observations upon 
living Asiatic Orangs and Chimpanzees accord with the inference 
drawn by Mr. Owen from the comparative organization of the lat- 
ter, viz. that the semi-erect position is more easily maintained by the 
Chimpanzee than by any of the other known Simite. 

" The great intelligence and strength of the individual now in the 
menagerie of the Society, added to the state of its dentition, raised 
a doubt in my mind as to the accuracy of the report of its age; and I 
wrote to my friend Mr. Owen my suspicion that he might be older 
than he was said to be. I received the following reply, in which so 
much valuable information is concentrated that I feel it to be due to 
those who may think this memoir worthy of attention to give it as 
I received it. 

'21st October, 1835. 

" ' My dear Broderip, — I feel that we have no data towards deter- 

• This must be understood as limited to a comparison with the same 
muscles in man ; for there is in the Chimpanzee as Mr. Owen observes, " a 
provision for a more extended attachment for the glutcei muscles, in a greater 
breadth of the ilia between the superior spinous processes, than is. observed 
in the inferior Simice." 



166 

mining with certainty the exact age of the young Chimpanzee at the 
Gardens : its present state of dentition corresponds to that which 
our own species presents during the period of from 2 to 7 years, viz. 
incisors 4, canines 4, molars 4, all of which belong to the deci- 
duous series. The deciduous canines appear in the human jaws be- 
fore the completion of the second year ; and those of the Chimpanzee 
are certainly the temporary ones, but are protruded by the enlarged 
germs of the permanent teeth behind them, so as to appear larger 
than natural. From this circumstance and from the space already 
existing beyond the deciduous molars, I infer that the appearance 
of some of the permanent teeth is near at hand ; and we may still 
see an additional molar protruding in each jaw before the winter is 
over, if the poor animal should survive that period. 

" ' The human child acquires the corresponding permanent molars 
at the seventh year ; and from the appearances on the jaws of our 
Chimpanzee I conclude that its age tallies with that of 5 or 6 years in 
lis. But analogy will be dangerous ground for an inference as to 
precise age, since it is by no means improbable that, where the brain 
is so much less developed, the full use of it may be much earlier ac- 
quired, such as it is ; and that the shedding of the teeth may take 
place at a proportionally early period. 

' Believe me, &c. ' Richahd Owen.' 

" I now proceed to the measurements of our male specimen, 
premising that the operation was a work of no small difficulty in 
consequence of the restlessness of the animal. Indeed I am notsure 
now about the height, though I am confirmed in the measurements 
by Mr. Miller and Fuller. The Chimpanzee would keep drawing up 
his legs and putting the musculus scansorius detected by Dr. Traill 
into action ; and it was not practicable to make him stand or lie 
quite straight with his legs entirely extended. 

Ft. In. 

Height from the heel to the top of the head 2 

Circumference of the bottom of the breast 1 5 

round the hips 1 3^ 

of the head round the eyes and ears . . 13 

Opening of the mouth 3-;- 

Height from the middle of the upper lip to the eyebrows 3-}- 

Length from the eyebrows to the occiput T\ 

Diameter of the ear upwards 2-f 

Transverse diameter of the same I4 

Circumference of the external edge of the same 6 i 

of that part which adheres to the head 4i 

Height from the upper point of the pubis to the clavicle 10 J^ 

Distance between the navel and sternum 4+ 



167 



Distance between the navel and pubis 3i 

nipples 4 

Length of the arm from the shoulder to the end of") . . , 

the fingers J ^ 

Circumference of the arm 6 

of the forearm four inches above the wrist 6i 

Length of the hand from the wrist to the end of the 1 n - 

middle finger j ''^ 

Circumference of the hand 44- 

Length of the thumb 1-i- 

second finger 2-f 

middle finger 3-4- 

fourth finger 3 

fifth finger 24^ 

Circumference of the thumb and little finger 1+ 

other fingers H 

Length of the palm 21 

Breadth of ditto 2 

Height from the heel to the extremity of the thigh-bone 11 -J- 

Length from the heel to the extremity of the middle 1 n <; 

(longest) toe / " ^^ 

Circumference of the thigh Si 

leg, at its thickest part 6 

foot, taken from the origin of"! n r 

the thumb / " ^* 

Length of the thumb or great toe 1-i 

second toe 2 

third toe 2-i- 

fourth toe 2+ 

fifth toe U 

Greatest breadth of the sole at the origin of the thumb 1 

or great toe J "^ 

near the heel 1^ 

Circumference of the great toe at the largest point. ... H 
other toes 1-4- 

" On referring to the dimensions given by Daubenton we shall 
be struck with the stoutness of our specimen as compared with that 
of the individual which was the subject of his observations. 

" It was my intention to have added a particular description of the 
individual which has been the subject of this memoir; but on care- 
fully inspecting the animal I find Dr. Traill's elaborate description so 
accurate — (there really is no difference but sex at present) — that I 
should be needlessly occupying space if I inserted my own ; and I 
beg, therefore, to refer the reader to that gentleman's highly valuable 
papers in the ' Wemerian Transactions'. 



m 

" Since writing the above the cage in which our animal was con- 
fined has been enlarged and several barked branches have been nailed 
to a stem so as to form an artificial tree. These branches he ascends 
with great activity, and frequently swings with his head downwards, 
holding on by his lower extremities, and recovering himself with 
greater agility than any rope-dancer." — ^W. J. B. 



169 



November 10, 1835. 

Thomas Bell, Esq., in the Chair. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Gould exhibited a specimen 
of the true Lanner Hawk, Falco Lanarius, Linn., and entered into 
some details with respect to its distinguishing peculiarities. Its real 
characters, he stated, have hitherto been so imperfectly understood 
as to have led to very general doubts as to its existence as a distinct 
species. 

Mr. Gould also exhibited specimens of two species of Pheasant, 
both of very great rarity, which had recently come into his posses- 
sion : they were the Phasianus Soemmeringii, Temm., and the P has. 
versicolor, Ej. He accompanied the exhibition by some remarks on 
the subdivisions which appear to him to be required among the Pha- 
sianidcs generally ; and more especially on the position, among that 
extensive group, of the species exhibited. 

Mr. Bell read " Some Account of the Crustacea of the Coasts of 
South America, with Descriptions of New Genera and Species ; 
founded principally on the Collections obtained by Mr. Cuming and 
Mr. Miller. (txihvi?,\, Oxyrhynchi.)" The paper contains characters 
and descriptions of the following genera and species of Crustacea ; 
and was accompanied by the exhibition of the specimens described 
in it, and of drawings in illustration of it. 

Fam. LEPTOPODiiDiE. 

Genus Leptopodia, Leach. 

Leptopodia Sagittaria, Leach. 
Hab. apud Valparaiso. 

Genus Exjetpodius, Gmr. 
EuRYPODius Latreillii, (xuir. 
Hab. apud Valparaiso, D. Cuming ; ad Rio Janeiro, D. Miller. 

Fam. Maiid^. 

Genus Libinia, Leach. 

LiBiNiA ROSTRATA. Lib. Tostro pvoducto, valido, bidentato ; den- 

tibus compressis, acutis, divergentibus. 
Long. tot. 2 poU. 8 lin., lat. 2 poll. 3 lin. 
Hab. ad oras Peruvise. 

Genus Rhodia. 

Testa pyriformis, in rostrum parvum bidentatum antic^ producta. 
No. XXXV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



170 

Oculi retractiles, globosi, pedunculo crassiores. 

Orbita fissura magna supern^ aperta. 

Antenna interiores in foveolis profundis, lunatis, anticfe separatis 

receptse. 
AntenTKz exteriores rostro duplo longiores; articulo basUari biden- 

tato, reliquis cylindricis, ad rostri latera insertse. 
Pedum par anticum ( J* immaturi) reliquis brevius ; digitis minu- 

tissime serratis ; paria quatuor posteriora testa longiora, a se- 

cundo ad quintum sensim paullo breviora. 
Abdomen maris 7 -articulatum ; fcemin^ — ? 
Obs. Genus Herbstiie affine ; differt prsecipue pedibus anticis tenui- 
oribus abbreviatis, digitisque minutissim^ tantum serratis. 

Rhodia pyriformis. 

Long, testae 8 lin., lat. 6. 

Hah. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

Genus Pelia. 

Testa pyriformis, rotundata, antice rostro elongato apice bifido 
terminata. 

Orbita supra fomicata, externe unifissa, infra emargiaata. 

Oculi retractiles, globosi, pedunculo crassiores. 

Antenna interiores in basin rostri insertae. 

Antenna exteriores rostro baud multo longiores, articulo basilari 
longissimo ad medium rostri attinente, exttis uni-denticulato ; 
articulis reliquis cylindricis, gracilibus. 

Pedipalpi externi caule externo semifusiformi ; caulis intemi arti- 
culo primo elongato-rhomboideo, secundo trapezoideo, margine 
integro. 

Pedum par anticum aliis paul]6 crassius, secundo brevius ; di- 
gitis apicem versus serrulatis, digito immobili ad medium ex- 
cavato, tuberculum unicum digiti mobilis recipiente : paria 
quatuor posteriora gracilia, compressa, pilosa. 

Abdomen Maris 7 -articulatum. 

Obs. Genus Herbstiee et Pisa aiBne. 

Pelia pulchella. 

Long, testae 4 lin., lat. 2-^. 

Hub. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

Genus Herbstia, Edw. 

Herbstia Edwardsii. Herbst. pedum pare antico inermi. 

Long, testae 7 lin., lat. 6. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

Genus Thoe. 
Testa subtriangularis, depressa, horizontalis, rostro minimo apice 

leviter fisso terminata. 
Orbita edentata, fissuris tribus inconspicuis. 
Oculi retractiles, globosi, pedunculo brevi. 
Antenna interiores in fossuM antice tantum divisa insertae. 



171 

AnteniKe exteriores ad latera rostri insertae, rostro tripio longiores, 
pilosae, articulo basilar! lato, antic^ et postice producto. 

Pedipalpi externi introrstiniciliati, caulis interni articulo primo sub- 
rhomboideo, secundo margine integro. 

Pedes antici maris reliquis longiores, brachiis supra et extern^ 
serie cellularum erosis ; manibus laevibus, digitis ad apicem 
tantum contingentibus : posteriores depressi, lateribus pilosis. 

Abdomen in utroque sexu 7-articulatum. 

Obs. Genus Herbstia affine : diiFert corpore depresso, rostrique 
forma. Peculiares admodum cellulse brachiorum. 

Thoe erosa. 

Long, testae 5 lin., lat. 4. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

Genus Hyas, Leach. 

Hyas Edwardsii. Hy. testd antice angustatd, post orbitas hand 

coarctatd, pilosd ; orbitarum dente interna mediocri. 
Long, testae 9 lin., lat. 7. 
Hab. apud Valparaiso et ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

Genus Pisa, Leach. 

Pisa spinipes. Pisa testd ovatd ; dente articuli basilaris antennce 
exterioris dente superorbitali longiore ; margine antico-laterali et 
pedibus omnibus spinosis. 

Long, testae 8 lin., lat. 4. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas, et apud Sanctam Elenam. 

Pisa aculeata. Pisa testd triangulari ; dente articuli basilaris an- 
tennce exterioris dente superorbitali breviore ; margine antico-la- 
terali inermi, regione branchiali spinis quatuor armatd, pedibus 
suprd, spinosis. 

Long, testae 8 lin., lat. 7. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

Genus Mithrax, Leach. 

MiTHRAX ROSTRATUS. Mithr. testd spinosd, rostro elongato bi- 
dentato, dentibus divaricatis, terminatd ; pedibus spinosis, ma- 
nibus lavibus. 

Long, testae 2 poll. 2 lin., lat. 2 poll. 

Hab. 

Mithrax Ursus (Jun. Cancer Ursus, Herbst). Mithr. testd gra- 
nulatd, verrucoso-tuberculatd ; rostri dentibus obtusis tuberculo 
granulosa terminatis ; tuberculis acta pane rostrum, et sex circum 
orbitam ; manibus l<evibus. 

Long, testae 2 poll., lat. eadem. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

Mithrax nodosus. Mithr. testd trigono-ovatd, margine tuberculis 
tribus fortibus, rotundatis, et dente unico^ rostro brevi trifido ; pe- 
dipalpis articulo secundo caulis externi lunulato; manibus Icevibus, 



172 

suprh cristatis, carpis tuberculatis ; pedibus posteriorihus supril 

spinosissimis et pilosis. 
Long, testae 1 poll., lat. 1 poll. 3 liri. 
Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

MiTHRAx DENTicuLATUs. Mithv. testd profuTide sculptd, margine 
laterali dentibus quatuor obtusiusculis ; pedipaljns articulo secundo 
caulis interni cordato ; manibus lavibus ; pedibus posterioribus 
pilosis, spinosissimis. 

Long, testae 5 lin., lat. 6. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas, sub lapidibus. 

MiTHRAX PYGMiEus. Mithr. testd depressd, subpentagond, fronte 

obtusissimo, lato, obsolete bilobo. 
Long, testae 3 lin., lat. eadem. 
Hab. apud Panama. 

Genus Pitho. 

Testa lat^ ovata, rostro parvo, brevi, bifido, baud deflexo, terminata. 

Oculi pedunculo elongate, cylindrico, subcurvo, baud crassiores. 

Antennce interiores minutissimae. 

Antenna exteriores breviusculae, articulo basilari lamelloso, extiis 
dente triangulari armato ; secundo compresso, cordato, antic^ 
emarginato, et tertio multo majore ; reliquis parvis cylindricis. 

Pedipalpi externi caulis interni articulo secundo triangulari, ex- 
trorsvim producto. 

Pedes mediocres. Par anticum maris ? fgemin^ reliquis 

minus, digitis minute serrulatis, digito mobili longiore ; paria 
quatuor posterior a ordine 2, 3, 4, 5 gradatim breviora ; digitis 
subtiis minutissime denticulatis. 

Abdomen maris ? fcemin^ 7-articulatum. 

Obs. Micippce et Paramicippce affine : difFert praecipu^ rostro mi- 
nuto baud deflexo. 

PiTHo sexdentata. Ptko testcR margine laterali dentibus sex 

triangularibus acutis. 
Long, testae 9 lin., lat. 8. 
Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas, / 

Pitho quinquedentata. Pitho testa margine laterali dentibus 

quinque triangularibus acutis armato. 
Long, testae 6 lin., lat. 5. 
Hab. cum praecedente. 

Genus Tyche. 

Testa oblonga, depressa, angulata, antict) declivis, fronte lato, rostro 
bidentato piloso terminata; rostri dentes compressi, obtusi, 
apicem versus intern^ emarginati. 

Orbita supr^ latissima, in dente prominente complanato antice 
producta, infra carens. 

Oculi pedunculo elongato graciliores. 

Antenna interiores in fossul^ ad basin rostri insertae. 



17.3 

Antenna exteriores rostro paull6 longiores, articulo basilari latius- 

culo, anticfe angustiore ; articulo tertio secundo abrupt^ minore ; 

omnibus externe pilosis. 
Pedipalpi externi rugosi, caule exteriore subulate, caulis interioris 

articulo primo canaliculato, extiis profundi emarginato, secundo 

securiformi, tridentato. 
Pedes antici graciles, simplices, pari secundo breviores, digitis in- 

ermibus : posteriores cylindrici, unguibus acutis, curvis, com- 

pianatis terminati. 

Abdomen maris 7-articulatum ; f(eminjs ? 

Obs. Genus Creocarcino affine. 

Tyche lamellifrons. 
Long, testae 7 lin., lat. 4. 
Hab. apud Panama. 

Genus Pericera, Latr. 

Pehicera villosa. Per. testd depressd, villosd, regionibus elevatis, 
sulcis separatis, spina obtusd laterali utrinque ; rostri cornibus 
validis, sublamelliformibus, divergentibus ; dente articuli basilaris 
antenncE externa dente superorbitali multb longiore ; antennis ex- 
terioribus sub rostro insertis. 

Long, testae 1 poll. 7 lin., lat. eadem (spinis lateralibus inclusis). 

Hab. in Sinu Guayaquil. 

Pericera ovata. Per. testd elongato-ovatd, spinis viginti ad vi- 
ginti quatuor armatd ; dente superorbitali dente articuli basilaris 
antenna externcB longiore. 

Long, testae 1 poll., lat. 6 lin. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

Pericera heptacantha. Per. testd pyriformi, dorso quinque- 
spinoso, ordine 1, 3, 1, lateribus utrinque l-spinosis ; rostri cor- 
nibus parvis, acutis. 

Long, testae 1 poll. 5 lin., lat. (spinis lateralibus inclusis) 1 poll. 7 lin. 

Hab. apud Puerto Portrero. 

Genus Acanthonyx, Latr. 

ACANTHONYX PeTIVERII, Edw. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas, D.Cmwj/wj'; ad oras Brasiliae, 
D. Miller. 

Genus Efialtus, Edw. 

Epialtus dentatus, Edw. 
Hab. apud Valparaiso. 

Epialtus marginatus. Ep. testd depressd, lateribus marginatis ; 

f route lata, antennas exteriores omnino tegente. 
Long, testae 2 poll. 3 lin., lat. 1 poll. 8 lin. 
Hab. ad oras Brasiliae. 

The skeleton was exhibited of a Coy pus, Myopotamus Coypus, Comm . , 
together with preparations of some of the viscera obtained from the 



174 

same individual, which recently died at the Society's Gardens. With 
reference to them the following notes by Mr. Martin were read. 

" Though the Coypus is now well known to naturalists, I am not 
aware that much attention has been paid to its anatomy : — it is not 
often, indeed, that the living animal is brought to Europe, extensive 
as the importation of its skins appears to be. I am therefore not 
without a hope that the following notes of the examination of an in- 
dividual which died in August, 1835, at the Gardens of the Society, 
will be found not altogether destitute of interest, imperfect as they 
are from circumstances over which I had no controul. 

"The animal was an adult male, measuring from nose to anus 
1 foot 11 inches ; the length of the tail being 1 foot 5 inches. The 
body was very fat ; and the subcutaneous muscle or panniculus car- 
nosus was strong and extensive, as it is in aquatic Rodents in general. 
Of the external organs of generation the penis alone was apparent, 
for the testes are not contained in a scrotum but situated in the groin 
just without the abdominal ring ; the length of the penis from the 
pubes was 5 inches ; the glans was acuminate and contained an os- 
seous stylet. 

" On looking into the abdomen, I found that the viscera had pre- 
viously been disarranged, in the examination which the animal had 
undergone with the view of ascertaining the cause of its death ; their 
natural situation consequently could not be determined. The liver 
consisted of one left, one middle, and two right lobes, one of which 
was small and seated dorsad. The middle lobe was deeply cleft; and 
in the channel continued from the fissure on the under surface of this 
lobe was seated the gall-bladder, which, having been cut, was desti- 
tute of its fluid. On distending this viscvs, however, through the 
ductus choledochus, which was as large as a crow-quill, I found its 
shape to be a long oval, measuring in length 2 inches, its duct being 
joined by a large hepatic duct, 4- an inch below its commencement ; 
the total length of the ductus choledochus communis was 2 inches, 
and its entrance into the duodenum was just below the sacculated 
origin of that portion of the intestine, or 2-V inches from the pylorus. 
"The pancreas consisted of an irregular mass or body concealed 
by the stomach, whence it spread itself, in thin irregular layers of an 
elegant arborescent arrangement, through the duodenal mesentery, 
between the two membranes. Its duct, owing to the pre\'ious dis- 
arrangement of the viscera, I could not discover ; it did not appear 
to enter with the biliary. 

" The spleen resembled a prism in its figure, and was 3 inches in 
length ; it adhered to the cardiac portion of the stomach by a ribband 
of peritoneum 1 inch m breadth. In the Ondatra, the Capromys, 
and some other Rodentia, the spleen presents the same figure. 

" The stomach closely resembled that of the Capromys, being of 
an oblong figure, both extremities having pretty nearly the same 
volume ; the cardiac extremity projecting 3 inches beyond the en- 
trance of the narrow asophagus, and the pyloric sacculus a little more 
than 2 beyond the pyloric orifice. The stomach, measured in a 
straight line from end to end, was 7 i inches ; its greatest depth 
being 4^. 



175 

"The duodenum was found to commence with a large dilatation 
or sacculus, projecting towards the cesophagus like a ccecum; in which 
respect it resembles Coelogenus as described by Sir E. Home. In 
Capromys, Anoema, and Dasyprocta a similar dilatation, though not 
so considerable, has also been noticed. In circumference at this part 
the duodenum measured 4^- inches ; the decrease is gradual, and where 
the biliary duct enters the circumference is 3 inches ; a little di- 
stance below this it is 24-. To follow the natural coui'se of this intes- 
tine was out of my power ; it has a mesentery, however, through 
its whole extent. 

"The total length of the small intestines was 16 feet 4 inches, 
and their mean circumference 1-|-. 

" The cacum was of large size, making a circular turn at its base 
and gradually diminishing in volume as it pi'oceeded. It was 
puckered into saccuU by two muscular bands, one on each side ; 
which were not however traceable quite to its extremity, but were 
tolerably strong in its wide basal part. In its general figure the 
ccEcum had no unapt resemblance to a ram's horn. In length it 
measured about I foot 10 inches, its greatest circumference 8 inches. 

" The ileum terminated in a sort of sacculus at the base of the colon, 
beyond which projected the round head of the ceecum : the valve in- 
dicating the separation of the ccecum from the colon is very ap- 
parent in the dried preparation. 

" The colon began large, but gradually became narrow; on leaving 
the ccecum it was slightly sacculated for a short distance, but this 
appearance was speedily lost : its mean circumference was 2^ inches. 
The commencement of the colon was not only somewhat larger than 
the succeeding portion, but made an abrupt turn from the ccecum, 
and after a course of 1 foot 5 inches suddenly folded upon itself, the 
reflected length running down for the distance of 11 inches, when it 
turned suddenly back again, but did not adhere so closely to the pre- 
vious fold, as that did to the first length ; it then became very small, 
and soon dipped down to constitute the rectum. The whole of this 
long loose fold reminded me of the duodenum of Birds. A similar 
structure is recorded by Mr. Owen in his notes on the dissection of 
Capromys Fournerii, as existing in that animal. It was near the end 
of the first loose fold, as also in Capromys, that the fceces began to 
assume a solid form in separate oval masses. Tlie total length of 
the large intestines was 4 feet 4 inches. 

" The kidneys were of an oval form, and very soft in their structure ; 
their surface, the tunic being removed, presented a granular appear- 
ance. The two portions were very distinct. The jseZuw was small ; 
the papilla single. The right kidney was somewhat higher than the 
left. The length of each was 2 inches, the breadth l-f. The supra- 
renal glands were long and rounded, of a greyish yellow externally; 
but their internal structure was like soft liver : each had a small 
cavity within. Their length was 1 inch. Their situation was me- 
siad of the upper extremity of each kidney. 

" The lungs were of small volume, and consisted of three lobes 
of nearly equal size, and one very small lobe on the right ; and of 
three lobes on the left side. 



176 

" In shape the heart was very elegant ; it was compressed, and both 
ventricles described the half of a circle, and ended in a short sharp 
apex. The length and breadth of this organ were equal, the admea- 
surements being each 1-| inch. 

" The disposition of the branches given off at the arch of the aorta 
Vas as follows. On the right side arose a common trunk, which di- 
vided into the right subclavian and the right carotid, but gave off 
lower down to the left the left carotid. The left subclavian arose 
from the aorta in a distinct branch. 

" In his account of the anatomy of Capromys Mr. Owen notices 
a peculiarity in the arrangement of some of the abdominal mus- 
cles : a decussation of the pillars of the recti muscles taking place 
at the pubes. In the Coypus an arrangement of a similar cha- 
racter was observed. It may be thus described. From the right 
OS pubis and close to the symphysis arises a fleshy column, which 
crossing a column arising from the left side passes obliquely up- 
wards, and becomes immediately united with another larger column 
arising more outwardly, and passing under the column of fibres from 
the left side, as the first does above it ; and thus is constituted the 
left rectus muscle. Between these two columns, as we have said, 
and from the left side of the pubes, runs up a decussating column, 
which blends with another passing beneath the larger column of the 
left rectus, both forming by their union the right rectus abdominis. 
The lower column of the external oblique, with which muscle the 
rectus is blended above (as in Capromys) so as to appear in reality 
but one, has its own insertion on its own side. 

"The testes were situated in the groin on each side of the. pubes, 
enveloped in a strong cremaster of circular fibres given off from the 
external oblique and transversalis ; they were capable of being pass- 
ed back through the abdominal ring, which is very large, the columns 
of the rectus forming its inner edge. As in many others of the Ro- 
dent order, large foliated fatty processes, adhering to the testes, were 
found hanging loose in the abdominal cavity ; their length was 5 
inches, their breadth at the broadest part 2. 

" The bladder was of the usual oval form, and, as it lay undistend- 
ed with fluid, measured 2 inches in length. The ureters entered la- 
terally near its neck. 

" Beneath the ureters near their entrance the vasa defer entia 
crossed : the total length of these tubes was 5 inches ; at their origin 
on leaving the epididymis they were found to be slightly tortuous, 
but only for a short distance. The epididymis consisted of a congeries 
of convolutions, whence a tortuous elongated portion followed the 
convex surface of the testis for two thirds of its length, and then 
passed into the vas deferens, which was enveloped in a fatty process 
extending from the testes, and spreading over the base of the vesi- 
culce seminales and the proximate portion of the ureters. The vesiculce 
seminales were long tortuous bodies with numerous small processes 
or sacculi, giving them a knotted appearance : at their apex they 
folded down upon themselves, and terminated in a point : when ex- 
tended they measured about 4 inches. 

" The urethra at its commencement formed a sort of cul de sac. 



177 

as noticed by Mr. Owen in the Capromys ; and a transverse ridge se- 
parated the entrance of the bladder from the orifices of the vasa de- 
ferentia and vesiculae seminales. Below this ridge was a small conical 
body, at the apex of which opened the vasa deferentia, and on the 
sides the vesiculce seminales. The latter, when opened, were found 
filled with a white hard curdy matter having some resemblance to 
the roe of fishes. This substance filled a great portion of the ure- 
thra also. 

" The prostate gland appeared like accessory vesiculce, and was 
closely united to the base of those bodies : it was divided into two 
large lobes, each of which was found to be composed of a number 
of blind tubes or elongated cells, united into a mass by cellular mem- 
brane. They were easily unravelled into a tuft of long fringes, each 
tube being -i of an inch in length. These tubes all concentrated in 
a small spot, where they opened by a few minute orifices into the 
urethra at the base of the little conical elevation before alluded to. 

' ' The distance from the prostate to the base of the bulb of the 
urethra was I4 inch. 

" The membranous part of the urethra was closely embraced by a 
layer of muscular fibres : the acceleratores urince investing the bulb 
were large and strong : the erectores were fleshy ; they embraced the 
crura penis. On each side of the bulb, external to the accelerator 
urince, lay a gland as large as a filbert, whence proceeded a tube of 
the diameter of a crow-qmll, which passing beneath the accelerator 
entered the bulb of the urethra above its centre. The length of this 
duct was 1 inch. These glands are, I suppose, to be considered as 
the glandulee ante-prostates, or Cowper's glands. 

" At the extremity of the rectum on its abdominal aspect was si- 
tuated a large glandular sac of the size of a walnut filled with in- 
odorous creamy matter ; its excretory orifice was just within the 
anal opening. This sac was invested with a tunic of muscular fibres 
continued from the sphincter and levator ani. 

" The tongue was acuminate and 3 inches in length, its surface 
covered with small retroverted shining velvety papillee ; two large 
distinct papillee of an oval form appearing at the base. The free part 
of the tongue, that is from the frcenum to the apex, was -f of an inch. 
The basal portion of the dorsum was elevated, but not so abruptly 
as in some Rodents ; the disc, however, was sufficiently marked. 

" The fauces were found to form a funnel-shaped cavity with nei- 
ther tonsils nor palate arches ; but the soft palate was continuous to 
the posterior aperture, which barely admitted the entrance of a com- 
mon quill. The posterior nares were continued like a fimnel beyond 
this posterior orifice of the fauces, and received into their aperture 
the glottis, epiglottis, and arytenoid cartilages, so that the margin 
of the orifice of the fauces lay in contact with the dorsum of the 
tongue anterior to the epiglottis, which rose behind it, and which it 
was evident could not be brought at all under the soft palate ; hence 
respiration and every vocal intonation must proceed through the 
nostrils. 

"The epiglottis was broad basally, but not elevated; it assumed 



178 

a rounded figure, and when pressed down did not completely cover 
the rima of the glottis until the larynx was depressed towards its 
base. 

"A distinct fold or duplicature surrounded the opening of the 
nares into the asophagus ; which tube was small, and had its lining 
membrane corrugated into longitudinal folds. 

" The sublingual glands were large. 

" The trachea was about 3 inches in length to its bifurcation, and 
4- an inch in diameter ; the bronchi were about 1 inch long before 
entering the lungs. 

" To the q,bove sketch of the visceral anatomy of the Coypus, I have 
to subjoin a few observations on some portions of its skeleton. 

" Of the skulls of such Rodentia as I have been enabled to com- 
pare with that of the present animal, although it agrees in many 
points with that of Capromys, the one which approximates the 
nearest to it is that of the Capybara. The main outline and con- 
tour of both are very similar ; they both agree in the flatness of their 
upper surface, in the elongation of their form, in the magnitude of 
the suborbital foramen, and in the development of the processes of 
the occipital bone continued from its transverse crest. When, how- 
ever, we descend to details, numerous and striking points of diiFer- 
ence are immediately observable. In the Capybara, for instance, the 
margin of the orbit is circular or nearly so, and the zygomatic arch, 
broad and strong, has its lower edge brought down considerably be- 
low the level of the molares : whereas in the Coypus the margin of the 
orbit approaches to a square, and the zygomatic arch is narrow and 
scarcely depends to a level with the crown of the molares, though it ad- 
vances much further than either in the Beaver or Water Rat; in which 
animals the orbits, of an oval shape, have a less lateral and more 
vertical aspect. In the Coypus the temporal fossa are deeper than 
in the Capybara or the Beaver, and the external auditory foramen 
runs obliquely forwards and downwards, while in the Capybara it 
runs obliquely downwards and inwards, and in the Beaver down- 
wards and backwards. The frontal bone is divided by a permanent 
longitudinal suture, as it is also in Capromys ; whereas in the Capy- 
bara, the Water Rat, and the Beaver no trace, at least in adults, of 
such a separation is visible. The Beaver when semiadult exhibits, 
however, a slight appearance of it. 

" The general admeasurements of the skull of the Coypus before 
me are as follows : 

In. Lin. 

From the end of the nasal bones to the occipital ridge. . 4 6 

From the lower edge of one zygoma to the opposite . . 2 9 

Breadth of the frontal bones between the orbits 1 3 

From the outer edge of the last molar tooth to the edge 

of the zygoma . 5 

From the base of the incisors to the base of the first molar 1 3 
From the crovra of the first molar to the top of the skull 
where the nasal and frontal bones unite in a straight 

line 1 9 



179 

Length of the row of the molares on each side 1 1 

Breadth of the lower jaw from the outer edge of one 

ramus at its broadest part to the opposite 3 3 

From the middle of the condyle of the lower jaw to the 

base of the incisors 3 1 

" Placing the skull before us, and surveying its upper aspect, we 
observe that the nasal bones are narrow and elongated, being broadest 
at their nasal extremity and narrowest at their frontal, as in Cupromys 
and the Water Rat, but not in so great a degree. In the Cupybara 
the contrary obtains : in the Beaver the nasal bones are broadest in 
the middle. Their length in the Coypus is I4 inch, their united 
breadth at the frontal union 5 lines. 

" By the side of the nasal bones runs up the ascending ramus of 
the intermaxillary bone, which at its union to the frontal expands 
considerably, and terminates on an exact level with the nasal. In 
the Capybara the ramus is very narrow, and does not ascend quite so 
high as the nasal : in two skulls of the Beaver now Ijefore me, I find 
it ascend 1 line -higher than the nasal in the one, and 2 lines lower 
than the nasal in the other. In Capromys it ascends somewhat 
higher. 

"The frontal bones, having a longitudinal suture between them, 
form an oblong square, occupying a considerable space, their length 
being 1 inch 5 lines, and their united breadth 1 inch 3 lines. They 
form above the orbits a bold but level ridge : in the Capybara this 
ridge is arched, rounding the orbit above ; in the Beaver the ridge is 
but little prominent ; and in the Wafer Rat there is none. It may 
be added that in the Beaver the frontal bone (for here we may 
speak of it as single) approaches a triangle in its outline, the anterior 
portion of the parietal bone on each side advancing upon it. 

" In the Coypus the parietal bones are small, and are depressed on 
each side posteriorly to form a deep temporal/ossa, bounded by a ridge 
(the index of the origin of the temporal muscle), which ridge, with 
the coronal suture for a base line, forms a triangle ending in a slight 
short sagittal crest. The parietal bones are nearly consolidated to- 
gether, and doubtless become ultimately completely so ; it is only 
for a short space from the coronal suture that in the present skull 
any trace of a sagittal suture is visible. In the Capybara the union 
is complete ; but in the Beaver the sagittal suture continues unobli- 
terated, and the parietal bones moreover are separated posteriorly by 
a large interparietal or os triquetrum. In the Water Rat there is an 
oblong post-parietal bone. 

"The occipital bone is narrower than in the Beaver, and more 
nearly resembles that of the Cajjybara ; it rises, however, immediately 
behind the lambdoid suture into a high strong transverse crest, which 
sweeps down on each side, and is continued in two strong processes, 
the outer and shorter of which passes just behind the auditory yb- 
ramen, while the interior process has its base Ijetween the former and 
the condyle, abuts upon the posterior part of the tympanic bulla, and 
passing obliquely outwards and downwards ends in a broad lunar- 
shaped termination : its length is 1 inch 2 lines. The foramen 
magnum is nearly circular : in the Beaver it is compressed horizon- 



ISO 

tally: in the Capyhara laterally. The cuneiform process is flat wdth 
a slight mesial spine : in the Capybara it is convex : in the Beaver 
hoUowed out like a box. The condyles resemble those of the Ca- 
pybara, but advance somewhat more forwards. 

" The squamous portion of the temporal bone, which, as is usual 
in these animals, is separated by a permanent suture from the pe- 
trous, consists of a narrow strip, advancing from the base of the oc- 
cipital ridge, and then spreading to form the posterior margin of the 
orbit ; a bold process backing the posterior angle of the superciliary 
ridge. The zygomatic process of the temporal bone resembles that 
of the Beaver more nearly than that of the Capybara or of the Ca- 
proniys, but turns up at its extremity in a more decided hook. The 
petrous portion is small, and, with the exception of the ridge round 
the auditory /orameM, consists of little besides the tympanic bulla, 
which in the Beaver is externally divided by a strong ridge. 

" The malar bone is elongated and narrow, but, as in Capromys also, 
it does not advance forwards along the zygomatic process of the max- 
illary bone as in the Beaver, the suture being just behind the great sub- 
orbital /bra?ne«. In the Capybara the malar bone does not advance so 
far. The large foramen alluded to is formed by two branch-lOce pro- 
cesses of the maxillary bone, the upper one of which arises just below 
the union of this bone to the frontal, and, bending down, forms the an- 
terior margin of the orbit ; the other branch arises just over the root of 
the first molar tooth, and advancing outwards and backwards joins the 
other branch to form the boundary of the foramen, which is a trian- 
gular aperture leading at once to the orbit. In the Beaver the sub- 
orbital /ora»je« is very small. In the Water Rat it is somewhat larger 
than in the Beaver. In Capromys it is as open as in the Coypus. 

" The lachrymal bone, which in the Capybara spreads largely in 
a triangle without the orbit at the interior inferior angle, is in the 
Coypus very small and altogether within the orbit. 

" On turning to the base of the skull we may observe that the 
internal pterygoid processes, (which in the Capybara are very small, 
but both in the Beaver and Water Rat largely developed, being in 
the former of a hook-like figure and touching with their apex the 
anterior point of the tympanic bulla,) are here moderate and bent 
back, their points being on a level with the spheno-temporal fissure. 
The glenoid cavity, which the malar bone contributes to form, resem- 
bles that of the Beaver. 

" The palate bones, which in the Beaver begin in a point opposite 
to the posterior edge of the first molar, here begin opposite the pos- 
terior edge of the third molar ; but they advance further backwards 
so as to throw the pterygoid processes to a considerable distance 
from the last molar tooth : in which circumstances the Coypus differs 
both from the Beaver and the Capybara, and more nearly agrees with 
Capromys, where the palate bones commence opposite the middle of 
the second molar, but do not advance so far backwards. 

" The lower jaw of the Coypus is very remarkable ; it seems as if 
it had been horizontally compressed, so as to throw the broad part 
of each ramus outwardly into a semilunar shelf. The fact is that 
this part must be regarded not as the body but as a process of the 



181 

ramus which exists also, but in a more moderate degree, in Ca- 
promys ; in the Capybara we see indications of a similar structure. 
An immense space is here aiForded for the insertion of the temporal 
and masseter muscles : these muscles may be short, but their strength 
will be prodigious. In the Beaver the coronoid processes are long 
and rise above the condyles : in the Capyhara they are short and on 
a level with the condyloid processes, which are themselves very con- 
tracted : in Capromys they are very small : but in the Coypus the 
coronoid processes are reduced to a mere rudiment, elevated by the 
side of the last molar tooth. On the contrary the posterior angle 
here stretches back in a flat narrow process continued from the la- 
teral shelf, or, as we may term it, horizontal reflexion of the lower 
margin of the ramus. 

" The dentition of the Coypus is figured by M. F. Cuvier in his 
work ' Sur les Dents des Mammif^res.' It difi^ers widely from that 
of Hydromys, with which the animal was associated generically by 
M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire. Cuvier observes, that the skull of the Coy- 
pus has a resemblance to that of Hystrix dorsata : I have not seen 
a skull of this animal and therefore cannot judge, but certainly the 
teeth as given by M. F. Cuvier and those of the Coypus materially 
diff^er. The molars in the Coypus are four on each side above and 
below. In the upper jaw they have an outward inclination ; the 
last is the largest, and they decrease in size slightly but regularly 
from the last to the first : each is a copy of the other; and the rib- 
bands of enamel are oblique. The molars of the lower jaw incline 
obliquely inwards, and decrease in size from the last to the anterior. 
The incisores are large and strong and of a deep orange yellow on 
their outer surface ; the alveoli of those of the upper jaw pass through 
the intermaxillary into the true maxillary bones. In the lower jaw 
they extend beneath the whole row of the molares. 

" Of the rest of the skeleton, the trunk, clavicles, scapula, humeri, 
and femoral bones are all that I have been able to examine, the rest 
being contained within the mounted specimen. 

" The scapula agrees closely with that of Capromys, but diff'ers 
considerably in shape from that of the Beaver. Its anterior edge 
runs out into an angle, at a greater comparative distance from 
the spinous ridge than either in the Beaver or the Porcupine; 
and the same may be said of the posterior angle : so that the 
total breadth of this bone is comparatively greater than it is in 
those two animals. Its length from the glenoid cavity to the pos- 
terior angle is 2^- inches. Its breadth from this angle to the oppo- 
site 2. The spinous ridge is thin and but little elevated; about the 
middle it is slightly dilated. Three quarters of an inch before it 
reaches the level of the glenoid cavity it ceases ; the acromion 
process being here united to it by cartilage in the specimen be- 
longing to the Society. I find, however, that this cartilaginous 
union at some period of the animal's existence becomes ossified ; for 
in a clavicle belonging to Mr. Blackett the acromion is completely 
anchylosed to the extremity of the spine. This process is at first 
slender, but it spreads at its termination into a broad triangular base, 
to the anterior apex of which is attached the clavicle. The length 



182 

of this process is 1 inch, and it advances -^ an inch beyond the gle- 
noid cavity. 

" The clavicle is slender, 1 inch 5 lines ong, with a slight sig- 
moid flexure. 

" The humerus presents nothing very remarkable ; its length is 1-|- 
inch. 

" The pelvis is long and narrow ; its breadth from point to point 
is 3^ inches ; its length, 5 inches ; the depth of the symphysis pubis, 
1-1- inch. 

"The femur is thin and small, and has both a. trochanter major 
and a trochanter minor. 

" In the motions of the hinder limbs of the Coypus when alive I 
obser^^ed not only an awkwardness, but a want of firmness, which 
gave something of a crawling character to the progression of the 
animal on the floor. A recollection of this circumstance, which 
struck me when I first saw the animal, led me to open the capsule 
of the hip-joint with care : on doing this, I was surprised to see no 
ligamentum teres : on opening the other, still none appeared. I am con- 
vinced that I did not destroy or rupture the ligament, for no ruptured 
fibres were at all visible, and on opening the acetabula of other 
animals at the same time, the ligament was found strong and large ; 
in this, however, nothing of the kind was visible. There is on the 
head of the femur a very slight depression, but it is covered, as 
the rest of the head, with smooth cartilage. I believe, therefore, 
that the Coypus may be added to the list of the few Mammalia in 
which this ligament is absent : but it would be desirable that ano- 
ther specimen should be examined before this peculiarity is insisted 
on as an ascertained fact. 

" The ribs are short, thin and flexible, the longest measuring only 
3 inches exclusive of the cartilage ; the first two are very short, but 
strong. The chest of the Coypus is, in fact, of very small capacity. 
The number of the ribs is thirteen. 

"The spinous process of the first dorsal vertebra is very short, 
like those of the cervical vertebra; but that of the second rises 
abruptly to the length of 1 inch, which is at least a quarter higher 
than those of the succeeding vertebra. 

" The number of the vertebra is as follows: — 

Cervical 7 

Dorsal 13 

Lumbar 6 

Sacral 4 

Caudal 23 

" I regret that I was unable to examine all the bones of the extre- 
mities, as Cuvier notices a peculiarity in those of the carpus, — in 
there being no separation between the os magnum and trapezdides." 

Mr, Christy subsequently exhibited several skins of the Coypus, 
for the purpose of directing the attention of the Meeting to the po- 
sition of the mamma in the female, which are situated extremely high 
up the sides. 



183 



November 24, 1835. 

Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited a specimen of the Syngnathus Acus, Linn., 
•with the view of again caUing the attention of the Society to the 
fact that the males in this species of Pipe-fish are furnished with a 
pouch under the tail, in which they bear about with them the ova 
until the young have escaped from the capsule ; and which probably 
serves also as a place of shelter to which the young can, for some 
time after their exclusion, retreat in case of danger. In this indivi- 
dual the opened abdomen exhibited the preparatory organs of the 
male ; and the displayed subcaudal pouch showed many eggs con- 
tained in it, the young of which were fully developed and ready to 
escape from the capsules, while from others the young had actually 
escaped. As a guide to those observers who may be desirous of 
procuring specimens equally illustrative of the peculiarity of this 
fish, Mr. Yarrell mentioned that the indi^adual exhibited was ob- 
tained on the 20th of July. 

Mr.Yarrell read some "Notes on the Economy of an Insect destruc- 
tive to Turnips"; which he prefaced' by adverting to the importance 
to agriculture of an attentive collection of those entomological facts 
which relate to species injurious to the ordinary crops of the farmer. 
He then proceeded to remark that the turnip crop is in this country 
usually infested in every season by two species of Haltica ; and that 
another destroyer has been, in the dry summer of this year, super- 
added to them, especially on the light and chalky soils. To the 
history of this latter pest, which has been known to occur in those 
seasons only in which there has been an almost total absence of rain, 
Mr. Yarrell's paper is directed. A good account of a similar visita- 
tion in 1782, as it was observed in Norfolk by Mr. William Marshall, 
was published in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' for the following 
year. 

Early in July last the " yellow fly " was seen upon the young tur- 
nips. It was remembered by some farmers that this was the fly 
which prevailed in the year 1818, and which was followed by the 
caterpillars kno%\Ti by the name of the blacks. The eggs being depo- 
sited by the perfect insect in the leaf of the plant, the black cater- 
pillar or turnip-pest speedily makes its appearance, feeding on the 
soft portions of the leaves of the turnips and leaving the fibres un- 
touched ; and finally, casting its black skin and assuming one of a 
more slaty or grey colour, it buries itself in the earth. Lodged there, 
it forms for itself, from the soil, a strong oval cocoon ; from which 
some of the earlier broods pass almost immediately into the perfect 
state, filled with ova, and ready quickly to supply another generation 



184 

of destroyers. So complete and so rapid was the destruction in some 
instances, that a whole field was found, in two or three days, to pre- 
sent only an assemblage of skeletonized leaves ; and this too when 
the turnips had attained a considerable size. 

The insect whose proceedings have been thus briefly noticed, be- 
longs to the Hymenopterous family Tenthredinida ; it is the Athalia 
CentifolicE, a species first noticed by Panzer. Mr. Yarrell describes 
the perfect insect and the caterpillar ; and then recurs to the damage 
effected by the latter. By their repeated broods the devastation was 
continued for so long a time that even the third sowing did not in all 
cases escape destruction ; and it was not until the occurrence of the 
heavy rains in September, terminating the unusually dry summer, 
that the mischief ceased. The destruction of the leaves caused, in 
most instances, the loss of the root also ; and where the leaves suf- 
fered from the attacks of the black caterpillar, but not sufficiently to 
occasion the death of the plant, the turnip itself became pithy and 
of little value. It has become necessary, Mr. Yarrell states, to im- 
port the root largely from the Continent to supply the deficiency of 
the home crop. 

The remedial measures adopted on a former visitation were the 
turning into the infested fields of a large number of ducks, who 
greedily devoured the caterpillars as they were brushed from the 
leaves by a boy with a long pole ; the passing of a heavy roller over 
the ground at night, when the caterpillars were at their feed ; and 
the strewing of quick lime by broad cast over the fields, renewing 
it as often as it was dispersed by the wind. The latter mode was 
generally considered as the most effectual preservative. 



185 



December 8, 1835. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of various Birds, chiefly from the So- 
ciety's collection, wliich Mr. Gould regarded as hitherto undescribed. 
At the request of the Chairman he pointed out the distinguishing 
peculiarities of the undermentioned species. 

Ph(enicura plumbea. Phwn. nigrescenti-cinerea ; caudd tectri- 
cibusque siiperioribvs castaneo-rubris ; remigibus nigrescenti- 
brunneis, ccei-ulescenti-griseo fimbriatis. 

Fcem. Supra brunnescenti-cinerea, uropygio albo ; rectricibus dua- 
bus intermediis brunneis, basin versus albis reliquis ad apicem 
brunneis ; pectore cinereo.pliimis singulis lunulis alternatim brun- 
neis albidisque notatis ; remigibus brunneis ; secundariis cinereo- 
brunneis macula parvd albd ad apicem notatis. 

Long. tot. 54- poll.; alee, 3 ; cauda, 2 ; tarsi, ■!■ ; rostri, -f-. 

Hab. apud monies Himalayenses. 

This bird is in every respect a typical example of the genus Phoe- 
nicura. It is rather less in size than Phwn. Ruticilla, Swains. 

Pyrgita cinnamomea. Pyrg. supra cinnamomea, dorso in medio 
nigra longitudiiialiter maculato ; alis cauddque brunneis, illis albo 
prope scapulam unifasciatis ; guld nigrd- genis, colli lateribus, cor- 
poreque subtiis cinerascenti-albidis. 

Long. tot. 4-J- poll.; alee, 24; caudee, 2; tarsi, f. 

Rostrum nigrum ; pedes brunnei. 

Hab. apud montes Himalayenses. 

Rather less in size than Pyrg. montana. 

Merula castanea. Mer. castanea; capite colloque cinereo-albidis, 
gutture pallidiore ; alis cauddque nigris; tectricibus caudee infe- 
rioribus crissoque albis nigra variis. 

Long. tot. 11 .J- poll. ; alte, 5^; caudee, 5-J- ; tarsi, l-f-; rostri, l-j. 

Rostrum pedesque flavescenti-brunnei. 

Hab. apud montes Himalayenses. 

Saurophagus Swainsonii. Saur. supi'a brunnescenti-cinereus ; 
capite nigra, crista occultd aurantiacd ; caudd nigrescenti-brun- 
ned, rectricum extcriorum marginibus omniumque apicibus cinereo- 
albis; alis brunneis, scapularibus secundariisquc cinerea-albida 
marginatis ; corpore sublus albo. 

Long. tot. 8 poll.; alee, 4; caudm, 3-i- : rostri, 14-; tarsi, vix 1. 

Rostrum pedesquG nigri. 

Hab. in America Australi. 
No. XXXVL — Proceedikgs of the Zoological Society. 



186 

Brachypus GULARis. Bruch. fluviis, siipr^ oUvaceo tinctus ; ca- 
pite auribusque nigris; caudd oUvaceo-brunned ; remigibus brun- 
neis. 
Long. tot. 54 poll. ; alee, 4^-; caudcz, 3^: rostri, |-; tarsi, 4. 
Rostrum nigrum ; j'jerfes saturate brunnei. 
Hab. in India Oriental! apud Travancore. 

More diminutive in size than Brack, dispar, Horsf., but nearly 
allied to it. 

Genus Stenorhynchus. 

Rostrum capite longius, gracile, compressum , subfornicatum ; 

mandibula superiore leviter emarginata, culmine in frontem de- 

pressissimum producto. 
Nares ovales, apertse. 
Ala breviusculse, subrotundatse ; remige Im^ brevissirr.&, 4tS. lon- 

giore ; 5ta et 6ta 4tam subsequantibus. 
Cauda mediocris, rotundata ; rectricibus decern ? 
Pedes robusti : acrotarsiis subscutellatis ; halluce ungueq\ie pos- 

tico fortibus, tarsum longitudine subsequantibus, digito inter- 

medio brevioribus. 
Plumes moUes. 

Stenorhynchus ruficauda. Sten. suprd. sordidi saturate hrun- 
neus, riifo caudam versus tinctus ; caudd, secundariis, scapulari- 
busque saturate rufo-brunneis ; subths brunnescenti-cinereus, in 
rufo-brunneum ad later a vergens. 
Long. tot. 9-J- poU.; rostri, I4 ; alee, 44; caudce, 3-J-; tarsi, 1. 
Rostrum nigrum ; pedes brunnei. 
Hab. 

As only one specimen of this bird has yet been seen, it is doubt- 
ful whether it may not possess twelve tail-feathers; but, after a care- 
ful examination, Mr. Gould can discover no more than ten. 

Merula Nestor. Mer.fuliginoso-nigra; capite colloque sordid^ 
cinereis ; caudce tectricibus inferioribus maculd longitudinali fla- 
vescenti-albidd notatis. 

Long. tot. 7-1 poll.; rostri, 1 ; alee, 4-i- ; caudce, 3; tarsi, 1-J-. 

Rostrum tarsic^Q flavi. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

This appears to be in every respect a true Merula. It is the first 
of that genus that has been received from New Holland. It formed 
part of Captain Sturt's collection made in the Murrumbidgee 
country. 

Ianthocincla pectoralis. lanth. ferrugineo-cinerea ; capite 
supra olivaceo-cinereo; cervice lateribusque ferrugineis ; plumis 
aures tegentibus cinereis, rachibus nigris ; lined nigrd a basi man- 
dibula inferioris aures cingente cum alterd pectus lunulatim cir- 
cumdante conjunctd ; corpore subtiis albo ; remigibus brunneis, 
pogoniis externis cinereis ; caudd rotundatd, basin versus olivaceo- 



187 

cinered, in medio nigra unifasciatd ; reclricihus exiimis tribus 
utrinque ulbo, ceeteris olivaceo-cinereo, apiculatis. 

Long. tot. 124- ^o\\. ; roslri, I4- ; alee, 5-J-; caudce, 54-; tarsi, 2. 

Rostrum nigrescenti-brunneum ; tarsi brunnei. 

Hab. in Nepalia. 

Ianthocincla albogularis. lanth. supra et ad pectus olivaceo- 
cinerea, subtiis ferrugineo-aurantiaca ; caudd rotundatd, oUvaceo- 
cinered, rectricibus extimis utrinque quatuor ad apices late albis. 

Long. tot. Il4 poll. ; rostri, 1-r ; alee, 5^; caudce, .54-; tarsi, 1-J-. 

Rostrum tarsiqne brunnei. 

Hab. apud montes Himalayenses, in Nepalia, &c. 

Nearly allied to lanth. leucolopha, (Corvtis leucolophus. Lath.). 

A paper was read, entitled " Memoire sur une Nouvelle Esp^ce 
de Poisson du Genre Histiophore, de la Mer Rouge : par M. E. Riip- 
pell, M.D., Memb. Ext. Z. S." It was accompanied by a drawing 
of the fish described in it. 

MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes have described, in their ' Histoire 
NatureUe des Poissons,' three species of Sword-fishes of the genus 
Histiophorus ; from all of which Dr. Riippell regards his fish as di- 
stinct, although it apparently approaches most nearly to Hist. Ame- 
ricanus : it should seem that its occurrence at Djetta, on the coast 
of Arabia, was only accidental, as the Arab fishermen knew no name 
for it. The most striking peculiarity of the new sjjecies is the uni- 
formity of the colour of its dorsal fin : in all those which were pre- 
viously known the first dorsal fin is varied with spots ; in the one 
obtained by Dr. Riippell, the first dorsal fin is black throughout and 
destitute of spots, on which account its discoverer proposes for it 
the name of 

Histiophorus immaculatus. Hist, pinnis pectoralibus mediocri- 
bus ; dorsali nigrd, immaculatd. 
D.47, 0-f7. A.IO, 0-h7. C.5 + 17 + 5. P. 1 + 19. V. 3. 

Pinnae pectorales quam in Hist. Indico, Cuv. & Val., multo mi- 
nores : utpote quae in illo -J- vel -^ corporis longitudine sequant, in 
Hist, immaculato -^ tantum. In Hist, pulchello praeoperculi angu- 
lus spina munitus : in Hist, immaculato aliisque inermis. Hist. 
Americani pinna dorsalis cinereo-argentea, maculis brunneis rotun- 
datis ornata. 

Dr. Riippell describes the fish in considerable detail. He has not, 
however, examined it anatomiccdly, on account of his possessing 
only one specimen, which he had deposited in the Frankfort Mu- 
seum. 

The following notes by Sir Robert Heron, Bart., were read. 

" In many books that I have seen some errors are made in the 
history of the Kangaroos, which my long possession of those animals 
enables me to correct. 

"The great Kangaroo does not make use of liis tail in leaping. 
He uses it in walking, and still more in standing. When excited. 



188 

he stands (the male only) on tip-toe and on his tail; and is then of 
prodigious height. In fighting he does not stand on the tail and one 
leg, but balances himself for a moment on the tail only, and strikes 
forward with both hind legs. 

" The bush Kangaroo, or Kanguru enfumi of Cuvier, never uses 
his legs in fighting. He generally contents himself with threatening 
with his teeth and a low growl ; but I have seen him, when attacked 
by an Emu, jump up at the bird's head. Neither of them, however, 
has persevered in annoyance. 

" When sitting in a state of repose the great Kangaroo throws the 
tail behind him: the lesser one before him, between his legs." 

The following note by Sir Robert Heron, Bart., was also read, as 
giving an account of an extraordinary instance of want of sagacity 
in a T>og. 

" A large old white female terrier followed me this autumn from 
Grantham. She remained perfectly satisfied for three weeks, when, 
on my again going to attend the petty sessions, she again followed me. 
I then fomid that she belonged to one of my colleagues, the Rev. Mr. 
Ottley ; and that she had long been a great favourite in the family, 
who were greatly distressed at her loss. It happened that Mr. Ottley 
and I each rode a chestnut pony with a long tail. Tliis had com- 
pletely deceived the dog, whose unsentimental friendship did not 
prompt her to ask any further questions." 



18.0 



b' 
December 22, 183(?( 

E. S. Hardisty, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of several Rodent animals collected du- 
ring his survey of the Straits of Magalhaens, by Capt. P. P. King, 
R.N., Corr. Memb. Z. S., and presented by him to the Society. 
They were accompanied by some notes by Capt. King, which were 
read. 

In bringing the animals severally under the notice of the Meeting, 
Mr. Bennett first directed particular attention to one of them, which 
constituted, in his estimation, a new species in the genus Ctenomys, 
Blainv. To elucidate its relations with the nearly allied genera of 
Herbivor-ous Rodentia, Octodon, Benn., and Poej}liacjomys, F. Cuv., 
a specimen of Octodon Cumingii was exhibited and compared with 
it; and Mr. Bennett stated his intention of entering with some 
detail into the subject in a paper which he proposed to prepare 
upon it. 

In the structure of its molar teeth, Octodon may be regarded as 
occupying an intermediate station between Poephagomys and Cteno- 
mys. In Octodon the molars of the upper jaw differ remarkably in 
form from those of the lower. The upper molars have on their inner 
side a slight fold of enamel, indicating a groove tending in some 
measure to separate on this aspect the mass of the tooth into two 
cylinders ; on their outer side a similar fold penetrates more deeply, 
and behind it the crown of the tooth does not project outwardly to so 
great an extent as it does in front. If each molar tooth of the upper 
jaw be regarded as composed of two partially united cylinders, 
slightly compressed from before backwards, and somewhat oblique 
in their direction, the anterior of these cylinders might be described 
as entire, and the posterior as being truncated by the removal of its 
outer half. Of such teeth there are, in the upper jaw of Octodon, 
on each side, four ; the hindermost being the smallest, and that in 
which the peculiar form is least strongly marked. • In Ctenomys, all 
the molar teeth, both of the upper and the lower jaw, correspond 
with the structure that exists in the upper jaw of Octodon, excepting 
that their crowns are slenderer and more obliquely placed, whence 
the external emargination becomes less sharply defined ; and also 
excepting that the hinder molar in each jaw is so small as to be 
almost evanescent : as is generally the case, however, the relative 
position of the teeth is counterchanged, and the deficiency in the 
outline of the crown of the tooth, which in the upper jaw is external, 
is, in the lower jaw, internal. In the lower jaw of Octodon the crowns 
of the molars assume a figure very different from tliosc of the upper, 
dependent chiefly on the prolongation of the hinder portion of the 
tooth to the same lateral extent as its anterior jiart : each of them 



190 

consists of two cylinders, not disjoined in the middle where the bony 
portion of the crown is continuous, but partially separated by a fold 
of enamel on either side producing a corresponding notch ; placed 
obliquely with respect to the jaw they resemble, in some measure, a 
figure of 8 with its elements flattened obliquely, pressed towards 
each other, and not connected by the transverse middle bars. With 
the lower molars of Octodon those oiPoephagomys, as figured by M. F. 
Cuvier, correspond in structure in both jaws. Octodon thus exhibits, 
in its dissimilar molars, the types of two genera : the molars of its 
upper jaw represent those of both jaws of Ctenomys ; those of its 
lower jaw correspond with the molars of both jaws of Poephagomys. 
The characters distinguishing the new species of Ctenomys are 
chiefly those of colour. The Cten. Brasiliensis is described by M. de 
Blainville as being shining rufous above, and reddish white below. 
The new species may be characterized as the 

Ctenomys Magellanicus. Cten. flavescenti-fusco-griseus, subtits 

pallidior ; pedibus cauddque albescent ibus. 
Long, corporis cum capite "7-1: unc. ; caudte, 2-I- ; capitis, 2. 
' ' Hub. apud Portum Gregory dictum, ad Fretus Magellanici ostium 
orientale. 

Captain King states that this " little animal is very timid ; feeds 
upon grass ; and is eaten by the Patagonian Indians. It inhabits 
holes, which it burrows, in the ground : and, from the number of the 
holes, it would appear to be very abundant." 

A second animal exhibited appears, like the preceding, to represent 
in the more southern latitudes of South America a genus whose type 
was originally observed in Brasil. Mr. Bennett regarded it as a 
second species oi Kerodon, F. Cuv., chiefly distinguishable from the 
one discovered by Prince Maximilian of Wied by its more uniform 
colour. Excepting a slight dash of white behind the ear, and a 
longer line of the same colour marking the edge of each branch of 
the lower jaw, the animal is entirely grey ; the upper surface being 
distinguished from the under by a greater depth of tint, and by the in- 
termixture of a free grizzling of yeUow and black. The crowns of 
the molar teeth, as in the typical species, consist of bone surrounded 
by two triangles of enamel, the bases of which are connected together 
by a short line of enamel passing from the one to the other : all the 
lines being slender and sharply defined. 

For this species Mr. Bennett proposed the name of 

Kerodon Kingii. Ker. griseus, suprclflavo nigroque punctulatim 
interstictus ; macula pone aures linedque ad maxillce inferioris 
marginem albis. 

Long, corporis cum capite 9^ unc. ; capitis, 2'f ; auricula sub- 
nulla. 

Hab. apud Portum Desire dictum, ad Patagonise littus orientale. 

The third animal exhibited was remarked on as constituting a new 
species of Cavy, distinct from all those that were previously known, 



191 

including the two which have recently been described by M. Brandt 
in the ' Nouveaux Memoires de I'Acad^mie Imp^riale de St. Peters- 
bourg.' Mr. Bennett characterized it as the 

Cavia Cutleri, King MSS. Cav. hrunnescenti-nigra ; subcristata ; 
gents in medio nudiusculis. 

Long. tot. 10 unc. ; capitis, 3. 

The general form of the animal is probably similar to that of the 
restless Cavy, Cavia Cobaj/a, Gmel., popularly known as the Guinea- 
pig. It is covered universally by long, smooth, glossy, black hairs, 
which are slightly tinged with brown. Its ears are rather large, 
broadly expanded, and hairy ; and between them the hairs are longer 
than those on the adjoining parts, occasioning a slight appearance of 
a crest. On the middle of each cheek the hairs radiate as from a 
centre, almost in a similar manner to that in which they spread from 
around the crown of the bonneted Monkeys, and the skin is conse- 
quently left in the middle point almost bare. The dentition is alto- 
gether that of the restless Cavy, and the incisors, as in it, are white. 
The skull is rather more expanded laterally, which gives to it an 
appearance of comparative flatness. 

"This animal was known, on the survey, by the name of the Pe- 
ruvian Cavy. The specimen in the Society's collection was presented 
to one of the officers of the Beagle by an American sailing-master, 
of Stonington, U.S., a very intelligent person, to whom we were 
much indebted. The trivial name which I have proposed for it is in 
recollection of the benefit we derived from his experience and know- 
ledge of the intricate navigation of the south-western coast of Pata- 
gonia, which was freely imparted to us on several occasions." — 
P. P. K. 

The collection also contained specimens of a Mouse, for which 
Mr. Bennett proposed the name of 

Mus Magellanicus. Mus caudd corpus caputque longitudine aquan- 
te ; suprcL saturate subflavicanti-fuscus ; subtus albidus ; pedibus 
albis. 

Long, corporis cum capite 4i ; caudeE longitudo eadem ; pedis pos- 
tici, 1. 

Hab. apud Portum Famine dictum, in Fretu Magellanico. 

The ears are of moderate size, rounded, and hairy. 

Specimens were exhibited of several Marsupialia, on which Mr. 
Ogilby made the following remarks. 

"A small collection of Marsupial Quadrupeds, which Mr. Gould 
lately received from his brother-in-law, Mr. Coxen, contains two or 
three interesting species, wliich the usual kindness of Mr. Gould 
enables me to notice. They were all procured, as I am informed, in 
the country beyond the Hunter River, about eighty miles north of 
Sydney in New South Wales. The most remarkable is an unde- 
scribed species of Phalanger, which I propose to call 

Phalangista Canina. It is similar in size and general proportions 



192 

to Phal. Vulpina, and the two allied species described in the ' Pro- 
ceedings ' for 1830-31, (page 135,) but is easily distinguished from 
them all by the small size and round form of the ears, as well as 
by the distribution of the colours. All the upper parts of the body, the 
head, cheeks, back, sides, and outer face of the arms and thighs are 
of a uniform grizzled brown ; the throat, breast, belly, and interior 
of the members dirty ashy grey with a slight shade of yellow. The 
ears are only an inch in length and about the same in breadth, being 
thus little more than half as long as in Phal. Vulpina. They are 
naked within, but covered with deep cofree-coloured fur on the out- 
side ; the nose, and the paw's, both before and behind, are dark brown ; 
and the tail is bushy and entirely black to within about 2 inches of 
its root, which is of the same colour as the back. All these circum- 
stances distinguish the present species from Phal. Vulpina, with 
which alone it can possibly be confounded, and in which the backs of 
the ears, and the cheeks and paws are yellowish white, whilst the black 
colour occupies only the latter half of the tail. Both these animals 
have long black vibrisste, and a tuft of similar stiff hair on the cheek, 
about an inch below and behind the eye. The whole length from 
the nose to the root of the tail is 2 feet ; the length of the tail 1 Sc- 
inches. 

Phal. Cookii. . I notice this species merely to observe that the 
present specimen is the onl)^ certain evidence we possess of this 
animal being an inhabitant of Continental Australia. Cook observed 
it in Van Diemen's Land, and I had never been able to ascertain the 
precise locality from which the various other individuals I had for- 
merly examined, were obtained. 

Macropus Eugenii. This specimen agrees with M. Desmarest's de- 
scription, and is interesting as coming from a very distant part of 
the country. 

Perameles obestila. An adult specimen of the same size as the 
full-grown Per. nasitta. I notice it to mention that the teeth 
are, in all respects, similar to those of Per. nasuta, both in form and 
number. 

The collection contains besides, two very fine specimens of Pe- 
taurus Tagitanoidea ; one oi Pet. Scitireus ; one of Hydromys chryso- 
gaster; and a young Koala." — W. O. 

Specimens were exhibited of numerous Shells of the genus Mitra, 
Lam., and of one species of Conoelix, Swains., forming jjart of the 
collection of Mr. Cuming ; and the following account of them by Mr. 
Broderip was read. 

" The species of the genus Mitra, Lam., which I am about to de- 
scribe had been sent by Mr. Cuming, in whose cabinet they are, to 
Mr. Swainson, whose intimate acquaintance with this family renders 
him so particularly competent to the task of describing them. They 
were named by him, and he also made notes respecting them before 
returning them. In the following account of them I have retained 
Mr. Swainson's name in every instance but one : and whenever he 
has made any written observations I ha^■c quoted them. 



193 



Genus Mitra, (Lam. & Swains.). 

MiTRA NEBULosA. Mitva testcl turritd, striis impressis cinctd, 
pallide flavd maculis castaneo-fuscis pictd ; columelld obsolete sex- 
plicatd: long. I i- poll., lat. 'i^ poll. 

Hab. ad Insulani Annaan. 

Mr. Cuming found this species on the reefs at low water. 

Mr. Swainson, whose name is retained, has the following observa- 
tion : " representing nubila." "Type 5, 1." 

MiTRA SwAiNSONii. Mitru testd turritd, valde productd, Icevigatd, 
pallide earned, apicem versus pallide brunned, striis transversis 
cinctd; columelld quadriplicatd : long. 6, lat. I. poll. 
Hab. ad Colombiam Occidentalem. (Monte Christi.) 
Dredged up from sandy mud by Mr. Cuming in seven fathoms 
water. 

This shell has been much exposed, and its colour is faded. 
The following remark appears on the cover : " Type 1, 1." 

MiTEA Ancillides. Mitra testd turritd, minufisime transversim. 

striatd, totd pallide flavd ; columelld quinqueplicatd : long. 5, 

lat. 2 pull. 
Hab. ad Insulam Annaan. 
Found on the reefs. 
The following remark appears on the cover : " Type 5, (2 ?)." 

MiTRA MAURA. Mitra testd turritd, transversim minute striatd, 
anfractibus torosis, totd nigricante ; columelld albd, quadriplicatd ; 
aperiurd hiante : long. 2-J-, lat. ^poll. 
Hab. ad Peruviam. (Iquiqui.) 

Found in the fissures of rocks, buried in sand, at low water mark. 
On the cover is the following observation : " representing Tiara 
foruminata, Type 1, 4," 

The older shells are eroded, especially towards the apex, like some 
of the freshwater turbinated shells. 

MiTRA FULVESCENS. Mitra testd ovato-elongatd, fulvd, striis altis 

cinctd ; columelld sexplicatd: long. ^, lat. -.'^r poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Annaan. 
Found on the reefs. 
On the wrapper is the following observation: "Type 5, 1." 

MiTRA TESTACEA. Mitra tcstd turritd, acuminbtd, rubro-luiescente, 
transversim striatd; columelld quinqueplicatd : long, l^, lat. ^poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Anuaan. 
Found on the reefs. 

Mr. Swainson has the following observation on the wrapper: 
"Type 5, 1. representing/a/ra." 

MiTUA FULVA, var. Mitra testd turritd, fulvd, striis transversis 
punctatis cinctd; suturd crenulatd ; columelld seaplicatd ; labro 
crenulato. 



194 

Hah. ad Insulam Annaan. 
Found on the reefs in shallow water. 

The following observation appears on the wrapper : "Typel, 2. 
representing Tiara." 

/^^u^ MiTRA CHRYsosTOMA. MUvu testd ovato-acuminatd, striis magnis 
subcrenulatis cinctd, flavescente castaneo maculatd, maculis mag- 
nis ; columelld sexpUcatd ; labro subruhro-aureo, externe subcre- 
nulato : long. 1^?, lat. ^ poll. 

Hah. ad Insulam Annaan. 

Found on the reefs in shallow water. 

On the cover is written, "Type 5, 1. representing /errwp'inea." 

MiTRA TRiSTis. Mitra testd turritd, suturis rotundatd, striis trans- 
versis cinctd, longitudinal iter costatd, atro-fuscd, suturis pallid^ 
fasciatd ; columelld quadriplicatd, plicis maximis ; aperturd (in 
adultis) albido-purpurascente : long. 1+, lat. -l^ poll. 

Hah. ad Sanctam Elenam et ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

Found in sandy mud at a depth of from six to ten fathoms. 

On the cover, " Type 2, 4." 

MiTRA EFFusA. Mitra testd fusiformi, transversim valdk striatd, 
striis intermediis minimis; totd fused vel atro-castaned ; colu- 
melld quadriplicatd, plicis duahus superioribus magnis ,• labro cre- 
nulato : long. !•§-, lat. -rV poll. 

Hab. in America Centrali (Guacomayo) et ad Insulas Gallapagos 
dictas. 

Found in sandy mud at the depth of twelve fathoms. 

On the cover, " Type 1,5." 

Genus Tiara, Swains. (Mitra, Lam.) 

Tiara foraminata. Tiara testd turritd, longitudinaliter costatd, 
striis distantibus impressis inter costas hinc et hinc quasi forami- 
natis, cost is magnis, sordide fused, suturis rotundatd; columelld 
quadriplicatd, plicis maximis ; aperturd sordide albido-purpuras- 
cente : long. 2%, lat. l poll. 
Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam, ad Insulam Platam dictam, et ad 
Panamam. 

Dredged up from sandy mud and gravel at a depth ranging from 
six to fourteen fathoms. 

This appears to have been published in Mr. Wood's ' Supplement' 
under the name of Voluta Lens. 

On the cover, "representing Mitra maura. Type 2, 4." 

Tiara muricata. Tiara testd longitudinaliter costatd, transversim 
striatd, costis submuricatis, totd brunned ; columelld triplicatd .- 
long. I-, lat. ^poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos dictas. 

Dredged up from sandy mud at a depth of six fathoms. 



195 

Tiara mucronata. Tiara testd longitudinaliter costatd, trans- 
versim striatd, striis sub-punctatis, anfractibus noduloso-muri- 
cutis prcEcipue suturam versus, albiddfusco vel ferrugineo fasci- 
atd, fascid basali latissimd ; columelld quadriplicatd : long. 1, 
lat. -^ poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Taheiten. 

Found ia soft muddy sand at low water within the reef. 

Tiara catenata. Tiara testd ovatd, longitudinaliter costatd, al- 
bidd suturam versus punctis sanguineis fasciatim dispositis con- 
cinnd, apice subviolaceo, anfractu basali bifasciato, /asciis fusco- 
castaneis ; columelld quadriplicatd : long. ■%, lat. -^ poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Annaan. 

Found on the reefs in shallow water. 

On the paper, "Type 1, 3." 

Tiara multicostata. Tiara testd longitudinaliter multicostatd, 
transversim substriatd, brunned vel ferrugined alba fascial d ; co- 
lumelld quadriplicatd : long. -I-, lat. ^ poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Annaan. 
Found on the reefs in shallow water. 

In the ferruginous individuals the white band is nearly obso- 
lete, and would almost justify their separation as a variety : but 
such individuals of that colour as have been submitted to me appear 
to be young. 

Tiara ROSEA. Tiara testd multicostatd, cost is postice subtubercu- 
losis, creberrime transversim sulcatd, rosed alba fasciatd ; co- 
lumella quadriplicatd: long. 4-, lat. ^ poll, 

Hab. ad Insidas Lord Hood's dictas. 

Found on the reefs in shallow water. 

On the paper, "Type 1, 2." 

Tiara millecostata. Tiara testd subovatd, longitudinaliter cre- 
berrime costatd, basi cancellatd, nigro-castaned, apice albido ; co- 
lumelld triplicatd : long. ^, lat. i^ poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Annaan. 
Found on the reefs in shallow water. 

The close-set longitudinal ribs and cancellated base give this shell, 
which may not have attained its full growth, the aspect of a Can- 
cellar ia. 

Tiara lineata. Tiara testd fusiformi, albidd hinc et hinc cas- 
taneo strigatd, lineis elevatis castaneis cinctd ; columelld tripli- 
catd ; epidermide valde tenui : long. 1, lat. ^ poll. 

Hab. ad Salango Colombiae Occidentahs. 

Found on sandy mud in ten fathoms water. 

The elevated lines run from the apex to the base like the threads 
of a screw. 

On the paper, " Ty^e 5, 1 ." ' 

Tiara nivea. Tiara testd fusiformi, albd, lineis creberrimis sub- 



196 

punctatis transversis insculptd ; columelld quinqueplicatd : long. 
2^, lat. XT poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Annaan. 

Found on the reefs. 

Minute longitudinal lines cross the transverse thick- set punctated 
ones, and with the punctures produce a somewhat cancellated ap- 
pearance, which may be also detected by the touch. 

The base of the columella is strongly developed, milk white, and 
shining, reminding the observer of the same part in Ancillaria. 

On the paper, " Type 5, 3." 

Tiara aurantia. Tiara testd titrritd, costis longitudinalibus striis- 
que elevatis transversis suhnodulosd, aurantiacd albo fasciatd ; 
columelld quadriplicatd : long. 1-J-, lat. -iS- poll. 

Hab. cum prsecedente. 

Tiara Terebralis. Tiara tcstd fusiformi-turritd, acuminatd, 
earned aurantiaco nebulosd; anfractibus 11 seu 12, leevibus, ni- 
tidis, longitudinaliter crebre sulcatis, sulcis profundi- impressis et 
lineis impressis spiralibus decussatis ; aperturd. brevi, angustd, 
labio externo murgine crenulato ; columelld quadriplicatd : long. 
1-85, lat. 0-45 poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Annaan. 
Found on the reefs. 

Mr. Swainson has %vritten on the paper containing it, " Type 4, 
4. This is one of the most extraordinary shells in the collection, as 
it so closely resembles the Mitra Terebralis that, but for its possess- 
ing the generic characters of Tiara, it might pass for the same 
species." 

It is one of the most slender of its genus, and has very much of 
the general character and form of a Terebra ; and its resemblance to 
Terebra is increased by the circumstance of its having one spiral 
groove, more deeply impressed than the others, placed at about one 
third of the length of each volution before the suture. The points 
of contact of the decussating with the longitudinal grooves are deeply 
impressed. 

There is a fine specimen in Mr. Broderip's collection. 

Mr. Sowerby has furnished me with the account of this species. 

Tiara crenata. Tiara testd fused, lineis subelevatis cinctd; co- 
lumelld triplicatd : long. ,V. ^^l- ~,\poll. 
. Hab. ad Xipixapi Colomliiae Occidentalis. 
. Found on sandy mud in six fathoms water. 

On the paper, " Type 5, 3. or 3, 3." 

Tiara rubra. Tiara testd minutd, longitudinaliter costatd, trans 
versim minutissime striatd, rubrd albo fasciatd ; canali subreflexo 
columelld quadriplicatd : long. tV. ^<'^. -v poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Lord Hood's dictam. 

Found on Melcugrinu margaritifera. 

On the jiapcr, " Type 1, 2." 



197 

Tiara semiplicata. Tiara testd ovato-fusiformi, glahrd, longitu- 
dinaliter plicatd, basi transversim striatd, castaned, a?i/ractibus 
spircB basi albo fasciatd, anfractu basali fascid submedid alba 
cincto ; columclld quadrlplicatd : long. -{-J-, lat. -^ poll. 
Hub. ad Insulam Rieteam. 
Found on the reefs. 

The basal whorl is only plaited on a comparatively small portion 
of its circumference, but this is evidently the result of malformation 
in the only specimen submitted to me. 

Tiara attenuata. Tiara- testd fusiformi, attenuatd, fused, lineis 
valde elevaiis distantibus cinctd ; columelld triplicatd ^ aperturd 
albidd, glabrd : long. \^, lat. ^ poll. ..^ivi \^ikU'?' 

Hab. ad Insulam Canam Americse Centralis. 

Found on a rocky bottom at the depth of twenty-eight fathoms. 

Approaching Tiara lineata, but differing from it. The basal whorl 
of Tiara attenuata is longer in proportion than that of Tiara lineata, 
and the elevated line on the angular shoulder of each whorl in the 
former is larger than the others. 

On the paper, " Type 5, 1." 

Genus Conoelix, Swains. 

CoNOELix Virgo. Con. testd conicd, crussd, spirddepressd, lineis 
tra7isversis subpunctatis insculptd, albidd, columella basi nigro- 
purpured ; epidermide sub/used, tenuissimd : long. -yV. lat- -['t poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Rieteam. 

Found on the reefs in shallow water. 

On the paper, " representing Conns Virgo." — W. J. B. 

The following observations by Mr. Swainson elucidate his notes 
in relation to the Mitres, appended to most of the preceding cha- 
racters : — 

" To render ray explanation of the notes and references attached to 
the different species of the Mitruna more intelligible to conchologists, 
it wiU be necessary for me to state, in as few words as possible, the 
result of my investigation of this subfamily, and the principles 
which have regulated these numerical indications. 

" I have already, in another work, characterized the family Volu- 
tida, which appears to be that primary division of the Carnivorous 
Gasteropoda {Zoophaga, Lam.;, which represents the Rasorial type 
among Birds, the Ungulata among Quadrupeds, and the Thysanura 
among perfect Insects {Ftilota) : these analogies being of course 
remote, although founded on the structure of the animal, no less 
than on its testaceous covering. It thus follows that the Lamarck- 
ian Mitra, instead of a genus, constitute a subfamily, which 
appears to be the subtypical group of the circle. The five genera 
composing this circle I have long ago characterized ; and here, for 
some years, my analysis of the group terminated. The inspection. 
however, of the numerous species brought home by Mr. Cuming, 
and the gradually augmented number in my own cabinet, seemed to 



198 

invite a still further and more minute investigation, for the purpose 
of ascertaining if any, and what, subgenera vi^ere contained in the 
more crowded groups of Mitra and Tiara. This investigation was 
carried on, at intervals, for nearly twelve months; and the result sur- 
passed my most sanguine expectations. It has convinced me that not 
only does each of the genera of the Mitrana represent analogically 
the corresponding groups of the Volutina, but that the same rela- 
tions can be demonstrated between the minor divisions of the genera 
Tiara and those of Mitra : in other words, that these latter represent 
all the subfamilies and genera of the other Volutidce, while they pre- 
serve their own peculiar or generic character. What I have just 
said on the parallel relations of analogy between the MitrantE and 
the Volutidce, is strictly applicable, in fact, to the genera Mitra and 
Tiara, the primary divisions of each of which can thus be demon- 
strated subgenera. Nor is this all : the materials I have been for so 
many years collecting have enabled me to ascertain, in very many 
instances, that the variation of the species, in each of these sub- 
genera, is regulated on precisely the same principle. Hence it fol- 
lows that the two circles of Mitra and Tiara, like the two divisions 
of Mr. MacLeay's Petalocera, contain species representing each 
other, so that if their generic character is not attended to, it is 
almost impossible to discriminate them even as species. Many in- 
stances of this extraordinary analogy might be mentioned, indepen- 
dent of that here alluded to, between Mitra Terebralis and Tiara 
Terebralis. 

" Selecting this shell to illustrate the numbers "Type 4,4", I 
may observe, that ' Type 4 ' signifies that it belongs to the fourth 
subgenus of Tiara, in which group it is the fourth subtype, uniting 
to Mitra maura, which is the fourth subtype of the first or typical 
subgenus. Mitra maura, again, as representing this latter shell, 
consequently becomes the fourth subtype of the first or typical sub- 
genus, and is therefore marked " Type 1, 4." The first figure always 
denotes the subgenus, and the last the station which the species ap- 
pears to hold in its own subgenus. 

" I am unacquainted with any group in the animal kingdom 
which demonstrates more fully than this does the law of represen- 
tation. It may be mentioned, also, that nearly all the divisions I 
had long ago characterized, from the formation of the shells alone, 
have more recently been confirmed by a knowledge of their respec- 
tive animals : a knowledge for which we are entirely indebted to 
the able naturalists who accompanied the French expedition on 
board the Astrolabe." — W. S. 

Specimens were exhibited of several hitherto undescribed Cowries, 
most of which have been brought to England within the last few 
years. They were accompanied by the following characters and de- 
scriptions by J. S. Gaskoin, Esq. 

Genus Cypr^a. 
CyprjBa FORMOSA. Cypr. testd ovato-globulosd, ienui, sericeo-sub- 



199 

nitente, pallida rosed, subnehulosd, antice saturatiore, last dlbidd ; 
costis nunierosis, confertis, continuis, ad basin non interruptis ; 
margine subincrassatd ; aperturd latiusculd ; lined dorsali nulld. 

Shell ovato-globose, posterior end rather obtuse and broad, of a 
delicate rose (almost white) colour, somewhat clouded with very light 
reddish brown, wiiich is deeper over the anterior extremity. Base 
white, somewhat even. Aperture rather wide : teeth of the lip about 
twenty-one, almost every alternate rib (about fifteen in number) 
terminating between the denticulations just before arriving at the 
edge of the Hp ; teeth of the columella about twenty-five, and about 
seven terminate exterior to the aperture : columellar front grooved 
along its entire length, inner edge of the groove slightly serrated, 
forming a circular projection towards the anterior extremity, where 
it is deepest and widest. Ribs slightly prominent, numerous, close, 
extremely even and regular, extending continuously from the Up to 
the inner border of the columellar groove, very few terminating on 
the sides of the shell : false ribs few, and extending but little towards 
the back. Anterior beaks rather wide apart, slightly produced : 
beaks of the lip longer than those of the columella. Spire only trace- 
able in the adult, and in the younger state forming a fine small point 
or apex. Margin only on the lip side, and slightly thickened. No 
dorsal line. 

Length -425 of an inch; breadth -350; height '325. 

The younger specimens of this beautiful shell are of a fine clear, 
semipellucid, rose (almost white) colour, with the light reddish brown 
markings at the anterior and outer extremity of the shell, and at the 
point of the posterior beak of the lip, more conspicuous than in the 
adult, while the cloudings are less observable. 

Habitat. Cape of Good Hope. 

From Cypr. Europaa it is distinguished by the following charac- 
ters : greater convexity of the curvature of the inner edge of the colu- 
mellar groove ; ribs and teeth much more numerous and even, and 
on the lip almost every alternate rib terminates before arriving at its 
edge ; shape more gibbous and obtuse posteriorly ; mouth wider ; 
spire scarcely visible in the adult, and forming a beautifully minute 
point in the younger individuals ; texture and colour of the shell in- 
finitely more delicate. 

Cab. Gaskoin. 

Ctpk^a rubinicolor. Cypr. testd ovato-subglobosd, utrinque sub- 
rostratd, rubelld, extremitatibus pulchre roseo-rubris ; labro in- 
crassato, convexo ; costis aciitis, continuis, indivisis ; lined dorsali 
nulld. 
Shell ovato-globose,of a light red or pinkish colour; the four beaks, 
particularly on the base, of a much deeper red. Base roundish. 
Aperture and margins lighter coloured. Margins thickened, some- 
what produced, in short, rather broad beaks. Aperture rather narrow, 
and inner edge of the lip nearly circular. Columella somewhat ven- 
tricose towards the middle, concave towards the anterior end : teeth 
numerous and even; on the lip about twenty, proceeding across the 
back, forming ribs, and continuing over the columella, pass through 



200 

the frontal groove, converging towards the middle, and terminating 
at its inner border in a very slightly curved serrated edge ;. one or 
two ribs terminate near the middle of the back. False ribs few, and 
terminating in teeth only between the beaks. No dorsal line. 

Length "475 of an inch ; breadth -400; height -250. 

Habitat. 

Its distinctive characters from Cypr. sanguinea are : teeth much 
more numerous and even ; no ribs terminate on the lip, rarely more 
than one or two on the side of the back, and they are of the colour of 
the shell; colour much lighter, and the beaks on the base deepest- 
coloured. 

Cab. Gaskoin, 

Cypr^a producta. Cypr. testd ovato-subglobosd, bast planulatd, 
transversim costatd, albidd; marginibus crassiusculis, ad extremi- 
tates subdepressis ; aperturd angustiore, labri margine subrectd, 
columella jlexuosd, acutanguld ; lined dorsali nulld. 

Shell ovato-subglobose, of a uniform dull white colour. Aperture 
rather narrow: teeth prominent and even, about twenty-six on the lip, 
and twenty-three on the columella ; between the beaks there are about 
five or six rather strongly marked denticulations. The columellar edge 
of the aperture forms a sharp line, within which is a broad and rather 
deep o-roove, extending the length of the mouth, deeper at each end ; 
the ribs, extending through it, form on its inner border a denticulated 
hue, and they are more acutely prominent within the aperture than 
on the outside of the shell. Ribs prominent, smooth, (interstices 
uneven,) many terminating on the side of the shell at various di- 
stances from the middle of the back, those continuing to the middle 
about fifteen, a few only of which are continuous down the opposite 
side, the rest terminating in the centre of the dorsum between each 
other, but not in obtuse or thickened ends : false ribs about six pos- 
teriorly and eight anteriorly, and, like those in the Cypr. sanguinea, 
extending high up towards the back. Extremities much produced, 
somewhat flattened. Margins thick. No impressed dorsal line. An- 
terior beaks wider apart than the width of the aperture, and within 
each of these beaks is a slight impression or groove. 

Length -500 of an inch ; breadth -375 ; height -300. 

Habitat. 

It is thus distinguishable from Cypr. scabriuscula : it has no dorsal 
line ; ribs much larger and prominent ; has wide margins ; a broad and 
flattened base ; a slight groove within the anterior beaks ; extremi- 
ties much produced and flattened, &c. 

Cab. Gaskoin. 

I am indebted for the very appropriate appellation of this species 
to my friend Mr. Gray. 

Cypr^a candidula. Cypr. testd ovato-globulosd, latere columel- 

lari subventricoso, nived ; extremitatibus columellaribus subcom- 

■ pressis ; margine subincrassatd ; aperturd subangustatd, postici; 

reairvd ; labri dentibus numerosis confertis ; costis ex apertvrd 

divergentibus ; lined dorsali nulld. 



201 

Shell ovato-globose. the columellar side rather ventricose, entirely 
of a snow-white colour. Base somewhat flat. Aperture rathernarrow, 
curved posteriorly. Columellar groove extending from one end of 
the shell to the other, rather broad, most so at the anterior extremity, 
not deep. Teeth even, somewhat numerous, small on the edge of 
the lip, on which there are about twenty-two ; on the columella a-hout 
thirteen, which converge towards the centre. Ribs rather prominent ; 
some few terminate on either side of the shell, the rest pass continu- 
ously across it from the edge of the lip, and terminate in minute den- 
ticulations at the inner border of the frontal groove : false ribs a 
few. Anterior and posterior beaks of the columella divergent, and 
slightly projecting: extremities produced, and obtuse : marked den- 
ticulations between the anterior beaks. Spire scarcely visible, or 
forming a small blunt protuberance. No impressed dorsal line. 
Margin on the lip only and rather thick. 

Length -312 of an inch; breadth -250; height -212. 

Habitat. Mexico. 

Distinguishable from Cijpr. scabriuscula by the shell being much 
wider and shorter ; aperture more curved ; teeth and ribs much fewer ; 
the extremities more obtusely produced, thicker and wider ; colu- 
mellar beaks more divergent and prominent ; body of the shell more 
ventricose ; anterior part of the columellar groove not so broad ; no 
impression of a dorsal line. 

Cab. Gaskoin. 

The propriety of regarding this as a distinct species is confirmed 
from the coincidence of three persons having done so, without any 
communication or knowledge of each other, in three distant capitals, 
viz.. Dr. Beck of Copenhagen, by the name of Cypr. approximans ; 
M. Duclos at Paris, by that of Cypr. olorina ; and myself in London, 
under the appellation of Cypr. candidula : and as I believe I am the 
first to describe it, it is perhaps right that I should retain, and apply 
to it, my own designation. 

Cypr^a acutidentata. Cypr. testd candidd, ovato-globulosd, 
utrinque subproductd ; labro incrassato ; costis acutis prominenti- 
bus, dorsum versus partim interruptis, opacis, interstitiis inaqua- 
libus nitidulis ; columelld convexiusculd, absque plied. 

Shell ovato-globular, white ; extremities slightly produced. Aper- 
ture narrow, somewhat ventricose at the middle of the columella, 
and a little concave at the anterior end. Teeth numerous, about 
seventeen, thin, sharp, and prominent, continued to form the ribs, 
several of which terminate (especially at the outer part of the shell) 
before arriving at the summit of the back, and the teeth are conse- 
quently more numerous on the lip than on the columella ; a deep 
depression at each end of the columellar side of the aperture caused 
by the abrupt termination of the columella, it not extending to the 
extreme ends of the aperture. Ribs rather thick, not crowded, 
prominent, the interstices between them somewhat shining ; observed 
by a magnifier the ribs appear uneven ; false ribs at both extremities, 
a few only forming teeth. No complete dorsal line, but a faint de- 



202 

pression. No depression or groove in front of the columella. Colu- 
mellar side more gibbous than the outer, and the ribs continue en- 
tirely round it, converging towards the centre. 

Length -300 of an inch; breadth -200; height -175. 

Habitat. Isle of Muerte, Bay of Guayaquil. 

Nearest in shape to Cypr. exigua, and in the manner of the ribs 
terminating on the back ; but it is of a dull white colour, destitute of 
markings, and has no groove or depression in front of the columella, 
which distinguishes it from all other species of this form of Cypraa. 

Cab. Cuming. 

I had the misfortune to break the only specimen that I have seen 
of this shell shortly after I had described it, but having submitted 
the description to the critical examination, with the shell, of Dr. 
Beck and Mr. Sowerby at the same time, I conclude this description 
may be received, although I have no specimen to show to the So- 
ciety. 

CTPRiEA Pediculus, var. labiosa. Cypr. testd ovali, laid, extremi- 
tatibus rotundatis ; costis prominentioribus, nullis supra labium 
externum terminantibus ,• marginibus latioribus, crassioribus ; lined 
dorsali profundiore, fused ; basi marginibusque cinerascenti-gri- 
seis ; dentibus albis. 

Shell oval, of a reddish brown on the back, running into a blueish 
brown on the sides ; six rather large dark brown spots on the back, 
three on each side the dorsal line, placed opposite to each other at 
the anterior, middle, and posterior parts of the back ; base of a grey- 
ish brown colour, rounded and broad. Aperture rather wide, white 
within : teeth about twenty on the lip, white, prominent, even and 
distant, and all continuing evenly over the lip forming the ribs, 
several of which terminate on the side of the shell, the others (about 
twelve) at the dorsal line, in elevated and broad or thickened ends ; 
on the columella there are about fifteen teeth, a few of which, con- 
tinuing to form the ribs, terminate on the side of the shell, the rest 
at the dorsal depression, in a similar form to those on the opposite 
side ; there are about two floating ribs, false ribs at each end. Colu- 
mellar groove very shallow posteriorly, rather deeper and wider an- 
teriorly ; the teeth passing, slightly prominent, across it form a ser- 
rated edge at its inner border. Margins much thickened and pro- 
duced, terminating in a coronated ridge aU round the shell, scarcely 
more prominent at the extremities than on the outer or lip side. 
Extremities round. Dorsal line rather broad, deep, shining, and of 
a darker brown colour than the back. 

Length -525 of an inch; breadth -410; height -320. 

Habitat. 

Differs from Cypr. Pediculus in being broader and shorter, and 
rounder at the extremities ; in the colour and shape of the base ; 
in having much more prominent ribs, and none terminating on the 
lip ; margins infinitely thicker and broader ; teeth white ; dorsal line 
more impressed, &c. 

Cab. Gaskoin. 



203 

Tliis shell having some characters in common with Cypr. Pe- 
diculus, and as I have seen only this one specimen, I have felt it 
difficult to separate it entirely from that species ; and on the other 
hand it has characters so different, that I scarcely know how to 
make it a member of that tribe : I have, however, placed it as Varietas 
labiosa ; and should other specimens be found, I think it may be pro- 
perly severed from its present associates, and retain that distinctive 
appellation. 

Cypk^a vesicularis. Cypr. testd inflatd, suhglobulosd , subtrigond, 
rubelld ; costis transversis, approximatis, Icevibus, concoloribus 
supra columellam continuis j aperturd ampld ^ labro intus albido, 
dentato. 

Shell ovato-subglobose, inflated; semipellucid, of a faint rose, 
or flesh colour. Aperture very broad, a little longer than the spire. 
Posterior 2)art of the columella rather ventricose : the anterior forming 
a broadish groove, the inner border of which is most prominent at 
its middle, and the ribs passing through it terminate, at its posterior 
part, in a serrated edge, the anterior part being even and forming a 
smooth notch. Lip of a lighter colour than the rest of the shell, 
straight at its base, longer than the body of the shell, forming a very 
slight notch as it joins the columellar side at the posterior extremity, 
and anteriorly a broader and deeper one between the beaks. Beaks 
very slightly produced, and the anterior ones a little divergent. 
Teeth numerous and even, about twenty on the lip, and about twenty- 
three on the columella. Ribs even, close, numerous, not prominent, 
extending transversely across the shell in parallel lines, and passing 
entirely round the columella to its inner margin ; about eight of the 
ribs terminate on the lijj, and consequently form no denticulations, 
and almost alternately between the teeth from the anterior extremity, 
some few terminate on the outer part of the columella. Ribs very 
faintly marked on the back. No dorsal line. Margin a little tliick- 
ened. Spire visible, depressed. 

Length of the columella -475 of an inch ; of the lip •525 ; breadth 
•450 ; height -350. 

Habitat. Cape of Good Hope. 

From Cypr. aperta it difi'ers by the anterior columellar beak being 
divergent; posterior end of the shell blunter and broader; ribs 
infinitely more numerous and even, and extending entirely over the 
columella to its inner edge witliin the aperture. 

Cab. Gaskoin. 

Cypr^a Beckii. Cypr. testd ovato-oblongd, utrinque productd, 
subrostratd, subumbilicatd, superne pallide fulvd, punctis subo- 
cellaribus helvolis sp arsis ; margine suprH subcrenatd, basique 
albis ; labri dentibus crassiusculis,posterius lineold helvold notatis, 
columella gracilioribus, in culmen reciilineum terminantibus, medio 
obsoletioribus ; sulco columellari prof undo, recto, Icevi, anteriUs 
et inferrie denticulate. 

Shell ovato-oblong, of a light fawn colour, dotted distantly with 
minute slightly ocellated reddish brown punctu, which are larger 



204 

near the mai'gins, especially the columellar, mixed with a few ex- 
ceedingly faint minute spots lighter coloured than the ground. Base 
nearly white, rather flat. Aperture narrow : columella somewhat 
gihbous at the middle part : teeth, like the base, nearly white, 
even, not minute, extending half across the lip, on which there are 
about nineteen, coloured at their edges of a reddish brown colour, 
forming short lines ; teeth of the columella about eighteen, forming 
an angular, slightly elevated, serrated, longitudinal ridge, more 
prominent at the anterior extremity ; at the two extremities the 
teeth extend a little outwards, and are there marked, as on the lip, 
by reddish brown little Hnes. At the anterior portion of the front 
of the columella is a deep elongated groove, terminating outwardly 
in a deep notch, between the end of the ridge and the beak, with 
three or four denticulations at its inner border, not extending through 
it from the ridge. Extremities produced ; the beaks divergent ; the 
outer anterior and posterior beaks larger and a little longer than 
the inner. Internal colour the same as that of the base. Spire a 
little prominent, with a depression around it superiorly and late- 
rally. Dorsal line almost obsolete. 

The young has no markings on the teeth. 

Length '450 of an inch; breadth -250; height •175. 

Habitat. 

Distinguished from Cypr. Cumingii by the brown lines or markings 
on the lips ; teeth infinitely less numerous, and larger ; dark brown 
ocellated dots on the back ; a^ erture straighter and wider ; shell 
more elongated and less gibbous ; groove nearl)' around the spire ; 
posterior channel more produced ; beaks more equal ; lip round ; 
outer edge of the margin crenulated, &c. 

Cab. Cuming. 

Doctor H. Beck, the learned naturalist of Copenhagen, being at 
this time in our capital, I have taken advantage of the circumstance 
to date its period, by placing his name, now, to this new species of 
Cypraa. — J. S. G. 

There was read an "Extrait du Quatrierae Rapport Annuel sur 
les Travaux de la Society d'Histoire Naturelle de I'lle Maurice : par 
M. Julien Desjardins." 

The communications relative to the Mammalia read before the Na- 
tural History Society of the Mauritius in the fourth year of its ex- 
istence have comprised an account by the secretary, M. Julien 
Desjardins, of a Whale which he regards as the Physeter macroce- 
phalus, Linn., that was cast ashore on an adjoining reef : and some 
observations by the same author on several of the Mammalia of the 
island, and particularly on the hybernation of the Tenrec, Centenes 
spinosus. 111. ; the lethargy of which animal takes place when the 
thermometer is not lower than 20° Cent., and even when it marks 26°. 

In ornithology M. Desjardins has also been the only contributor. 
He has described, as new, two Birds belonging to the island, and has 
proposed for them the names of Charadrius Nesoffallicus and Scolo- 
pax elegans. 



205 

M. Li^nard, the elder, has, in the course of the year, described 
many Fishes, including a new species of Plectropoma, allied to the 
Plectr. melanoleuca, Cuv. & Val., which is of a uniform brown co- 
lour, with all its fins of a still deeper brown, except the pectoral 
which are orange; on this latter character his specific name is 
founded : a Holacanthus, La Cep., from Batavia, remarkable on ac- 
count of the numerous sinuous silvery lines which occupy principally 
the middle of the body ; and having also on its face two yellow and 
two black bands, one of which is ocular : a Cheilinus, Cuv. : an 
Echen4s, Linn., furnished, on its suctorial disc, with twenty-five 
pairs of plates : and a Murana, Thunb., the body of which is of an 
ebony black, and the dorsal fin yellow ; the trivial name being in- 
dicative of the latter peculiarity. He has also given some account of 
a collection of Fishes obtained from the western coast of Madagas- 
car, and comprising thirteen species, several of which he regards as 
new. M. Desjardins has described as the Uue-facedTetrodon, a species 
remarkable for two large blue spots on each side of its face, and 
having the fin rays as follows; D. 15. A. 12. P. 14. C. 14.; it in- 
habits the seas adjacent to the Isle of France. 

In entomology the only communication made to the Mauritius 
Society was by M. Goudot, and related to the Insect described by 
Mr. Bennett at the Meeting of the Zoological Society on January 22, 
1833. (Proceedings, Part i., p. 12,) under the name of Aphrophora 
Goudoti. The communication made to the Zoological Society, of 
which a' full abstract is given at the page quoted, was apparently 
identical with that read before the Mauritius Society. 

The remaining zoological communication related to the Intestinal 
Worms, and was made by the Secretary. It gave some account of 
the Distoma hepaticum, Cuv., as found in the stomach of a cow; and 
of the Cysticercus Cellulosx, Brems., existing in innumerable quan- 
tities over almost the whole of the head, trunk, and extremities of 
a sow. 

An " Extrait du Cinqui^me Rapport Annuel " of the same Society, 
by M. Julien Desjardins, Corr, Memb. Z. S., was also read. 

In the year of which the present Report gives an account, M. 
Desjardins has communicated to the Natural History Society of the 
Mauritius, a list of several species of Birds that are occasional visi- 
tors of that island ; and has also referred particularly to the Coturnix 
Sinensis, Cuv., and the Nectarinia Borbonica, lU., as stationary in 
the Mauritius. 

M. E. Lienard has brought from the Seychelles a species of Gecko 
of considerable size ; which he has described in a communication 
made to the Society : and M. E. Lienard has placed on record the 
existence in the adjacent seas of the Sphargis coriaceus, Merr. 

M. Lienard, the elder, has again made numerous contributions to 
ichthyology. He has given a detailed description of the Squalus 
Vulpes, Linn. : has described as new a Trichiurus, Linn., which he 
had formerly regarded as the Trich. lepturus, Ej., but which has the 
eye much larger, more numerous strics on the suboperculum, and a few 



206 

more rays in the dorsal fin : and has also described two species of 
oi Crenilabnts, Cuv., which he regards as new; one of them has 
three longitudinal rose-coloured bands on the white ground of the 
body, others on the dorsal fin, a large blood-red spot on the ventral 
fins, and D. 12 + 10. A. 3 + 11; the other is banded like the pre- 
ceding, but is deeply rose-coloured on the back and pale yellow be- 
low, has a black circle surrounding the base of the pectoral fin, a 
large red spot above the anns, the dorsal and caudal fins red, the anal 
and ventrals yeUow, the pectorals rose-coloured, and D. 12 + 9, 
A. 3 + 11. He has also given a description of a Murana, Thunb., 
of a very pale olive yellow towards the front and bro-mi towards the 
tail, and marked on the back by white ocellated spots bordered with 
brown. 

In the same department M. E. Lienard has contributed descrip- 
tions, from recent specimens, of several Serrani described by Cuvier 
and M.Valenciennes in their ' Histoire NatureUe des Poissons' ; and 
has also given a description of a Blennius, Linn., destitute of appen- 
dages on the head. These fishes were observed in a voyage to the 
Seychelle Islands, whence M. E. Lienard brought back with him to 
the Mauritius a Ckcetodon of very varied colours, which M. A. Lienard 
subsequently described under the name of Chatodon diversicolor. 
M. Desjardins has stated, in a note, that the Mango fish, Polynemus 
longifilis, Cuv. & Val., is not found, as had been announced, in the 
Isle of France. And hie adds that he has prepared an alphabetic8Ll 
index to the nine volumes of the ' Histoire NatureUe des Poissons ' 
that had then reached the Mauritius. M. Magon has presented to 
the Museum of the Society a fragment of a ship's coppered keel 
pierced by the point of the upper jaw of a Histiophorus, Cuv., which 
still remains infixed in it. 

M. Desjardins has contiibuted the only notices relative to the Mol- 
lusca, which have consisted of short descriptions of three species be- 
longing to the island : an Octopus, Oct. arenarius, Desj., found in 
the shell of a Dolium ; a Pupa, of a red and yellow colour ; and a 
small species of Helicina. He has also ascertained the existence at 
the Mauritius of the Tornatella flammea, Auct. 

To the same active member the Mauritius Natural History Society 
is indebted for the only entomological communication made to it in 
the fifth year of its existence : it is a detailed description of a large 
species of lulus brought from the Seychelles, and characterized as 
the lulus Seychellarum, Desj. 

Specimens were exhibited of various Fishes, forming part of a col- 
lection from Mauritius, presented to the Society by M. Julien Des- 
jardins, and forwarded by him at the same time with the " Rapports 
de la Societe d'Histoire NatureUe de I'lle Maurice." These were 
severally brought under the notice of the Meeting by Mr. Bennett, 
who called particular attention to the foUowing, which he regarded 
as hitherto undescribed. 

Apogon t^eniopterus. Ap. altiusculus ; fronte latiore : pinnd 
dorsali priore maculd elongatd obliqud inter singulos radios. 



207 

secundd analique vittd prope basin, ventralibus maculis elongatis 
inter radios exteriores, caudalisque marginibus, nigris. 
D. 7, 1 + 9. A. 2 + 8. 

AcANTHURUS Desjardinii. Ac. pijiuis altissimis : capite pecto- 
reque caruleo ? punctatissimis ; corpore reliquo lineis pliirimis {cce- 
ruleis ? jlavis ?) inter se sapissime fascias nigras includentibus, 
in pinnas verticales excurrentibus , ibique ad formam pinna ro- 
tundatis ; pinnis anali dorsalique antice ad basin guttulatis ; cau- 
dali pallide per series irregulares punctatd. 
D. 3 + 29. A. 3 + 23. 

Dentes maxillae superioris serrati, elongato-trigoni, ad apicem sub- 
rotundati ; inferioris crenati, serra intermedia elongata. 

The peculiarities of the colouring of this Fish, Mr. Bennett stated, 
induced him to regard it as distinct from those figured under the 
name of Ac. velifer by Bloch and by Dr. Riippell ; which also he 
considered, on a comparison of the figures published by those au- 
thors, to be specifically different from each other, and distinguishable 
by the subjoined characters. 

AcANTHURUs RuppELii. Ac. pinnis altissimis : capite pectoreque 
albido punctulatissimis ; corpore reliquo inferne flavo guttata, su- 
perne flavo transversim lineato lineis inter se scepissime fascias 
abbreviatas nigras includentibus ; pinnis dorsali analique lineis in- 
curvis plurimis illuque antice guttis sparsis flavis notatis j caudali 
punctulis albidis per series verticalibus dispositis. 

"D. 3 + 29. A. 2 + 23." 

Acanthurus velifer, Riipp., Zool. Atlas zu Nord-Afrik. Reise, 
tab. XV. f. 2. 

Hab. "in Mari Rubro." 

Acanthurus Blochii. Ac. pinnis altissimis : capite flavo punctata ; 
corpore toto lineis albescentibus fascias saturatiores inter se scb- 
pissime includentibus transversim notato, lineis in pinnas verticales 
excurrentibus ibique per series incurvas guttarum carulearum dis- 
positis ; pinnd caudali fasciatd seriatimque punctulatd. 

"D. 3 + 28. A. 2 + 21." 

Acanthurus velifer, Bloch, Ichth., tab. 427./". 1. 

Dentes maxillae superioris serrati, acut& elongato-trigoni. 

Hab. " apud Tranquebariam." 

Labrus spilonotus. Lair, pinnd caudali sublunatd : maculd in 
initio pinna dorsalis alterdque ad ejus finem, maxima, laterali, 
caudam superne circumdante ^ pinnis dorsali analique ad basin 
squamis corpori conformibus vittatim vestitis. 
D. 12+10. A. 3 + 12. 

Labro rubro-lineato, Comm., ut videtur, maxim^ afHnis, et forsan 
idem. Dentes antici validi in utraque maxilla quatuor : superioris 
subsequales, distantes ; inferioris duo intermedii minores subapproxi«. 
mati, inter intermedios maxillae superioris (ore clauso) recepti, late- 
ralis utrinque major ante lateralem maxillae superioris (ore clauso) 
recepto. 



208 

Anampses lineolatus. An. capite corporeque crassis, illo antici 
subrotundato, hoc coeruleo ? Uneolato ; fascid linedque inter oculos 
notatus ; pinnis dorsali analique coeruleo ? marginatis, hdc insuper 
in medio vittatd. 
D. 9+12. A. 3 + 12, 

Ab An. coeruleo -punctata, Rupp., difFert corpora et prEesertim 
capite crassioribus, hoc anticfe os versus minus producto ; necnon 
picturei, prsesertim vitta pinnae analis. In An. cceruleo-punctato 
squamae singulse punctum, in An. Uneolato lineolam corpori trans- 
versam gerunt. In hoc caput, nisi ad frontem labiaque, vix notatum ; 
pinnaque caudalis, ut videtur, seque hand notata. 



INDEX. 



The names of New Species and of Species newly chavacterized are printed 
in Roman Characters: those of Species previously known, but respecting 
which novel information is given, in Italics : those of Species respecting 
which Anatomical Observations are made, in Capitals. 



Page. 

Aeanthonyx Petiverii, Edw. ... 173 

Acanthurus Blochii, 5e«n 207 

Desjardinii, £ewn... 207 

Kingii, Benn 119 

Ruppellii, Benn. ... 207 
Actinia sanguineo-punctata, 

7'emp Ill 

j^gitalus flammiceps, jSwri. ... 153 

Agriopus unicolor, J3Mr^ 116 

Alcaimpennis, Linn 79 

Alcedo Lipida, Linn 90 

rudis, Linn 62 

Alepisaurusferox, Lowe 93 

Alosa immaculata, ^enra 92 

Ammoccetes branckialis,Flem...' 82 

Anampses lineolatus, Benn. .. 208 

Anarrhichas Lupus, Linn 80 

Ancistrosoma, n. g., Curt 18 

Klugii, Curt. ... 18 

Anisomelus, n. g.. Temp Ill 

luteus. Temp Ill 

Anodontyra, n. g., Westw 71 

tricolor, Westw 71 

Anthopora, n. g.. Gray 85 

cucullata, Gray.,.. 86 

elegans. Gray 86 

AntHROPOIDES PARADISvEUS, 

Bechst 132 

Anihus pratensis,^ec\\st 90 

Antilope Hodgsonii, Abel 3 

Apogon tJEniopterus, jBewn. ... 206 
Aptenodytes Patachonica, 

Forst 132 

Apteryx Australis, Shaw 61 

Arbacia, n. g., Gray 58 



Page. 

Ardea Cahoga, Penn 62 

Argonauta Argo, lAvm 125 

Arvicola Indica, Gray 108 

Aspidophorus Europcrus, Cuv. . 80 

Athalia Centifolice, Leach 183 

Atherina Presbyter, Cuv 80 

Aulacorhynchus Derbianus, 

Gould. 49 

heematopygus, 

Gould 49 

prasinus, 

Gould 49 

sulcatus, 

Gould 49 

Balcena Physalus, Linn 119 

Blennius Pholis, lArm 80 

Bombinator Australis, Gray 57 

Brachypus gularis, Gould 186 

Buccinum catenatum, Pow. ... 94 

Cumingii, Pow 94 

modestuni, Pow. ... 94 
succinctum, Pow. ... 95 

Bufo vulgaris, la'mn 54 

Callionymus Dracunculus, Linn. 81 

Campylonyx, n. g., Westw 52 

Ampuliciformis, 

Westw 52 

Cancer dentatus. Bell 87 

Edwardsii, Bell 87 

irroratus, Say 87 

longipes. Bell 87 

Pagurus, A net 88 

Cants familiar is, Linn 188 

Caryophyllia Smithii, Brod. ...4,113 
Ca.\'\VL CxxiXexi, King 191 



210 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Cecidoses, n. g., Ctirt 19 

Eremita, Curt, 19 

Centenes spinoms, 111 204 

Cepli aloptera sp., Dum 78 

Cercoleptes caudivolvulus, 

111 119 

Chaetodon diversicolor, E. Lien. 206 

Cha\c\te\\&, n. g., Westw 70 

Evanioides, Westw. 70 

Charadrius Nesocfallicus,Desj . . . 204 
Cinclosoma erythrocephalum, 

Vig 48 

ocellatum, Vig 48 

variegaium,Wg. ... 48 

Chwyris Mahrattensis, Cuv. ... 62 

Citillus xanthopi-ymna, Benn... 90 

Cocci/zus Americanus, Bon. ... 84 

Colobus feiTUginosus, Geoff. ... 99 

fuliginosus, Og 97,99 

Guereza, Riipp 99 

polycomos, Schreb. ... 98 

Temminckii, Kuhl. ... 99 

ursinus, Og 98 

Colymbus Arcticiis, Linn 90 

Conoelix ^\\-go, Swains 197 

Coracias Ittdica, h\nn 62 

Coregomis Pollan, Tliomps. ... 77 

Coitus Bubalis, Euphr 80 

Scorpius, Linn 80 

Cofurnix Sinensis, Cuv 205 

Crenilabrus Cornubiensis, Yarr. 81 

fraenatus, Benn. ... 91 

n. s., Lien 206 

Crocodilusleptoihynchus,^e«w. 128 
Crocodilus leptorhynchus, 

Benn 128 

Ctenomys Magellanicus, Benn. 190 

Curruca Atricapilla, Bechst.... 90 

cinerea, Bechst 90 

Cursorius Asiaticus, Lath 62 

Cygnus atraius, Mey 107 

Cyprsea acutidentata, GasA: ... 201 

Beckii, Gas/c 203 

candidula, Gask 200 

fonnosa, Gask 198 

Pediculus, var. labiosa, 

Gask 202 

producta, Gask 200 

rubiiiicolor, Gask 199 

subviridis, Reeve 68 

vesiculavis, Gask 203 

Cyprinus auratus, Linn 54 

Cysticercus Celluloses, Brems... 205 

Cytherea afRnis, Brod 45 

alternata, Brod. 45 

argentina, Sow 46 



Page. 

Cytherea concinna, ^ow 23 

X)\o\\e, \&Y\-., Brod 45 

ineonspicua, Sow 47 

lubrica, ^rot/ 44 

modesta, Sow 47 

pallescens, Sow 47 

pannosa, Sow 47 

pectinata, var., .Sow... 47 

planulata, var., Sow... , 46 

radiata. Sow 23 

squalida, Sotv 23 

tortuosa, Brod 45 

unicolor, .Soa' 23 

vulnerata, 2?ror^ 46 

Dasyurhs macrourus, Geoff... 7 

Dentex rivulatus, Benn 91 

Diamma, n. g., Westw 53 

bicolor, Westw 53 

Dirhinus Mauritianus, Westw... 69 

DiSTOMA CLAVATUM, Ilud 72 

Distoma hepaticum, Cuv 205 

Dorylus Oricntalis, Westw 72 

Echeneis, n. s.. Lien 205 

Ecliinometra, n. g., Gray 59 

Echinus 58 

atratus, Lam 59 

esculentus, Linn 59 

excavatus, Jjam 59 

petaliferus, Desm. ... 58 

pustulosus. Lam 58 

venlricosus, Lam 59 

Emyssp 54 

Epialtus dentatus, Edw 173 

marginatus, Bell 173 

Errina, n. g.. Gray 85 

Eufylaitmis Dalhousii, Wils. ... 154 

Eurypodius Latreillii, Gu6r.,,. 169 

Falco Lanarius, Linn 169 

rufipes, Bechst 78 

Tinnunculus,\jvaa 62 

Foenus Australis, Westw 51 

Gallinago media, Ray 62 

Gallus domesticus, Linn 54 

giganteus, Temra 92 

Gobius nigerl Linn 80 

sordidus, Benn 91 

Gypogeranus Capensis, Og 104 

Gambiensis,05r... 105 

Philippensis, Og.. 105 

Herbstia Edwardsii, Bell 170 

Herpestes fasciatus, Desm 101 

Gambianus, Og 102 

MongoSflArm 101 

vitticoUis, Benn... 67,103 
Himantopus melanopterus, 

Horsf. 62 



INDEX. 



211 



Page. 

Hipponyx barbata, Sow 5 

Mitrula, Sow 5 

radiata, Gray 5 

subrufa, Sow 5 

Histiopborus immaculatus, 

Eiipp 187 

Holacanthus, n. s., Lien 205 

Hyalonema, n. g., Grai/ 65 

Sieboldi, Gray 65 

Hyas Edwardsii, Bell 171 

Hi/rax Capensis, Pall 13 

Hyrax Capensis, Pall 14 

lacchus petiicillatus, Geoff.. ..21, 125 

Janthina exiffua, Sow 82 

lanthociiicla, n. g., Gould 47 

albogularis, 

Gould 187 

chrysoptera, 

Gould 48 

erythrocephala, 

Gould 48 

ocellata, Gould... 48 
pectoralis, Gould. 186 
rufogularis, Gould 48 
squamata, Gould. 48 
variegata, Gould. 48 

lulus Setjckellarum, Desj 206 

Kerodon Kingii, Benn 190 

Labrus maculatus, Blocli 81 

spilonotus, Benn 207 

variegatus, Gmel 81 

Lagotis Cuvieri, Beim 67 

palHpes, Benn 67 

Larus Argentatoides, Swains. 

&Rich 83 

argentatus, Linn 83 

ca«w.9, Linn 90 

fusciis, Linn 90 

ridibundus, Linn 90 

Sabini, Sab 83 

Lepadogaster bimaculalus, 

Flem 82 

Corfiubiensis, 

Flenrj 81 

Leptocephalus Morridi, Penn.. 82 
Leptopodia Saglttaria, Leach ... 1 69 

Lestrispomarhinun, Temm 79 

Libinia rostrata. Bell 1 69 

Limosa Glottoides, Sykes 62 

LinguatulaT«nioides, Cuv... 27 

Lucina rugifera, Reeve 68 

Macropus Eugetiii, Desm 192 

fuliginosus, Gcoft". 187 

major, Shaw 187 

Parry i, Benn 1 

penicillatus, Gray 1 



Page. 

Macroteleia, n. g., Wesfw 70 

Cleonymoides, 

fVestw 71 

Megaderma Frons, Geoft'. 101 

Meles Taxus, Storr 89 

Meria dichroa, Party 54 

dimidiata, Spin 54 

Klugii, Westiv 53 

Latreillii, Fabr 54 

Millefolii, St. Farg 53 

rufiventris, King 54 

Spinolse, Westw 53 

Merula castanea, Gould 185 

Nestor, Gould 186 

Metapelma, n. g., Westw 69 

spectabilis, Westw. 69 
MicRocEBUs MURiNus, GeofT.... 125 

Microrhynchus, n. g.,Bell 88 

depressus, L't//. 88 

gibbosus, Bell. 88 

Millepora alcicornis, Forsk. ... 86 

digitata, Pall 86 

Milvus Govinda,iiykes 62 

Mitbrax denticulatiis, Bell. 172 

nodosus, Bell 171 

pygmaeus, Bell 172 

rostratus, Bell 171 

Ursus, Bell 171 

Mitra Ancillides, Swains 193 

chrysostoma, Swains •. 1 94 

effiisa, Swains 193 

fulva. Swains , 1 93 

fulvescens, Swains 193 

niaura, Swains 193 

nehxilosa, Swaifis 193 

Swainsonii, Biod 193 

IWebralis 196 

tesUiccu, Swains 193 

tristis. Swains ■. 194 

Monocci'os acuminatum, Sow... 50 

citrinum, Sow 51 

costatum. Sow 50 

crassilabrum, van, 

Sow 49 

cymatum. Sow 50 

globulus, Sow 50 

imbricatuni, var., 

Sow 49 

lugubre. Sow 49 

punctulatum, Gray. 49 
unicarinatum, Sow... 49 

Motucilla melanocephala 90 

Mouretia Peruviana, Sow 6 

reticulata. Sow 6 

stellata, Sow 6 

I Mungos ? vitlicollis, Og 103 



212 



INDBX. 



Page. 

Murasna, u. s., Lien 205,206 

Mus latipes, Benn 89 

Magellanicus, jBc/m 191 

oleraceus, Beim 108 

platythrix, Benn 108 

Mustela Zorilla, Desm 89 

Myopotamus Coypus, Comm. 

173,182 

Nassa complanata, /"ow 96 

concinna, Pow 95 

dentifera, Pow 95 

t'xilis, Pow 95 

festwa, Pow 95 

nodifera, Pow 95 

pallida, Pow 96 

scabriuscnla, Pow 96 

Nectarinia Borhonica, III 205 

Nidalia, n. g., Gray 60 

Occidentalis, Gray ... 60 

Noctua Brodiei, Burt 152 

7i.yctea,Sav 78 

Niimida Rendallii,0^ 103 

Nycticorax Eitropceus, Steph... 62 

Octodon Cuminyu, Benn 189 

Octopus arenarius, Desj 206 

Oidemia fusca, Flem 79 

Oriolus melanocephalus, Linn... 62 

Otis Tetrax, Linn 79 

Ovis Trayelaphus, Geoff. 41 

Pandora arcuata. Sow 93 

brevifrons, iSow 93 

Ceylanica, "Sow 94 

discors, Sow 93 

radiata. Sow 94 

Paradoxurus Grayi, Benn 118 

Passi'r domesticus, Briss 106 

Patella Extinctoriuin, Turt 128 

Mitrula, Auct 5 

suhrufa, Dillw 5 

tricornis, Turt 128 

Prti'o cristatus, Linn 54 

Pectcn aspersus, Soiv 110 

circularis. Sow 110 

dentatus, Sow 109 

niagnificus. Sow 109 

parvus, i^ow 110 

spiriferus. Sow 110 

subnodosus, <S'ow 109 

tumidus, ^ow 109 

Pklecanus RUFESCENS, Gmel...9,16 

Pclia, n. g., jBe^/ 170 

puk-hella, iJeZ; 170 

Peutacladia, n. g., Westw 70 

elegans, Westw.... 70 

Perameles obesula, 192 

Perieera heptacantha, Bell 1 73 



Page. 

Pericera ovata, £eW 173 

\\\\osa.,Bell 173 

Phalangista Canina, Og 191 

Cookii, GeofF. 192 

PhasianusColchicus, Linn 62 

SoemmerringiijLemm.. 169 

versicolor, Temm. ... 169 

Phcenicura MacGrigoria, Burt. 152 

plumbea, Gould ... 185 

S'uecica, Jard.&Selb. 90 

Physalia pelagica, Eschsch. ... 78 

Physeter macrocephalus, Linn. 204 

Picumnus innominatus, Burt... 154 

Pious major, Linn 79 

Pileopsis Mitrula, Lam 5 

subrufus, Lam 5 

Pinna Afra, Soiv 85 

alta. Sow 84 

lanceolata. Sow 84 

m aura, .Jo w 84 

rugosa, 5'ow 84 

squamifera, Sow 85 

tuberculosa. Sow 84 

Piratesa, n. g., Temp 112 

nigro-annulata, Temp. 1 12 

Pisa aculeata. Bell 171 

spinipes. Bell )7I 

PiTHEcus Troglodytes, Geoff. 30 

Pitho, n. g., Bell 172 

quinque-dentata, Bell... 172 

sex-dentata, Bell 172 

Plagiocera apicalis, Westw 51 

Platessa microcephala, Plem... 81 

Plectropoma, n. s., Lien 205 

Pleuronectesmegastoma, Don... 81 

punctatus, Penn... 81 

Pocillopora Andreogyni, Aud... 86 

Podiceps rubricollis. Lath 79 

^ Polynemus longijllis, Cuv. & 

% Val 206 

Porites digit at a, Ebr 86 

scabra, Lam 86 

subseriatal, Ehr 86 

Prionopelma, n. g., Westw 51 

viridis, Westw.... 51 

Pteroglossus Humboldtii, Wagl. 157 

Langsdorffii, Wagl. 157 

Nattereri, Gould.. 157 

pavoninus, Mus. 

Mun 158 

Reinwardtii, Jf'a^f/, 157 

Pteropus Gainbianus, Og 100 

macrocephalus, Og.... 101 

Whitei, Benn 149 

Purpura ta?niata, Pow 96 

Pyrgita cinnamomea, Gould... 185 



INDEX. 



318 



Page. 

Pyrgoma Anglicum, Leach 113 

Querqnedula Crecca, Steph. ... 90 
Ramphastos citreopygus, Gould 156 
erythrorhynckus, 

Gmel 21 

osculans, Gould... 156 

Ratelus Indicus"!, Burt 113 

Regulus cristatus, Cuv 90 

Rhodia, n. g., Bell 169 

pyriformis, Bell 170 

Rh ombu s stellosus, Benn 92 

RhynchcBa Capensis, Steph. ... 62 

Saleiiia, n. g., Gray 58 

Salmo ferox, Jard. and Selb. ... 81 

lacustris, Samps 81 

Sargus fasciatus, Cuv. and Val. 119 
Saurophagus Swainsonii, 

Gould 185 

Schizaspidia, n. g., Westw 69 

furcifer, Westw.... 69 

Sciuiiis Gambianus, Og 103 

Scolopax elegans, Desj 204 

Sabini, Vig 82 

Scomber Pelamys, Linn 80 

Sericogaster, n. g., Westw 71 

fasciatus, Westw ... 72 

Serpula tuhularia, 128 

Serraiius taniops, Cuv. & Val... 119 

SiMiA Satyrus, Linn 30 

Siphonaria costata, Sow 6 

laeviuscula, Sow. ... 7 

lineolata, Sow 6 

maura, Sow 7 

Pica, Sow 6 

radiata, Sow 6 

subrugosa, Sow 6 

Solea vulgaris, Cuv 57 

Solenodonta , Brandt. ... 105 

Sphurgis coriaceus, Merr 205 

Stenorhynchus, n. g., Gould ... 186 
ruficauda, 

Gould 186 

Sterna stolida, Linn 84 

Strix Javanica , Horsf 62 

Surnia funerea, Dum 77 

Sylvia Burkii, i^«rf 153 

castaneo-coronata, ^f^ri. 152 

Trochiltts, hdXh. 90 

Sylviparus, n. g., Burt 153 

modestus, Burt. ... 154 

Syngnalhus j4cus, Linn 183 

Ophidian, Linn. ... 82 
Typhloides, Benn... 92 

Ttenia lamelligera, Owen 86 

Tetrao 7'etrix, Linn 62 

Tetrodon, n. s., De»j 205 



Page. 

Thoe, n. g.. Bell 170 

erosa, Bell 171 

Thoracantha flabellata, Westw.. 52 

Tiara attenuata. Swains 197 

aurantia. Swains 196 

catenata, Swains 195 

crenata. Swains 196 

foraminata, Swains 194 

lineata, Swains 195 

millecostata, Swai7is 195 

mucronata. Swains 195 

multicostata. Swains. ... 195 

muricata, Swains 194 

nivea. Swains 195 

rosea, Swains 195 

rubra, Swains 196 

semiplicata, Swains 197 

Terebralis, Swains... 196, 198 

Tornatella Jlammea, Auct 206 

Trichina, n. g., Owen 26 

spiralis, Owen 26 

Trichiurus, n. s., Zien 205 

Trigla Hirundo, Linn 79 

lineata, Linn 79 

pauciradiata, Benn 91 

Trigonalys, n. g., Westw 52 

melanoleuca, 

Westw 53 

Troglodytes niger, Geoff. 160 

Trogon ambiguus, Gould 30 

citreolus, Gould 30 

resplendens, Gould ... 29 

Turdus Merula, Linn 105 

musicus, Linn 90 

Tyche, n. g.. Bell 172 

lamellifrcns. Bell 173 

Upupa minor, Shaw 62 

Venus aspei-rima, /.Sow 42 

Australis, Sow 22 

Californiensis, Brod. ... 43 

ChUensis, Sow 41 

Columbiensis, Sow 21 

compta, Brod. 43 

costellata, 5ow 42 

crenifera, -S'ow 43 

Cypria, .S'ow 43 

discors. Sow 42 

discrepans, .Sow 22 

fuscolineata, 5oM» 41 

histrionica. Sow 41 

lenticularis. Sow 42 

leucodon, Sow 43 

Mactracea, Brod 44 

multicostata, 5'ou) 22 

obscura, i?ro(/. 44 

opaca, Sow 42 



214 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Venus ornatissima, Brod 44 

Peruviana, Sow 22 

pulicaria, Brod. 44 

spurca, Sow 23 

subimbricata, jJow 21 

tricolor, Sow 41 



Page. 

Venus undatella, Soiv 22 

variabilis, Sotu 42 

Vermilia trlquetra, Lam 128 

Xenia Desjardiniana, jTewp. ... Ill 
Xylophaga globosa, Sow 110 



Printed by Richard Taylor, Red Lion Court, I'leel Street. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 




PART IV. 
1836. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
BY R. AND J. E. TAYLOR, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.